What is an Ontology An ontology for a

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What is an Ontology? An ontology for a domain is the explicit formal specification

What is an Ontology? An ontology for a domain is the explicit formal specification of the terms in the domain and relations among them.

What is an Ontology. . . Defines a common vocabulary for a group of

What is an Ontology. . . Defines a common vocabulary for a group of professionals who need to share information in a given domain. Includes machine-interpretable definitions of basic concepts in the domain and relations among them.

Share a Common Understanding Several different Web sites contain medical information or provide medical

Share a Common Understanding Several different Web sites contain medical information or provide medical e-commerce services. They share the same underlying ontology. Enables computer agents to extract and aggregate information from different sites. Common Digital Entertainment ontology. Medium for discussing and sharing ideas among designers. Foundation for analysis and critiquing.

Enable Reuse of Domain Knowledge Notions of Time intervals Points in time Relative measures

Enable Reuse of Domain Knowledge Notions of Time intervals Points in time Relative measures of time. Notions of Space Spatial relations Navigation around obstacles. Emotions Applicable over a broad range of applications.

Make Domain Assumptions Explicit Makes it easier to change underlying domain assumptions. Hard coding

Make Domain Assumptions Explicit Makes it easier to change underlying domain assumptions. Hard coding assumptions about the world makes it hard to Find and understand assumptions Change assumptions Explicit specifications are useful for new users who must learn what terms in the domain mean.

Separate Domain from Operational Knowledge Describe a task of configuring a product from components

Separate Domain from Operational Knowledge Describe a task of configuring a product from components according to a required specification. Develop a program that is independent of the specific products and components themselves Same program can configure PCs Elevators Video Game Consoles

Submitted Aug 8, 2006: Ontologist Enterra Solutions, LLC Immediate Need Office Sites: Yardley, PA

Submitted Aug 8, 2006: Ontologist Enterra Solutions, LLC Immediate Need Office Sites: Yardley, PA (outside Philadelphia) and Vienna, VA Job Description: 1. Metadata development, semantic analysis, ontology development, knowledge engineering, and relevance algorithm application to the classification and automation of governance and policy directives. 2. Work closely with technical team of intelligence analysts and software developers and assist in the design and development of automation solutions in J 2 EE enterprise architecture platforms. 3. Work closely with subject matter experts, provide liaison and guidance in decomposing and classifying governance and policy directives. 4. Research and identify latest semantic web technologies, artificial intelligence, taxonomies, mappings, and related abstraction and adaptive systems to enhance and advance Enterra’s offerings. 5. Self-directed and motivated to work independently within matrix organization 6. Will be required to get security clearance.

Required Skills: 1. 5 to 7 years combined experience with ontologies, knowledge management, library

Required Skills: 1. 5 to 7 years combined experience with ontologies, knowledge management, library sciences, or rule based artificial intelligence systems. 2. MS degree (Ph. D a plus) in computer science, information sciences, library sciences, or related language analytics fields. 3. Experience working with software development teams, familiarity with software development life cycles. 4. Experience working with web technologies (J 2 EE, . NET) and XML-based tools and techniques. 5. Experience in design and implementation of semantic and/or metadata enabled web solutions. Preferred or Desired Skills: 1. Experience with web ontology standards such as OWL, RDF, DAML, Semantic Web, etc. 2. Experience with inference tools such as RACER, Pellet, etc. 3. Familiarity with latest search engine technologies and information abstraction techniques.

Must be both eligible and willing to allow Enterra to apply for US Secret

Must be both eligible and willing to allow Enterra to apply for US Secret Clearance due to work in federal sector. Therefore, US Citizenship required. Comprehensive background check including criminal, professional and educational will be conducted prior to employment. Salary and Terms: Full Time Company Website: http: //www. enterrasolutions. com Please send resumes to [email protected] com Denise Mc. Auliffe – Director of Human Resources Enterra Solutions, LLC 1040 Stony Hill Road, Suite 100 Yardley Pennsylvania 19067 215 -497 -3100 215 -497 -3114 [email protected] com

About Enterra Solutions, at www. enterrasolutions. com, is the leader in Enterprise Resilience Management™

About Enterra Solutions, at www. enterrasolutions. com, is the leader in Enterprise Resilience Management™ – a new enterprise architecture that enables public- and private-sector organizations to respond to the stressors that result from globalization, rapid technological change, terrorism, natural disasters, and other 21 st century challenges. Enterra's proprietary Enterprise Resilience Management Solutions ™ (ERMS ™) consists of a best-practices methodology and technology solution that automates rules sets and integrates security, compliance, and business process optimization into a single function, and provides a platform that translates the organization into a Resilient Enterprise ™.

Oak Ridge Center for Advanced Studies Establishes The “Institute for Advanced Technologies in Global

Oak Ridge Center for Advanced Studies Establishes The “Institute for Advanced Technologies in Global Resilience” YARDLEY, Pa. and OAK RIDGE, Tenn. (September 7, 2006) – Enterra Solutions, LLC, and the Oak Ridge Center for Advanced Studies (ORCAS) announced today that Enterra CEO Stephen F. De. Angelis will help establish a new Institute for Advanced Technologies in Global Resilience. "I am excited about the possibilities this represents, " De. Angelis said. "This Institute will provide an exciting venue for scientists and academics to explore how to make the world more resilient in the age of globalization. In one location, leading chemical, nuclear, biological, information technologists, political scientists and business people will come together to explore approaches to critical issues facing the world. "

Knowledge Media Institute (http: //kmi. open. ac. uk) “KMi employs 70 people, a mix

Knowledge Media Institute (http: //kmi. open. ac. uk) “KMi employs 70 people, a mix of researchers, technologists, designers and administrative staff. We are in a phase of rapid expansion, and as a result job opportunities arise frequently. ” “Our research is aligned with a number of broad strategic threads, currently Narrative Hypermedia, Knowledge Management, Social Software, New Media Systems and Semantic Web and Knowledge Services. ”

The Open University's Knowledge Media Institute has an opening for a Research Fellow to

The Open University's Knowledge Media Institute has an opening for a Research Fellow to undertake research in the area of semantic web and Grid services - applying semantic web technology to support the management of web and Grid services. This work takes place within the context of our EUfunded project Living Human Digital Library (LHDL) which will create the technical infrastructure for the Living Human project (see http: //www. tecno. ior. it/VRLAB/LHP/). Applicants should have experience in developing symbolic AI systems. Additionally knowledge of the Web Services Modelling Ontology (WSMO - see http: //www. wsmo. org), our semantic web services platform IRS-III, our knowledge modelling language OCML (see http: //kmi. open. ac. uk/projects/ocml), web services, Lisp and/or Java would also be useful.

The Open University's Knowledge Media Institute has two openings for Research Fellows to undertake

The Open University's Knowledge Media Institute has two openings for Research Fellows to undertake research in applying semantic web services to e. Learning. This work takes place within the context of our EU-funded project LUISA. Applicants should have experience in developing symbolic AI systems. Additionally knowledge of the Web Services Modelling Ontology (WSMO - see http: //www. wsmo. org), our semantic web services platform IRSIII, our knowledge modelling language OCML (see http: //kmi. open. ac. uk/projects/ocml), web services, Lisp and/or Java would also be useful.

The Open University's Knowledge Media Institute has an openings for a Research Fellow to

The Open University's Knowledge Media Institute has an openings for a Research Fellow to undertake research in the area of coupling semantic web services to business process models - using semantic web and web services technology to support the management of processes within and between organisations. This work takes place within the context of our EU-funded Integrated Project SUPER (see http: //kmi. open. ac. uk/projects/super). Applicants should have experience in developing symbolic AI systems. Additionally knowledge of the Web Services Modelling Ontology (WSMO - see http: //www. wsmo. org), our semantic web services platform IRS-III, our knowledge modelling language OCML (see http: //kmi. open. ac. uk/projects/ocml), web services, Lisp and/or Java would also be useful.

Ph. D Scholarships at the IT University of Copenhagen (http: //www 1. itu. dk/sw

Ph. D Scholarships at the IT University of Copenhagen (http: //www 1. itu. dk/sw 49645. asp) The IT University of Copenhagen (ITU) invites applicants for a number of Ph. D scholarships starting in the beginning of 2007. This is an open call, but applicants are expected to relate their project proposals to one of the topics stated below. … Center for Computer Games Research (http: //game. itu. dk/): The Critical Study of Games (game aesthetics, game ontology, game culture, gameplay, players & player communities), and Game Design and Development (game design theory, games and HCI/play testing, and game software development). …

Description Logic

Description Logic

Description Logic

Description Logic

Family Ontology o. 1 o. 2 o. 3 o. 4 o. 5 o. 6

Family Ontology o. 1 o. 2 o. 3 o. 4 o. 5 o. 6 o. 7 Man : = (has. Gender = 1) ∩ (has. Gender з Male) Woman : = (has. Gender = 1) ∩ (has. Gender з Female) (has. Child)-1 = has. Parent Person : = Man U Woman Parent : = Person ∩ (has. Child ≥ 1) Father : = Parent ∩ Man Mother : = Parent ∩ Woman

Family Ontology Relations: has. Gender(Person, String) has. Parent(Person, Person) has. Child(Person, Person) has. Consort(Person,

Family Ontology Relations: has. Gender(Person, String) has. Parent(Person, Person) has. Child(Person, Person) has. Consort(Person, Person) Rule: r. 1 has. Parent(? x 1, ? x 2) Λ has. Consort(? x 2, ? x 3) => has. Parent(? x 1, ? x 3)

Family Ontology Example Person Instances: m 1, f 2 Relation Instances: has. Gender(m 1,

Family Ontology Example Person Instances: m 1, f 2 Relation Instances: has. Gender(m 1, Male) has. Child(m 1, f 2) has. Gender(f 1, Female) has. Consort(m 1, f 1) Conclude: Mother(f 1)

Family Ontology Example d. 1 has. Gender(f 1, Female) Woman(f 1) [o. 2] d.

Family Ontology Example d. 1 has. Gender(f 1, Female) Woman(f 1) [o. 2] d. 2 Woman(f 1) Person(f 1) [o. 4] d. 3 has. Child(m 1, m 2) has. Parent(m 2, m 1) [o. 3] d. 4 has. Parent(m 2, m 1) Λ has. Consort(m 1, f 1) has. Parent(m 2, f 1) [r. 1] d. 5 has. Parent(m 2, f 1) has. Child(f 1, m 2) [o. 3] d. 6 Person(f 1) Λ has. Child(f 1, m 2) Parent(f 1) [o. 5] d. 7 Parent(f 1) Λ Woman(f 1) Mother(f 1) [o. 7]

Family Ontology Example Steps d. 1 – d. 3 performed by description logic ontology

Family Ontology Example Steps d. 1 – d. 3 performed by description logic ontology reasoner. Step d. 4 performed by deductive rule engine. d. 5 – d. 7 performed by the ontology reasoner using the necessary relation instance concluded by the deductive rule engine in d. 4. Neither ontology reasoner nor deductive rule engine alone is sufficient.

Game Ontology Project Michael Mateas et al, Georgia Tech Identify the important ”parts” of

Game Ontology Project Michael Mateas et al, Georgia Tech Identify the important ”parts” of games. Rules Player activities Presentation and input Player goals Entitities in the game world Etc. Identify relations between the parts.

Game Ontology Project Capture the discrete decisions that must be made in a game

Game Ontology Project Capture the discrete decisions that must be made in a game design. Describe how effects of decisions propagate throughout rest of design. Via constraints and tradeoffs between elements. Show various elements contribute to the overall design. Important for game analysis. Help clarify design choices. Important to game designer.

Top Level Elements Interface Mapping between the embodied reactions of the player and the

Top Level Elements Interface Mapping between the embodied reactions of the player and the manipulation of game entities. Rules Constrain what can and can’t be done in a game. Determine the basic interactions that can take place within the game. Goals Objectives or conditions that define success in the game.

Top Level Elements Entities Objects in the game that the player Manages Modifies Interacts

Top Level Elements Entities Objects in the game that the player Manages Modifies Interacts with at some level Entity manipulation Alteration of the game made by player or in-game entity. Actions or verbs that can be performed by the player or in-game entity.

Ontology Entries Name Description Parent Captures the notion of a subtype Child elements are

Ontology Entries Name Description Parent Captures the notion of a subtype Child elements are more specific or specialized conepts than the parent Child Part elements Elements related by the part-of relation Captures the notion of compound elements Strong Examples Weak Examples

Ontology Extracts Presentation Cardinality of gameworld 1 -Dimensional gameworld 2 -Dimensional gameworld Presentation hardware

Ontology Extracts Presentation Cardinality of gameworld 1 -Dimensional gameworld 2 -Dimensional gameworld Presentation hardware Audio display hardware Haptic display Visual display hardware Video monitor VR goggles

Ontology Extracts Rules Synergies Dominant Strategy Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment Gameplay Rules Cardinality of Gamepay

Ontology Extracts Rules Synergies Dominant Strategy Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment Gameplay Rules Cardinality of Gamepay 0 -Dimension Gameplay 1 -Dimensional Gameplay 2 -Dimensional Gameplay Game Ends Evaluation of Ending Resource Exhaustion

Cardinality of Gameworld Cardinality of gameworld Many games are spatially-based in the sense that

Cardinality of Gameworld Cardinality of gameworld Many games are spatially-based in the sense that a player must interact with a game world that is defined and presented as having spatial properties. Usually, this means that a player is granted a view of a world that affords its perception as a 2 or 3 dimensional place. For example, if playing a game of chess, the player may be afforded a 2 dimensional representation of a chess board versus a 3 D representation where the board is viewed at an angle and the chess pieces are rendered in 3 D. For the former case, the game world's cardinality of space is 2 D while the latter is 3 D. In other cases, while the player may have the perception of a world, the actual dimensions of this may be unclear or undefined. This is commonly seen in text-based adventure games where the locations that the character visits may not follow normal rules of logic. For example, typing "North" to exit a location and then typing "South" may not lead the character back to the original location despite the logical assumption that moving "North" is the inverse to "South. "

Cardinality of Gameworld Also, in many games there is certain confusion caused by changes

Cardinality of Gameworld Also, in many games there is certain confusion caused by changes in representation between levels or episodes of the game. In fact, the mere existence of various levels makes this distinction more confusing. In a game such as Donkey Kong, where there are 3 distinct 2 D levels, do we consider each level a place that is connected to the previous ones? Would that make Donkey Kong's game world 3 D? For simplicity, we refer to the cardinality of space in terms of what is represented in a level or episode. Thus, for the case of Donkey Kong, we would maintain that it takes place in a 2 D game world. We note that the cardinality of space refers to the perception of the game world by the player and not to the actual degrees of freedom the player is allowed within the game world. To account for this, please refer to Cardinality of Gameplay. See also Cardinality of Gameplay Parents: Presentation Children: 1 -Dimensional gameworld , 2 -Dimensional gameworld , 3 -Dimensional gameworld , Undefined gameworld cardinality

2 -Dimensional Gameworld 2 -Dimensional game worlds, as the name implies, are spaces that

2 -Dimensional Gameworld 2 -Dimensional game worlds, as the name implies, are spaces that have 2 degrees of freedom. Without getting into any of the specific mathematics, we can think of them as spaces that have length and width (or width and height) but lack depth. Most older video games have 2 -dimensional game worlds. A few examples of these include Pac-Man, Tetris and Asteroids. See also Cardinality of Gameplay Parents: Cardinality of gameworld

Cardinality of Gameplay Cardinality of Gamepay The cardinality of gameplay refers to the degrees

Cardinality of Gameplay Cardinality of Gamepay The cardinality of gameplay refers to the degrees of freedom the player has with respects to movement (or the control of movement) in a certain game. For example, the player may control a character that moves left and right or have to place tokens on a 2 -dimensional board. Other games, allow the player to control movement in 3 dimensions. It is important to note that the cardinality of gameplay is related, but not necessarily the same as the cardinality of the gameworld. For example, while the classic game of Monopoly is played on a two-dimensional board, the players tokens are limited to move along one dimension and always in the same direction. In this example, the cardinality of gameplay is 1 D.

Cardinality of Gameplay We also note that the cardinality is only with respect to

Cardinality of Gameplay We also note that the cardinality is only with respect to the movement the player can perform and this is independent of other actions, or that the effects of those actions may occur in some other dimension. For example, in Space Invaders the player controls a ship that can move from left to right along the bottom of the screen. The players ship can also fire shots that travel upwards along the screen. In this case, the cardinality of gameplay is 1 D, despite the fact that the gameworld is 2 D and that the players shots have effects outside of the limits of the players movements. Parents: Gameplay Rules Children: 0 -Dimension Gameplay , 1 -Dimensional Gameplay , 2 -Dimensional Gameplay , 3 -Dimensional Gameplay , Undefined Cardinality of Gameplay

1 -Dimensional Gameplay Games that have a cardinality of gameplay that is 1 D

1 -Dimensional Gameplay Games that have a cardinality of gameplay that is 1 D restrict movement to only one axis. This means that movement can only be controlled in one direction and the exact opposite of the direction. For example, up/down or left/right. Strong Example: In Space Invaders, the player controls a ship that can move from left to right across the bottom of the screen. The objective is to fire at the enemy invaders that are slowly moving downwards. Strong Example: In Pong, the player controls a raquet that moves vertically across the side of the screen. The object of the game is to position the raquet so that the ball hits it. Parents: Cardinality of Gamepay

Application of Ontology Concepts Space Invaders 2 -Dimensional Gameworld Invaders march across the screen

Application of Ontology Concepts Space Invaders 2 -Dimensional Gameworld Invaders march across the screen from left to right and down towards players 1 -Dimensional Gameplay Player can only move his spaceship from side to side.

Describing Games An Interaction-Centric Structural Framework Staffan Björk Interactive Institute (http: //w 3. tii.

Describing Games An Interaction-Centric Structural Framework Staffan Björk Interactive Institute (http: //w 3. tii. se) Jussi Holopainen Head of Games Design Group - Nokia Research Center (http: //research. nokia. com)

Two Tiered Approach Describe the components that together make a game. Component Framework Create

Two Tiered Approach Describe the components that together make a game. Component Framework Create a high level language for talking about the design of interaction within a game. Game design patterns (www. gamedesignpatterns. org) Descriptions of patterns of interaction relevant to game play. Use concepts provided by component framework.

Design Patterns “Each pattern describes a problem which occurs over and over again in

Design Patterns “Each pattern describes a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice. ” Alexander, C. et al. (1977): A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. Oxford University Press.

Game Design Patterns: a definition “Game design patterns are general descriptions of interaction which

Game Design Patterns: a definition “Game design patterns are general descriptions of interaction which occur in games. The patterns are semi-formalized interrelated tools that can be applied in situations to generate contextdependent solutions. Game design patterns are usually identified from existing games where the interaction pattern may or may not have been intentionally promoted by the game designers. ” (Björk, 2003 -05 -13)

Game design patterns I A method for talking about games in order to: Describe

Game design patterns I A method for talking about games in order to: Describe them Analyze them Compare them Create them Based on design patterns

Game design patterns II A way to describe design choices (or emergent features) that

Game design patterns II A way to describe design choices (or emergent features) that reoccur in many games Offers possible explanations to why these design choices have been made A guide to how to make similar design choices in game projects What is required to make the pattern emerge What consequences can the pattern have on game play? Motivation Need a vocabulary for talking about games Need to discuss and do game designs in a structured fashion Provide a tool for, especially experimental, game design

Game Design Patterns III Semi interdependent descriptions of commonly reoccurring parts of the design

Game Design Patterns III Semi interdependent descriptions of commonly reoccurring parts of the design of a game that concern gameplay.

Component Framework An activity-based model of game interaction Fundamental feature of games is making

Component Framework An activity-based model of game interaction Fundamental feature of games is making changes in quantitative game states. Describe games in terms of activities players perform. Provides concepts for talking about the first order of game design. Includes many of the traditional concepts used to describe games Player, rule, goal, etc. Physical and logical components that make game play possible. Basic components then be used to describe second order concepts. Game design patterns. Lays out the details of how games are constructed Describe, analyze and compare games Game state Playing the game is making changes in the game state!

Component Framework

Component Framework

Component Categories Reflect four basic ways of viewing the activity of playing a game.

Component Categories Reflect four basic ways of viewing the activity of playing a game. Holistic Determine how the activity of playing the game is divided Boundary Limit the player activities by allowing certain actions and making some activities more rewarding Temporal Describe the flow of the game play and define the changes in the game state Structural Define the parts of the game which are manipulated by the players and the game system

Holistic – Game Instance The components, actions, and events that describe the specific play

Holistic – Game Instance The components, actions, and events that describe the specific play of a single game. Setup All the actions of participating players Ending the game Determination of the final outcome Any activities required to restore the game state before the next setup. Game stays the same, but every instance is unique.

Game Instance Examples Game instance of chess includes Players Game boards Pieces Moves of

Game Instance Examples Game instance of chess includes Players Game boards Pieces Moves of both players Game instance of Asteroids Starts when players insert coins and select number of players Continues until all players have run out of lives If they played well they get to choose a handle and their score is displayed on the high score list. Game instance of MMORPG (Massively Multiplayer Online Roleplaying Game, e. g. , Ultima Online) Includes entire history of that persistent world. From initiation of the server to final server shutdown.

Holistic – Game Session Complete activity of a single player From start of actual

Holistic – Game Session Complete activity of a single player From start of actual gameplay to last actions considered part of the game. E. g. , a single game instance of chess consists of two game sessions One for each player. Not so interesting in a game with only one player. Very interesting for MMORPGs Players start playing the game independently of each other. Specific player sessions may never overlap at all.

Holistic – Play Session Applies to individual player. Time actually spent playing might be

Holistic – Play Session Applies to individual player. Time actually spent playing might be divided into several different occasions. Each occasion called a play session. A game session consists of one or more play sessions.

Holistic – Setup Session Could be very simple. Choose color of a car in

Holistic – Setup Session Could be very simple. Choose color of a car in a rally game. Provide players with ways to determine their play experience. Set personal goals. Insert player’s own material into the game. Setting mutators in Unreal Tournament. Choosing and modifying characters in MMORPGs.

Holistic – Set-Down Session Usually uninteresting from a game experience perspective. However, can allow

Holistic – Set-Down Session Usually uninteresting from a game experience perspective. However, can allow the individual to do administrative or planning activities. Compare current game instance with previous instances. Essential in games that can’t be won. Measure success relative to other game instances. Raising or gaining skills in RPGs.

Boundary Components Limit the player activities by allowing certain actions and making some activities

Boundary Components Limit the player activities by allowing certain actions and making some activities more rewarding. Rules: dictate how everything works! Modes of Play: states where the player can perform different actions. Goals and subgoals: motivation for playing the game in certain ways. Game states that the players should try to achieve.

Rules - Example Europa Universalis II real-time strategy game. Describe dependency between a country’s

Rules - Example Europa Universalis II real-time strategy game. Describe dependency between a country’s Leaders, provinces, research, international status, religion, and military forces. Describe trade, vassals, loans, and alliances between countries. Tutorial supplies basic concepts and fundamental relationships but Players must learn the detailed rules unaided. Game mastery heavily depends on understanding what the rules are and how to take advantage of them.

Rules Example Nomic is a game based on changing rules. (http: //www. earlham. edu/~peters/nomic.

Rules Example Nomic is a game based on changing rules. (http: //www. earlham. edu/~peters/nomic. htm) Peter Suber, Professor of Philosphy, Earlham College Changing the rules is a move. The Initial Set of rules does little more than regulate the rule -changing process. Goal is either Get 100 points. Prove that gameplay can’t continue due to two contradictory rules. Intended to illustrate and embody thesis of his book, The Paradox of Self-Amendment, that a legal "rule of change" such as a constitutional amendment clause may apply to itself and authorize its own amendment.

Temporal Components Describe the flow of the game play and define the changes in

Temporal Components Describe the flow of the game play and define the changes in the game state Actions: what the player can do Events: what are the game state changes Closures: meaningful game state changes End conditions: determine changes of mode of play and closures Evaluation functions: determine the outcome of an end condition

Structural Components Define the parts of the game which are manipulated by the players

Structural Components Define the parts of the game which are manipulated by the players and the game system Interface: provides players information about the game state and possible actions Game Elements: components that contain the game state Players: entities that try to achieve their own goals within the game Game Facilitator: synchronizes the game state

Examples of Game Design Patterns Examples Power-Ups Boss Monster Paper-Rock-Scissor Cut Scenes Role Reversal

Examples of Game Design Patterns Examples Power-Ups Boss Monster Paper-Rock-Scissor Cut Scenes Role Reversal Parallel Lives Orthogonal Unit Differentiation Stimulated Social Interaction

Characteristics of Game Design Patterns Three main characteristics Recurring game mechanics or elements of

Characteristics of Game Design Patterns Three main characteristics Recurring game mechanics or elements of interaction in games Semi-formal inter-dependent descriptions Can be intentional or emergent in game designs No canonical definition Many are possible Not only a collection of patterns The methods in which they can be used

Pattern template Name Description Core Definition General Description Examples Using the pattern Consequences Relations

Pattern template Name Description Core Definition General Description Examples Using the pattern Consequences Relations References Based on the component framework (game sessions, rules, players, actions, closures, information structures, control structures, etc. )

Pattern template, cont. Name Preferable short, specific, and idiomatic Description Concise description of the

Pattern template, cont. Name Preferable short, specific, and idiomatic Description Concise description of the pattern Description of how it affects the structural framework (if it does) Examples of games in which the pattern is found

Pattern template, cont. Consequences What effects the game pattern has on game play What

Pattern template, cont. Consequences What effects the game pattern has on game play What superior patterns the pattern supports Potentially conflicting patterns and why Using the pattern What components from the structural framework are required to use the pattern Subpatterns that can be used to instantiate the pattern Common choices a designer is faced with when trying to apply a pattern

Pattern template, cont. Relations X Instantiates Y (Y is instantiated by X) the presence

Pattern template, cont. Relations X Instantiates Y (Y is instantiated by X) the presence of X causes the presence of Y. E. g. , the effects on gameplay of Dice automatically introduces the effects of Randomness. X Modulates Y (Y is modulated by X) X affects aspects of Y in a way that influences gameplay. X fine tunes Y E. g. , Privelaged Movement modulates Movement. Potentially conflicting patterns E. g. , Competition and Cooperation References Games exemplifying the pattern Patents

Example pattern - Producer- Consumer Name Producer-Consumer Description The production of resource by one

Example pattern - Producer- Consumer Name Producer-Consumer Description The production of resource by one game element that is consumed by another game element or game event. Producer-Consumer determines the lifetime of game elements, usually resources, and thus governs the flow of the game play. Games usually have several overlapping and interconnected Producer. Consumers governing the flow of available game elements, especially resources. As resources are used to determine the possible player actions these Producer-Consumer networks also determine the actual flow of the game play. Producer-Consumers can operate recursively, i. e. one Producer-Consumer might determine the life time of another Producer-Consumers are often chained together to form more complex networks of resource flows.

Producer-Consumer Example: in Civilization the units are produced in cities and consumed in battles

Producer-Consumer Example: in Civilization the units are produced in cities and consumed in battles against enemy units and cities. This kind of a Producer-Consumer is also used in almost all real-time strategy games. Example: in Asteroids the rocks are produced at the start of each level and are consumed by the player shooting at them. The same principle applies to many other games where the level progression is based on eliminating, i. e. consuming, other game elements: the pills in Pac-Man, free space in Qix, and the aliens in Space Invaders.

Producer-Consumer Using the pattern As the name implies, Producer-Consumer is a compound pattern of

Producer-Consumer Using the pattern As the name implies, Producer-Consumer is a compound pattern of Producer and Consumer and as such this pattern governs how both of these are instantiated. The effect of producing and consuming Resources or Units often turns out to be several different pairs of Producer-Consumers as the produced game element can be consumed in many different ways. For example, the Units in real-time strategy game such as the Age of Empires series can be eliminated in direct combat with enemy Units, when bombarded by indirect fire, and finally when their supply points are exhausted. The Producer-Consumer in this case consists of the Producer of the Units with three different Consumers. Producer-Consumers are often, especially in Resource Management games, chained together with Converters and sometimes Containers. These chains can in turn be used to create more complex networks. The Converter is used as the Consumer in the first Producer. Consumer and as the Producer in the second. In other words, the Converter takes the resources produced by the first Producer and converts them to the resources produced by the second Producer. This kind of Producer-Consumer chains sometimes have a Container attached to the Converter to stockpile produced Resources. For example, in real-time strategy game Star. Craft something is produced and taken to the converter and then converted to something else and stockpiled somewhere. Investments can be seen as Converters that are used to convert Resources into other forms of Resources, possibly abstract ones.

Producer-Consumer Consequences As is the case with the main subpatterns Producer and Consumer of

Producer-Consumer Consequences As is the case with the main subpatterns Producer and Consumer of Producer. Consumer, the pattern is quite abstract but the effects on the flow of the game are very concrete. The Producer-Consumers simply govern the whole flow of the game from games with a single Producer-Consumer to games with complex and many layered networks of Producer-Consumers. The feeling of player control is increased if players are able to manipulate either the Producer or the Consumer part or both. However, in more complex Producer-Consumer chains this can lead to situations where players lose Illusions of Influence as the effects of individual actions can become almost impossible to track down and the process no longer has Predictable Consequences. Also, adding new Producer-Consumers that the players have control over gives them opportunities for more Varied Gameplay. Producer. Consumer networks with Converters and Containers are used in Resource Management games to accomplish the Right Level of Complexity. The game usually starts with simple Producer-Consumers and as the game progresses new Producer-Consumers are added to the network to increase the complexity.

Producer-Consumer Relations Instantiates: Varied Gameplay, Resource Management Modulates: Resources, Right Level of Complexity, Investments,

Producer-Consumer Relations Instantiates: Varied Gameplay, Resource Management Modulates: Resources, Right Level of Complexity, Investments, Units Instantiated by: Producers, Consumers, Converters Modulated by: Container Potentially Conflicting with: Illusions of Influence, Predictable Consequences

Example pattern – Boss Monsters Name Boss Monsters Description A more powerful enemy the

Example pattern – Boss Monsters Name Boss Monsters Description A more powerful enemy the players have to overcome to reach certain goals in the game. Sometimes defeating the Boss Monster can be a goal in itself, but usually Boss Monsters are used as subgoals in the game and the high-level goal is of another type of goal. Boss Monsters are almost always used to structure the progress of the game.

Boss Monsters Example: The games in The Legend of Zelda series are almost totally

Boss Monsters Example: The games in The Legend of Zelda series are almost totally structured around defeating Boss Monsters in order to progress in the game and to reach the high-level goals of the game.

Boss Monsters Using the pattern Defeating the Boss Monster typically uses Eliminate modulated with

Boss Monsters Using the pattern Defeating the Boss Monster typically uses Eliminate modulated with some version of Overcome goal patterns. For example, in a tabletop roleplaying game, defeating the evil dragon guarding the princess consists of several rounds of tests of skills and attributes of the players until the dragon is dead. The Boss Monster is used as a subgoal to signify reaching a high-level goal, as is the case in the previous roleplaying example: Eliminating the dragon is a subgoal for Rescuing the princess. It is common for Boss Monsters to have some form of Achilles' Heel that allows players to have an easier way to defeat them. Boss Monsters are usually an integral part of Narrative Structures and sometimes they are the main motivation for the player to progress in the game. That is why there is a need to carefully consider how to fit the nature, history, abilities, and even the audiovisual representation of the Boss Monsters to the Alternative Reality of the game.

Boss Monsters Consequences Boss Monsters are used to structure the progress in the Hierarchy

Boss Monsters Consequences Boss Monsters are used to structure the progress in the Hierarchy of Goals so that Higher-Level Closures as Gameplay Progresses occur, and they typically signify the end of Levels. Defeating the Boss Monster creates a more significant closure associated with the progress in the game. The Boss Monster can be used to modulate the Tension in the overall game and is a natural part in the Narrative Structure of the game, as it can be seen as an end climax for a narrative section.

Boss Monsters Relations Instantiates: Higher-Level Closures as Gameplay Progresses, Overcome, Tension Modulates: Rescue, Levels

Boss Monsters Relations Instantiates: Higher-Level Closures as Gameplay Progresses, Overcome, Tension Modulates: Rescue, Levels Instantiated by: Eliminate Modulated by: Achilles' Heels Potentially Conflicting with: -

What can design patterns be used for? Inspiration Problem-Solving for Game Interaction Design Creative

What can design patterns be used for? Inspiration Problem-Solving for Game Interaction Design Creative design tool Communicating with peers Communicating with other professions Note: can be used for any kind of game

Inspiration Avoid getting stuck in the same thoughts Avoid missing possible ideas Each pattern

Inspiration Avoid getting stuck in the same thoughts Avoid missing possible ideas Each pattern is an example of possible interaction in a game No need to distill ideas from existing games oneself Can be used for brainstorming

Problem-Solving for Game Interaction Design Understanding why a design has certain unwanted characteristics NOT

Problem-Solving for Game Interaction Design Understanding why a design has certain unwanted characteristics NOT why a game isn’t fun or good! Give examples of what can be added to a design to achieve a certain effect

Creative Design Tool Choosing a couple of patterns can be the starting point for

Creative Design Tool Choosing a couple of patterns can be the starting point for a game concept Refinement can be done by examining and choosing subpatterns, gradually building a more concrete game design Can be used as a support when designing for new mediums and genres

Communicating with Peers Offer a neutral definition instead of relying on matching subjective understandings

Communicating with Peers Offer a neutral definition instead of relying on matching subjective understandings Patterns can be used as concise definitions that make descriptions shorter and more specific

Communicating with other professions Offer a neutral definition instead of relying on matching subjective

Communicating with other professions Offer a neutral definition instead of relying on matching subjective understandings Patterns can be used as concise definitions that make descriptions shorter and more specific Avoid jargon specific to profession Describe the salient game play elements to nongamers

The need for a pattern collection All the previous uses assumed the existence of

The need for a pattern collection All the previous uses assumed the existence of a pattern collection Requires less investment to start using any pattern-based method Starting point for describing new patterns Validate the methods by using the collection and documenting the process

The need for a pattern collection, cont. Patterns never exist without other patterns The

The need for a pattern collection, cont. Patterns never exist without other patterns The actual manifestation of a pattern in a game strongly dependent on the other patterns present Networks of patterns “create” the game