PERIODIC TABLE PERIODIC TABLE The periodic table is

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PERIODIC TABLE

PERIODIC TABLE

PERIODIC TABLE • The periodic table is a chart of the elements arranged into

PERIODIC TABLE • The periodic table is a chart of the elements arranged into rows and columns according to their physical and chemical properties

Group Period

Group Period

GROUPS • A group is a column on the periodic table. Elements in the

GROUPS • A group is a column on the periodic table. Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties and react with other elements in similar ways

PERIODS • A period is a row on the periodic table. The physical and

PERIODS • A period is a row on the periodic table. The physical and chemical properties change as you move across a period.

LESSON 2 METALS

LESSON 2 METALS

METAL • A metal is an element that is generally shiny. It is easily

METAL • A metal is an element that is generally shiny. It is easily pulled into wires or hammered into thin sheets. A metal is a good conductor of electricity and thermal energy

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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS • Luster: ability of a metal to reflect light •

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS • Luster: ability of a metal to reflect light • Conductivity: ability to conduct electricity • Ductility: ability to be pulled into thin wires • Malleability: ability of a substance to be hammered or rolled into sheets

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS • Ability to rust • Flammability • Reactivity with other

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS • Ability to rust • Flammability • Reactivity with other substances

GROUP 1: ALKALI METALS • Examples: lithium, sodium, potassium • React quickly with other

GROUP 1: ALKALI METALS • Examples: lithium, sodium, potassium • React quickly with other elements such as oxygen • Occur only in compounds in nature • Silvery appearance, soft enough to cut with a knife, lowest densities

GROUP 2: ALKALINE EARTH METALS • Examples: beryllium, magnesium, calcium • React quickly with

GROUP 2: ALKALINE EARTH METALS • Examples: beryllium, magnesium, calcium • React quickly with other elements but not as quickly as the alkali metals • Low density but higher than alkali metals

GROUPS 3 -12: TRANSITION ELEMENTS • Examples: copper, silver, nickel, iron, and gold •

GROUPS 3 -12: TRANSITION ELEMENTS • Examples: copper, silver, nickel, iron, and gold • All transition elements are metals • They have higher melting points, greater strength and higher densities than alkali metals and alkaline earth metals • Resist corrosion • They react less quickly with oxygen

LANTHANIDE AND ACTINIDE SERIES • Two rows of transition elements that are at the

LANTHANIDE AND ACTINIDE SERIES • Two rows of transition elements that are at the bottom of the periodic table • First row is the lanthanide series • Second row is the actinide series

HOW ARE ELEMENTS GROUPED IN THE PERIODIC TABLE? Elements are grouped in the periodic

HOW ARE ELEMENTS GROUPED IN THE PERIODIC TABLE? Elements are grouped in the periodic table according to similarities of their properties.

LESSON 3 NONMETALS AND METALLOIDS

LESSON 3 NONMETALS AND METALLOIDS

NONMETALS • Nonmetals are elements that have no metallic properties • Gases at room

NONMETALS • Nonmetals are elements that have no metallic properties • Gases at room temperature • Located on the right side • Examples: nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, phosphorus and sulfur

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PROPERTIES OF NONMETALS • Those that are solid at room temperature have a dull

PROPERTIES OF NONMETALS • Those that are solid at room temperature have a dull surface (no luster) • Poor conductors of electricity and thermal energy (good insulators)

GROUP 14 -16 NONMETALS • Carbon is the only nonmetal in group 14 •

GROUP 14 -16 NONMETALS • Carbon is the only nonmetal in group 14 • Nitrogen and phosphorus are the only nonmetals in group 15 • Oxygen, sulfur, and selenium are the only nonmetals in group 16

GROUP 17: THE HALOGENS • Examples: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine • Elements that

GROUP 17: THE HALOGENS • Examples: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine • Elements that can react with a metal to form a salt • Only occur naturally in compounds

GROUP 18: THE NOBLE GASES • Examples: helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon

GROUP 18: THE NOBLE GASES • Examples: helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon • Do not form compounds except under special circumstances in a laboratory

HYDROGEN • Has the smallest atomic mass • Most common element in the universe

HYDROGEN • Has the smallest atomic mass • Most common element in the universe • Classified as a nonmetal but conducts electricity in its liquid form and reacts like an alkali metal • On Earth, hydrogen behaves like a nonmetal

METALLOIDS • A metalloid is an element that has physical and chemical properties of

METALLOIDS • A metalloid is an element that has physical and chemical properties of both metals and nonmetals • Examples: boron, silicon, germanium, and arsenic

PROPERTIES OF METALLOIDS • Metalloids are semiconductors meaning they conduct electricity at high temperatures,

PROPERTIES OF METALLOIDS • Metalloids are semiconductors meaning they conduct electricity at high temperatures, but not at low temperatures • Useful for electronic devices such as computers, televisions, and solar cells

GROUP 1 AND 17 Most readily combine

GROUP 1 AND 17 Most readily combine

SULFUR AND PHOSPHORUS Nonmetals

SULFUR AND PHOSPHORUS Nonmetals

COPPER AND IRON Metals

COPPER AND IRON Metals

GROUP 17 Halogens

GROUP 17 Halogens