- Slides: 39
The Periodic Table of Elements
Periodic Law Periodic Table • Something periodic occurs at regular or at least generally predictable intervals • Periodic law - physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers • Periodic Table of Elements – a table of the elements, arranged by atomic number, that shows the patterns in their properties; based on the periodic law Can you think of anything that is periodic?
Element • A pure substance made up of one kind of atom that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means • 90 occur naturally on earth • 25 were synthesized (made) by scientists http: //www. privatehand. com/flash/elements. html
Dmitri Mendeleev • In the 1860’s he devised a periodic table where the elements were ordered by their atomic masses • He did this by grouping elements together according to their similarities • Draft of Mendeleev's Periodic Table Image taken from: http: //jscms. jrn. columbia. edu/cns/2006 -04 -18/fido-luxuriantflowinghair/mendeleev/
Mendeleev’s Published Periodic Table of Elements Why do you think there are question marks here? Image taken from: http: //www. chemsoc. org/networks/learnnet/periodictable/post 16/develop/mendeleev. htm
Mendeleev’s Predictions • Although Mendeleev’s Periodic Table of Elements had missing elements or “gaps, ” he was able to predict the characteristics of these missing elements because of Periodic Law. “Ekasilicon” Date Predicted Atomic Mass 1871 72 Germanium Date Discovered 1886 Atomic Mass 72. 6 Density 5. 5 g/cm 3 Density 5. 47 g/cm 3 Bonding Power 4 Color Dark Gray Color Grayish White Notice how Mendeleev’s predictions (orange column) were very accurate when compared to Germanium’s actual characteristics (green column)
Henry Moseley • In 1914, his work led to a revision of the periodic table by rearranging the elements by their atomic numbers • He concluded that the number of protons in an atom is its atomic number • Sample X-ray Spectra Image taken from: http: //dewey. library. upenn. edu/sceti/smith/
Using the Periodic Table • The boxes that make up the periodic table contain a significant amount of information. To understand this information, it is necessary to refer to the periodic table’s key(s) 8 Atomic Number O Element Symbol Oxygen 15. 999 Class Metal Non-Metalloid Color Which class does Oxygen fall into? (Number of protons) (Written with a capital letter or a capital followed by a lower case if two letters ) Element Name Atomic Mass (Rounded to a whole number, equals the number of protons and neutrons) State (@ Room Temp. ) Solid Liquid Gas Symbol Color What is Oxygen’s physical state of matter?
Atomic number, Atomic Name, Atomic Symbol 1 Hydrogen H 6 Carbon C 7 Nitrogen N 8 Oxygen O 11 Sodium Na 12 Magnesium Mg 14 Silicon Si 15 Phosphorus P 16 Sulfur S 17 Chlorine Cl 19 Potassium K 20 Calcium Ca 26 Iron Fe 30 Zinc Zn 53 Iodine I 80 Mercury Hg 82 Lead Pb 92 U Uranium
How do you read the PERIODIC TABLE?
What is Hydrogen o Simplest atom o most abundant element in the universe o Found in Water (H 2 O) o No Odor, taste or color o Very Flammable o Used to keep blimps afloat before helium o Used as an alternate Gas Source (California)
What is Carbon o Essential for ALL life (DNA) o Diamonds, Coal, Graphite o In CO 2 We exhale, responsible for greenhouse effect o Pop has carbonation in it which is carbon
What is Nitrogen o 78% of atmosphere is N o Liquid Nitrogen is used to freeze food o Crucial to life o In Amino Acids and Proteins o Used in Fertilizers In ammonia
o o What is Oxygen Breathe in Oxygen Very abundant In Water H 20 A part of almost EVERY biological molecule o Hemoglobin carries oxygen to cells o Ozone is O 3
What is Sodium (Na) ? o Humans and other animals need sodium to maintain the correct fluid balance in their cells. o In Salt Na. Cl o Reacts Violently with Water http: //www. chemicool. com/el ements/sodium. html o
What is Magnesium (Mg)? o Magnesium is one of the two dozen or so elements that are essential for life o The brilliant light it produces when ignited is made use of in photography and flares o manufacturing of mobile phones, laptop computers, cameras, and other electronic components. .
What is Silicon (Si) o Silicon burning is the last phase of a heavy star’s life before a supernova and lasts only about one day. o basis of modern electronic and computing, used in glass, concrete
What is Phosphorus (P)? o Phosphorus is at the tip of matches o Discovered in Urine and named for the glow it made when air interacted with it o Very toxic although is found in the body
What is Sulfur (S)? o Sulfur burns with a very satisfying blue flame – its old name is brimstone, which means ‘burn stone’ or ‘stone that burns. ’ o Pure sulfur has no smell, but many of its compounds stink! For example sulfur compounds called mercaptans give skunks their awful smell. Rotten eggs (and most stink bombs) get their distinctive aroma courtesy of hydrogen sulfide, H 2 S.
What is Chlorine (Cl)? o Chlorine is a greenish-yellow, diatomic, dense gas with a sharp smell (the smell of bleach). o Not found in nature but found combined with nearly all other elements o In SALT Na. Cl o Yellow-green gas
What is Potassium (K)? o All living cells need potassium to maintain fluid balance o all forms of life on Earth need potassium minerals to survive. o Potassium is available in all meats, plants and dairy products. Fruit and vegetables are the best sources of potassium.
What is Calcium (Ca)? o Calcium builds Bones o Homes built using structural concrete or cement made (calcium oxide). Snails and many shellfish use calcium carbonate – to build their own homes too – their shells. o Egypt’s pyramids were built using limestone blocks. Limestone is crystalline calcium carbonate.
What is Iron (Fe)? o sources of dietary iron include red meat, lentils, beans, poultry, fish, leaf vegetables, and cereals o Iron is the most widely used metal (machines, Autos, buildings) 95%! o Symbol Fe comes from the Latin word ferrum o Magnets are made of iron
What is Zinc (Zn)? o. Zinc supplements are thought to shorten colds (controversial) o Pennies after 1982 are made primarily of zinc (97% with a copper coating due to the price of copper) before 1982 pennies were 95 percent copper o
3 Classes of Elements Classas a guide, Color color Using this Metal code your periodic table to Non-Metal show the three classes. Start Metalloid by highlighting the “zig-zag. ”
Metals Location • Found on the left of the zigzag line/staircase on the periodic table (exception Hydrogen) Chemical Properties • Have few electrons in their outer energy level, thus lose electrons easily Physical Properties • ductile, good conductors, malleable, shiny, most are solid @ room temperature 79 Au 196. 967 11 Na 22. 990 Image taken from: http: //chemistry. about. com/od/periodictableelements/ig/El ement-Photo-Gallery. --98/Sodium. htm What metal is not a solid @ room temperature?
Atoms with Few Electrons in their Outer Energy Level Notice: only 1 electron in outer level - + + ++ + - Notice: only 2 electrons in outer level - - Be 22. 990 - 9. 012 Na - - + 4 11 - - -
Non-Metals Location • Most found to the right of the zigzag line/staircase on the periodic table Chemical Properties • Most have almost full outer energy levels, thus they tend to gain electrons; some have completely full outer level Physical Properties • not ductile or malleable, not shiny, poor conductors, most are solid, but some are gas at room temperature 17 Cl 35. 453 Image taken from: http: //nobel. scas. bcit. ca/resource/ptable/cl. htm 16 S 32. 066 Image taken from: https: //www. dmr. nd. gov/ndgs/rockandmineral/sulfur. asp
Atoms with Full or Almost Full Outer Energy Level 8 - O - 15. 999 - ++ + + + - - - Notice: 2 electrons in outer level – FULL - + + - 2 - He - 4. 003 - Notice: 6 electrons in outer level – almost full +++ + - 9 F 18. 998 - - Notice: 7 electrons in outer level – almost full
Metalloids Location • Border the zigzag line/staircase on the periodic table Chemical Properties • Most atoms have ½ (≈) complete set of electrons in outer level Physical Properties • have properties of both metals and nonmetals 14 Si 28. 086 Image taken from: http: //library. thinkquest. org/C 0113863/bios. shtml 5 B 10. 811 Image taken from: http: //library. thinkquest. org/C 0113863/bios. shtml
Atoms with ½ (≈) Complete Outer Energy Level Notice: only 4 electrons in outer level - - - 5 B 10. 811 ++ + - - Notice: only 3 electrons in outer level - + +++ + ++ - - 14 Si - 28. 086 - -
Important Features of the Periodic Table: Period (Row) • each horizontal row of elements on the periodic table How many periods (rows) are on the Periodic Table Of Elements? FROM LEFT TO RIGHT OR RIGHT TO LEFT
Period (Row) Properties • Seven periods on a periodic table (numbered from the top down) • Atomic numbers and atomic masses increase as you move from the left to the right in a period • All atoms of the elements in the same period have the same number of orbitals/levels • All atoms of the elements in a specific period have that respective number of orbitals/levels – Example • Period 1 = 1 orbital • Period 2 = 2 orbitals • Period 3 = 3 orbitals • Etc…
Examples of Period (Row) elements having the same number of orbitals/levels in their atoms - - - In what period (row) do you think these atoms reside? - + ++ + + - - - + ++ + - - - In what period (row) do you think these atoms reside? - - - +++ + ++ + +++ ++ - - -
Important Features of the Periodic Table: Group (Family) • each column of elements on the periodic table How many groups (families) are on the Periodic Table Of Elements? FROM TOP TO BOTTOM OR BOTTOM TO THE TOP
Group (Family) Properties • Eighteen groups on the periodic table (numbered from left to right) • Atomic numbers and atomic masses increase as you move from the top down in a group (family) • Atoms of elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in the outer orbitals/levels of their atoms (known as valence electrons) – Exceptions: • Transition elements (3 -12) • Hydrogen (could be 1 or 17) • Helium (actually has 2 valence electrons) • Elements in groups usually have similar physical and chemical properties
Examples of Group Elements with the same # of valence electrons How many electrons do each of these atoms have in their outer orbital/level? 1 H 1. 008 3 Li 6. 941 11 Na - 22. 990 - 19 - K - 39. 098 37 ++ + + + ++ + - Rb 85. 468 55 Cs 132. 905 87 - - Fr (223) What group (family) do these elements reside in?
Group (Family) Names Alkaline Metals. Earth Noble Boron Nitrogen Carbon Oxygen Gases Group Halogens Metals Transition Metals
Identify the Element Period 4 Group 17 2 –––Period 5 Group Period 7 14 2 6 Rutherfordium Carbon - C Strontium Astatine - At - Sr- Rf