Module 14 Health the UNFCCC Key messages in

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Module 14: Health & the UNFCCC

Module 14: Health & the UNFCCC

Key messages in Module 14 • The United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

Key messages in Module 14 • The United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international process for negotiating agreements on climate change • A series of agreements have been reached on promoting adaptation, including establishing international funding for adaptation • There has been inadequate representation of health in the agreements & adaptation funding • There are significant opportunities for health engagement & taking further adaptation & mitigation action in the health sector

1 UNFCCC overview Module 14 outline 3 2 4 Adaptation activities in the UNFCCC

1 UNFCCC overview Module 14 outline 3 2 4 Adaptation activities in the UNFCCC Financial Health action mechanisms in the UNFCCC

1 THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

1 THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change • The science & politics of climate

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change • The science & politics of climate change are more than 100 years old. Historically important conferences include: – Toronto Conference on The Changing Atmosphere: Implications for Global Security in 1988 – UN Conference on Human Environment held in 1972 • The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted at the UN Conference on Environment & Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992

UNFCCC • International treaty to address challenges of climate change • 192 countries have

UNFCCC • International treaty to address challenges of climate change • 192 countries have ratified • Entered into force on 21 March 1994 The Convention: Recognizes the global, shared problem Provides a framework for discussion Supports first steps: reporting, assessment, planning Establishes principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" • Covers mitigation & adaptation • •

Health in UNFCCC legal framework • Article 1: Definitions – human health & welfare

Health in UNFCCC legal framework • Article 1: Definitions – human health & welfare mentioned • Article 4: Commitments, para 1 (f) – public health mentioned • Within the biannual National Communication, both non-ANNEX 1 & ANNEX 1 countries are required to report on health co-benefits • Decision 5 at COP 7 – human health recognized & decision for implementation in health to be supported through Special Climate Change Fund & Adaptation fund

UNFCCC, its partners & relations UN Organizations Private sector AWG -DP SBSTA Source: UNFCCC

UNFCCC, its partners & relations UN Organizations Private sector AWG -DP SBSTA Source: UNFCCC SBI Nairobi Work Plan Professional Groups NGOs

Conference of Parties (COP) • The COP is the supreme decision-making body of the

Conference of Parties (COP) • The COP is the supreme decision-making body of the Convention • All States that are Parties to the Convention are represented at the COP • COPs review the implementation of the Convention & any other legal instruments that the COP adopts & take decisions necessary to promote the effective implementation of the Convention • COP usually meets every year

CMP • CMP – The conference of parties serving as the meeting of the

CMP • CMP – The conference of parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto protocol • All States that are Parties to the Kyoto Protocol are represented at the CMP, while States that are not Parties participate as observers • Reviews the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol & takes decisions to promote its effective implementation

Subsidiary Body for Scientific & Technological Advice (SBSTA) • Supports the work of the

Subsidiary Body for Scientific & Technological Advice (SBSTA) • Supports the work of the COP & CMP through provision of timely information & advice on scientific & technological matters related to the Convention or its Kyoto Protocol • Key areas of work : • Impacts, vulnerability & adaptation to climate change • Emissions from deforestation & forest degradation in developing countries • Promoting development & transfer of environmentfriendly technologies • Technical work to improve guidelines for preparing & reviewing greenhouse gas emission inventories from Annex I Parties

Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) • Supports the work of the COP & the

Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) • Supports the work of the COP & the CMP through assessment & review of the effective implementation of the Convention and its Kyoto Protocol • Advises the COP on budgetary & administrative matters • Works together with the SBSTA on crosscutting issues that touch on both their areas of expertise

The Kyoto Protocol • Reaffirmed responsibility of all countries • Set GHG targets for

The Kyoto Protocol • Reaffirmed responsibility of all countries • Set GHG targets for industrialized countries Black = Annex 1 countries agreeing to below base year GHG emission targets Grey = Annex 1 countries agreeing to base year GHG emission targets Image source: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Kyoto_protocol

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) overview • Formed in 1988 by the United

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) overview • Formed in 1988 by the United Nations Environment Program & the World Meteorological Organization to conduct assessments of the state of knowledge of climate change, vulnerabilities to & consequences of any changes, & options to avoid, prepare for & respond to changes • All governments that signed either the UNEP or WMO convention are members of the IPCC

IPCC assessment reports

IPCC assessment reports

IPCC organization

IPCC organization

Role of Governments • Governments request the scientific community to conduct comprehensive assessments •

Role of Governments • Governments request the scientific community to conduct comprehensive assessments • Governments elect a Bureau to ensure assessments are conducted following the IPCC Rules & Procedures • Proposed outlines are discussed & approved line-by-line by the governments in a Plenary • Bureau approves the chapter author teams – Based on scientific expertise, geography & gender

Role of Governments • Governments participate in the review process & in the IPCC

Role of Governments • Governments participate in the review process & in the IPCC Plenary sessions, where main decisions about the IPCC work program are taken & reports are accepted, adopted, & approved • Summary for Policymakers approved line-byline by the governments in a final Plenary

IPCC: correcting misperceptions • Does not conduct research or monitor trends • Does conduct

IPCC: correcting misperceptions • Does not conduct research or monitor trends • Does conduct comprehensive assessments • Does provide statements that are policyrelevant & policy-neutral • Review is an essential part of the IPCC process, to ensure an objective & comprehensive assessment • Differing viewpoints existing within the scientific community are reflected in the IPCC reports

IPCC Assessment process Source: IPCC

IPCC Assessment process Source: IPCC

2 ACTIVITIES UNDER THE UNFCCC RELATED TO ADAPTATION

2 ACTIVITIES UNDER THE UNFCCC RELATED TO ADAPTATION

Adaptation mechanisms under the UNFCCC

Adaptation mechanisms under the UNFCCC

Adaptation work streams & committees

Adaptation work streams & committees

National Communications All Parties must report on the steps they are taking or envisage

National Communications All Parties must report on the steps they are taking or envisage undertaking to implement the Convention: • National Communications Annex I • National Communications from Non-Annex I Parties

National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA) • In 2001, COP established a Least Developed

National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA) • In 2001, COP established a Least Developed Country (LDC) work program which included NAPAs • NAPAs to support LDCs to identify priority activities that respond to their urgent & immediate needs • COP also established a LDC fund to fund preparation & implementation of NAPAs

The Nairobi Work Programme (NWP) The Nairobi work program on impacts, vulnerability & adaptation

The Nairobi Work Programme (NWP) The Nairobi work program on impacts, vulnerability & adaptation to climate change assists all Parties (in particular developing countries, including LDCs & SIDS), to: • Improve their understanding & assessment of impacts, vulnerability & adaptation; & • Make informed decisions on practical adaptation actions

The Nairobi Work Programme 9 areas of work: • • • Climate-related risks &

The Nairobi Work Programme 9 areas of work: • • • Climate-related risks & extreme events Adaptation planning & practices Socio-economic information Methods & tools Data & observations Economic diversification Research Climate modeling, scenarios & downscaling Technology for adaptation

Number of Nairobi work program partner organizations by sector Source: UNFCCC (2014)

Number of Nairobi work program partner organizations by sector Source: UNFCCC (2014)

National Adaptation Plans (NAP) • To reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change,

National Adaptation Plans (NAP) • To reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change, by building adaptive capacity & resilience • To facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation, in a coherent manner, into relevant new & existing policies, programs & activities, in particular development planning processes & strategies, within all relevant sectors & at different levels, as appropriate

Difference between NAPs & NAPAs NAPs were developed building on NAPAs New opportunities for

Difference between NAPs & NAPAs NAPs were developed building on NAPAs New opportunities for health

Loss & Damage work program • • Failed mitigation & adaptation For most vulnerable

Loss & Damage work program • • Failed mitigation & adaptation For most vulnerable countries Compensation from developed countries Institutional mechanism established

Memory challenge! Name 2 different activities related to adaptation under the UNFCCC

Memory challenge! Name 2 different activities related to adaptation under the UNFCCC

3 Financial mechanisms

3 Financial mechanisms

Financial Mechanisms • Global Environment Facility (GEF) – Least Developed Country Fund (LDCF) –

Financial Mechanisms • Global Environment Facility (GEF) – Least Developed Country Fund (LDCF) – Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) • Green Climate Fund (GCF) • Adaptation Fund (AF)

Global Environment Facility (GEF) • A global partnership among 178 countries to address global

Global Environment Facility (GEF) • A global partnership among 178 countries to address global environmental issues while supporting national sustainable development initiatives • The designated financial mechanism for the UNFCCC (among others) • GEF supports projects in climate change mitigation & climate change adaptation

Adaptation funds • Least Developed Country Fund • Special Climate Change Fund – Set

Adaptation funds • Least Developed Country Fund • Special Climate Change Fund – Set up to finance projects relating to adaptation: technology transfer & capacity building; energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry & waste management; & economic diversification • Adaptation Fund – Set up under the Kyoto Protocol to finance the full costs of adaptation in developing countries that are parties to the Kyoto Protocol. May be replaced by the Green Climate Fund • Green Climate Fund

Opportunities for Health via GEF • Least Developed Country Fund – only for LDC’s

Opportunities for Health via GEF • Least Developed Country Fund – only for LDC’s – Focus on urgent & immediate adaptation needs – Funds preparation & implementation of NAPAs – Specifically funds the health sector, as well as other sectors • Project ‘Assisting non-LDC developing countries with country driven process to advance national adaptation plans’ provides funds for NAPA Source: GEF - How to access LDCF resources

Opportunities for health via GEF Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) • Open to all

Opportunities for health via GEF Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) • Open to all developing countries • Wider time windows & wider range of adaptation options • Adaptation given preference, but technology transfer, mitigation & economic diversification also considered Source: GEF - How to access SCCF resources

Opportunities for health via Green Climate Fund (GCF) • Established at COP 16, reports

Opportunities for health via Green Climate Fund (GCF) • Established at COP 16, reports to COP • Objective: Mobilize & administrate US$100 billion by 2020 (including $30 billion fast-starting financing by 2012) • • 50% adaptation, 50% mitigation Finance result-based Results area ‘Population, health & well-being’ Readiness program for countries prepared to comply with the requisites of the fund Source: http: //news. gcfund. org/

Opportunities for health via GCF • Indirect links can be made to several program

Opportunities for health via GCF • Indirect links can be made to several program areas under the Population Health & Well-being results area: • Mitigation logic model & performances measurement framework – Greening of health facilities • Adaptation logic model & performance measurement framework – Several results mention health directly

Opportunities for health via Adaptation Fund Several expected results of the Fund Framework in

Opportunities for health via Adaptation Fund Several expected results of the Fund Framework in line with protection of human health: – Output 1: Risk & vulnerability assessments conducted & updated at a national level – Output 2: Strengthened institutional capacity to reduce risks associated with climate-induced socioeconomic & environmental losses – Output 4: Vulnerable physical, natural & social assets strengthened in response to climate change impacts – Output 7: Improved integration of climate-resilience strategies into country development plans

4 Health action in the UNFCCC - lessons learned

4 Health action in the UNFCCC - lessons learned

Lessons learned • Poor engagement of health sector in UNFCCC negotiations • Health mentioned

Lessons learned • Poor engagement of health sector in UNFCCC negotiations • Health mentioned only once in 200 -page draft agreement proposed at Copenhagen UNFCCC Co. P • Only one of the 323 side events at COPs focussed on health • One percent of global climate funds allocated to health projects • Of the 13 main economic models to inform climate mitigation decisions, only one incorporated health co -benefits

Lessons learned Health community absent from the NAPA process Lack of technical assistance Under-representation

Lessons learned Health community absent from the NAPA process Lack of technical assistance Under-representation of health in NAPA projects and funds allocation Limited submissions to LDCF

Lessons learned

Lessons learned

What’s been done to address this? 1. WHO & partners organized conferences on climate

What’s been done to address this? 1. WHO & partners organized conferences on climate & health, health side events during COPs to build engagement 2. WHO, IPCC, researchers provided scientific evidence on health impacts of climate change & learning tools 3. WHO & partners provide technical expertise Vulnerabilities & Adaptation Assessment, Health NAPs etc. 4. Preparatory workshops for COP on health & environment (WHO-GIZ)

What needs to be done? • Health should be central in negotiations: – Main

What needs to be done? • Health should be central in negotiations: – Main reasons for climate concern (e. g. disasters, food shortage, displacement, disease) are health & wellbeing issues – Most energy & environment decisions have major direct health implications – Addressing climate change = sustainable development = health protection • Need to improve representation in COPs & actively participate in negotiations on high health priority areas

What needs to be done? • Promote mitigation & its health co-benefits within health

What needs to be done? • Promote mitigation & its health co-benefits within health sector (greening health services) & other sectors (transport, energy etc. ) • Ensure health adaptation included in National Adaptation Plans • Explore funds for mitigation & adaptation action • Increase awareness in civil society & appreciation of health effects of climate change • Establish links between climate change & sustainable development • Cross-sectoral collaboration - health can link action across all sectors

Opportunities for health in Nairobi Work Program • Consult information in the NWP •

Opportunities for health in Nairobi Work Program • Consult information in the NWP • Inform NWP on health adaptation activities • Provide tools to NWP regarding evaluation of health impacts & vulnerabilities • Become NWP partners • Participate in workshops & meetings organized by NWP

Opportunities for health in NAPs • Recognize health as a priority sector • Can

Opportunities for health in NAPs • Recognize health as a priority sector • Can identify national strategies & goals to build health resilience • Health assessments in Health National Action Plans can provide evidence of losses Health sector • Can access funds from LDCF, GEF & AF • Engage with general NAPs to ensure adaptation activities don’t harm health • Promote health co-benefits across health-determining sectors

Opportunities for health in Loss & Damage work program • Make sure health effects

Opportunities for health in Loss & Damage work program • Make sure health effects are recognized as a key loss & encourage countries to conduct assessment of heath losses • Provide health risk & impact assessments that include the concept of loss and damage & slow -onset impacts • Estimate health loss costs • Compensation for health losses

First WHO Conference on Health & Climate, 2014

First WHO Conference on Health & Climate, 2014

Any questions on the opportunities for health under the UNFCCC?

Any questions on the opportunities for health under the UNFCCC?

What we covered in Module 14 1 UNFCCC overview 3 2 4 Adaptation activities

What we covered in Module 14 1 UNFCCC overview 3 2 4 Adaptation activities in the UNFCCC Financial Health action mechanisms in the UNFCCC

Learning from Module 14 • The United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is

Learning from Module 14 • The United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international process for negotiating agreements on climate change • A series of agreements have been reached on promoting adaptation, including establishing international funding for adaptation • There has been inadequate representation of health in the agreements & adaptation funding • Opportunities for health engagement & taking further adaptation & mitigation action in the health sector

What action might you take in your work, given what you learnt in Module

What action might you take in your work, given what you learnt in Module 14?

Coming up next… Module 15: Mitigation & co-benefits

Coming up next… Module 15: Mitigation & co-benefits