Recap Verbal Communication Non verbal Communication Paraverbal communication

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Recap • • • Verbal Communication Non verbal Communication Paraverbal communication Barriers in Communication

Recap • • • Verbal Communication Non verbal Communication Paraverbal communication Barriers in Communication Verbal & Nonverbal Communication 1

7 C’s of Communication 2

7 C’s of Communication 2

First, What is Business Writing? Business Writing Workplace Writing Business writing is workplace writing,

First, What is Business Writing? Business Writing Workplace Writing Business writing is workplace writing, which is a form of technical writing. Technical Writing 3

Business Writing is technical communication or technical writing 4

Business Writing is technical communication or technical writing 4

Workplace Writing Workplace writing is generally “persuasive” writing: Example 1: A Resume to persuade

Workplace Writing Workplace writing is generally “persuasive” writing: Example 1: A Resume to persuade a potential/future employer to offer an interview Example 2: A Findings Report to persuade employees to follow certain policies or procedures in order to improve performance or correct errors or problems 5

Some Types of Workplace Writings Business Letters Formal; An external communication E-mail Transmissions Informal;

Some Types of Workplace Writings Business Letters Formal; An external communication E-mail Transmissions Informal; External correspondence written to business associates and internal correspondence to personal friends Memoranda/ Memorandum Informal style of business letter; Internal correspondence written to colleagues within a company Reports Financial, audit, or statistical report that identifies the specific problem and presents collected data, research, or recommendations for the change process Contracts Binding agreements or proposals between two or more parties that can become legal documents if they include an offer that is accepted Manuals A written set of instructions, procedures or policies Power. Point A soft-ware generated, visual slide show, with animation options, that hosts a set of notes or bulleted points, an agenda, or other information that supports a discussion 6

General Business Tip. . . Generally, it is an expected and common business practice

General Business Tip. . . Generally, it is an expected and common business practice to keep photocopies / hard (paper) copies of any communication you send to another person regarding any business matter. 7

How to Create Effective Technical or Workplace Writings: 1. Focus on the purpose of

How to Create Effective Technical or Workplace Writings: 1. Focus on the purpose of your writing 2. Focus on your readers (Audience) 3. Satisfy document requirements (Documentation style; visuals; data) 4. Get to the point (Concise, uncluttered/confusing sentences) 5. Provide accurate information (Research) 6. Express yourself clearly (Grammar; Proofreading) 7. Format your pages carefully (be neat and leave white space) 8. Manage your time efficiently (Meet deadlines) 8

Formatting a. . . Business Memo 9

Formatting a. . . Business Memo 9

What should you know about Business Memos? They. . . are used within an

What should you know about Business Memos? They. . . are used within an organization usually are informal in style normally function as a non-sensitive communication are short and to-the-point have a business tone / no slang or jokes do not require a salutation (formal greeting) do not have a complimentary closing as does a business letter (END) • have a format very different from a business letter • may address one person or a group of individuals • • 10

Memo Sample College of Business Administration Business Communication Memorandum To: CBA Students From: Dale

Memo Sample College of Business Administration Business Communication Memorandum To: CBA Students From: Dale Coattail Headings/ routing information Executive Summary or Introduction Date: September 10, 2007 Re: How to Write a Memo Your instructor has asked you to write a memo, which is the most common form of written communication in business. In order to perform this task successfully, you should conform to general business standards of content, format, structure and language use. Regarding Content, the first rule of writing a good memo is "Get to the point!" The second rule is "Know what your purpose is. " Before you start writing, be sure that you know what your "answer" is to the boss's or colleague's question. Don't include all your thinking in the memo. While several pages of thinking might get written as you come up with the answer, the memo includes only the answer. Citations, financials, or justifications that must be available to the reader can be added as appendices or written as a separate, formal report. The memo should include only those ideas that are required for the reader's action or decision. Start the Body / Body Headings Format This memo is an example of memo format. Note especially the routing information, the use of headings, and the single spaced block paragraphs. If your memo looks like a memo, there's a better chance a business reader will take your ideas seriously. If you are working in a CBA lab, the easiest way to duplicate the proper memo format is to use a template. (Select "new" from the File MENU and select the "memo" tab on the dialogue box. ) Structure The typical memo is only 2 or 3 paragraphs and fits on one page. The first paragraph summarizes the gist of the whole memo, then the main points are covered in the same order they were previewed. Again, this memo provides an example of the typical structure. Language Use A memo is often less formal than a letter, but should still be written with a businesslike tone. You can be friendly, but not cute. Your professional image depends on perfect spelling and grammar, but you can usually get away with a few "down home" expressions. Edit for wordiness and get directly to the point. Use language to communicate your ideas effectively and efficiently. (END) cc: Your Instructor Special note 11

Formatting a. . . Business Report ? 12

Formatting a. . . Business Report ? 12

What is a “Business Report”? • A business report is a technical report designed

What is a “Business Report”? • A business report is a technical report designed to persuade readers. • A written business report communicates research findings, progress evaluations, proposal plans, or other information regarding a business practice, situation, or project. 13

Why create Business Reports? • In a global society, the ability to report findings

Why create Business Reports? • In a global society, the ability to report findings and develop expansion plans and propose solutions to business-related problems gives company’s a strategic advantage in world markets. • Business reports, formal or informal, are technical communications that support business by persuading business leaders, employees, clients and other business stakeholders. 14

Regardless of what you write, Consider this Triangle. . . Writer Audience (your ethics,

Regardless of what you write, Consider this Triangle. . . Writer Audience (your ethics, morals, (the passions, interests, or skill set characteristics of the ones and Plans to use Your characteristics you’re trying to persuade to meet your purpose) and their characteristics) Subject (the logic you will present -- your topic or message) 15

Formal Business Report Format General Sections of a long Business Formal Report: • Title

Formal Business Report Format General Sections of a long Business Formal Report: • Title Page • List of Tables and Illustrations • Letter of Transmittal • Synopsis / Executive Summary / Abstract • Table of Contents • Introduction (required) (Header may start on this page) • Methods of Research • Findings / Analysis (Discussion) • Conclusions • Recommendations • Appendix (Graphs and Tables) 16

7 Cs 0 F Communication • • COMPLETENESS CONCISENESS CONSIDERATION CLARITY CONCRETENESS COURTESY CORRECTNESS

7 Cs 0 F Communication • • COMPLETENESS CONCISENESS CONSIDERATION CLARITY CONCRETENESS COURTESY CORRECTNESS 17

COMPLETENESS Business message is complete when it contains all facts the reader or listener

COMPLETENESS Business message is complete when it contains all facts the reader or listener needs for the reaction you desire. As you strive for completeness, keep the following guidelines in mind; Ø Provide all necessary information Ø Answer all questions asked Ø Give something extra when desirable 18

COMPLETENESS • Answer all questions that are asked • Give something extra when desirable

COMPLETENESS • Answer all questions that are asked • Give something extra when desirable • Check for five Ws & one H – Who – What – When – Where – Why and – How 19

Provide All Necessary Information Answering the five W’s helps make messages clear: Who, What,

Provide All Necessary Information Answering the five W’s helps make messages clear: Who, What, When, Where, and Why. Answer All Questions Asked Look for questions: some may even appear buried within a paragraph. Locate them and then answer precisely. Give Something Extra, When Desirable Use your good judgment in offering additional material if the sender’s message was incomplete. 20

Exercise-1 • You are the president of an industry association and have received the

Exercise-1 • You are the president of an industry association and have received the following inquiry from an out of town member: “I think I would like to attend my first meeting of the association, even though I am not acquainted with your city. Will you please tell me where the next meeting is being held? ” • How would you reply to this letter keeping in mind Completeness of the message? 21

CONCISENESS 1. Eliminate wordy expressions 2. Include only relevant statements – be focused –

CONCISENESS 1. Eliminate wordy expressions 2. Include only relevant statements – be focused – Shorten & avoid long explanations – avoid gushing politeness 3. Avoid unnecessary repetitions – use short forms the second time – use pronouns 22

Eliminate Wordy Expressions Use single words in place of phrases. Even Winston Churchill made

Eliminate Wordy Expressions Use single words in place of phrases. Even Winston Churchill made extensive use of simple, one syllable words. Wordy: Concise: Example At this time Now Due to the fact that Because 23

CONCISE • • • Due to the fact that Employed the use of Basic

CONCISE • • • Due to the fact that Employed the use of Basic fundamentals Completely eliminate Alternative choices Actual experience Connected together Final result Prove conclusively In as few words as possible 24

CONCISE o Due to the fact that o Employed the use of o Basic

CONCISE o Due to the fact that o Employed the use of o Basic fundamentals Completely eliminate o Alternative choices o Actual experience o Connected together o Final result o Prove conclusively o In as few words as possible o o o o o Because Used Fundamentals Eliminate Alternatives Experience Connected Result Prove Concisely 25

Include Only Relevant Material Wordy: with pleased that company is our the confidence have

Include Only Relevant Material Wordy: with pleased that company is our the confidence have you respond in us. 26

 • Concise: We appreciate your confidence. 27

• Concise: We appreciate your confidence. 27

Exercise • Find single word substitutes for the phrases: § With regard to §

Exercise • Find single word substitutes for the phrases: § With regard to § Despite the fact that § At the present writing § Is of opinion that § In the first place § At a rapid rate about although now thinks first fast 28

Exercise • Rewrite the following by omitting articles, trite (worn out) expressions, wordy sentences

Exercise • Rewrite the following by omitting articles, trite (worn out) expressions, wordy sentences and repetitions: 29

Exercise –contd. • At this time I am writing to you to enclose the

Exercise –contd. • At this time I am writing to you to enclose the post paid appointment for the purpose of arranging a convenient time when we might get-together for a personal interview. 30

Exercise –contd. • Will you ship us sometime, any time during the month of

Exercise –contd. • Will you ship us sometime, any time during the month of October , or even November if you are rushed , for November will suit us just as well , in fact a little bit better , 300 of the regular three and a half inch blue arm bands with white sewn letter in the middle. 31

CONSIDERATION Consideration means preparing every message with the message receivers in mind; try to

CONSIDERATION Consideration means preparing every message with the message receivers in mind; try to put yourself in their place. • You are considerate • you do not lose your temper • them without facts thoughtful the • consideration called also is “you-attitude”. 32

CONSIDERATION • • Focus on YOU instead of I & WE Show reader benefit

CONSIDERATION • • Focus on YOU instead of I & WE Show reader benefit & interest Emphasize on positive & pleasant Apply integrity & ethics 33

Focus on “You” Instead of “I” or “We” Using “you” does help project a

Focus on “You” Instead of “I” or “We” Using “you” does help project a you-attitude. But overuse can lead to a negative reaction. 34

Show Audience Benefit or Interest in the Receiver Reader may react positively when benefits

Show Audience Benefit or Interest in the Receiver Reader may react positively when benefits are shown them. Benefits must meet recipients: – needs – address their concerns, or – offer them rewards • Most important they must be perceived as benefits by the receivers. 35

Ex. - Write with a ‘you ‘ attitude , it shows consideration • I

Ex. - Write with a ‘you ‘ attitude , it shows consideration • I want to send my congratulations for -(Congratulations to you…. ) • We will ship soon the goods of your order-- • We pay eight percent interest on ----- 36

Ex -Avoid negative – unpleasant words to show consideration • It is impossible to

Ex -Avoid negative – unpleasant words to show consideration • It is impossible to open an account for you today. • When you travel on company expense, you will not receive approval for first class fare. 37

Ex : Show reader benefit or interest • Because we have not written to

Ex : Show reader benefit or interest • Because we have not written to you in sometime , please help us bring our record by filling and returning the other half of the card. 38

CONCRETENESS Communicating concretely means being specific, definite, and vivid rather than vague and general.

CONCRETENESS Communicating concretely means being specific, definite, and vivid rather than vague and general. Often it means using donatives (direct, explicit, often dictionary based) rather than connotative words (ideas or notions suggested by or associated with a word or phrase) 39

CONCRETENESS • Use specific facts and figures • Put action into words • Choose

CONCRETENESS • Use specific facts and figures • Put action into words • Choose vivid image building words by comparison & figurative language • Use more adjectives and adverbs 40

Use Specific Facts and Figures It is desirable to be precise and concrete in

Use Specific Facts and Figures It is desirable to be precise and concrete in both written and oral business communication. 41

Example Vague, General, Indefinite Concrete, Precise • Student GMAT scores are higher. • In

Example Vague, General, Indefinite Concrete, Precise • Student GMAT scores are higher. • In 1996, the GMAT scores averaged 600; by 1997 they had risen to 610. 42

Put Action in Your Verbs can activate other words and help make your sentences

Put Action in Your Verbs can activate other words and help make your sentences alive, more vigorous. Ø Use active rather than passive verbs. Ø Put action in your verbs rather than nouns 43

Example • Passive : The memo was sent by the manager Active: • Passive:

Example • Passive : The memo was sent by the manager Active: • Passive: The scientist discovered the formula. Active: 44

Choose Vivid, Image-Building Words Business writing uses less figurative language than does the world

Choose Vivid, Image-Building Words Business writing uses less figurative language than does the world of fiction. Bland Image More Vivid Images This is a long letter. This letter is three times as long as you said it would. 45

Ex- Rewrite the following in concrete form as the sentences are too general and

Ex- Rewrite the following in concrete form as the sentences are too general and vague • Our product has won several prizes. • These brakes stop a car within a short distance. 46

Ex: Put action into the words by using active instead of passive voice •

Ex: Put action into the words by using active instead of passive voice • Tests were made by us. • A full report will be sent to you by the supervisor. • Mr. Singh will give consideration to the report… 47

Ex : Use vivid image building words – adjectives and adverbs , and use

Ex : Use vivid image building words – adjectives and adverbs , and use less of abstract nouns • The camera has a system that gives good pictures. 48

CLARITY Getting the meaning from your head to the head of your reader (accurately)

CLARITY Getting the meaning from your head to the head of your reader (accurately) is the purpose of clarity. Of course you know it is not simple. We all carry around our own unique interpretations, ideas, experiences associated with words. 49

CLARITY • Choose short , familiar & conversational words • Construct effective sentences and

CLARITY • Choose short , familiar & conversational words • Construct effective sentences and paragraphs by unity of idea and sequencing • Achieve appropriate readability by using formal & informal language • Include examples, illustrations & visual aids 50

Choose precise, concrete and familiar words Unfamiliar: After our perusal of pertinent data, the

Choose precise, concrete and familiar words Unfamiliar: After our perusal of pertinent data, the conclusion is that a lucrative market exists for the subject property. Familiar: The data we studies show that your property is profitable and in high demand. 51

Construct Effective Sentences and Paragraphs At the core of clarity is the sentences. This

Construct Effective Sentences and Paragraphs At the core of clarity is the sentences. This grammatical statement, when clearly expressed, moves thoughts within a paragraph. Important characteristics to consider are: – Length – Unity – Coherence – Emphasis 52

Ex : Use simple words • Subsequent • Accede • Endeavour • Supersede •

Ex : Use simple words • Subsequent • Accede • Endeavour • Supersede • Disclose later agree try replace show 53

COURTESY True courtesy involves being aware not only of the perspective of others, but

COURTESY True courtesy involves being aware not only of the perspective of others, but also their feelings. Courtesy stems from a sincere youattitude. 54

COURTESY The following are suggestions for generating a courteous tone; • Be sincere ,

COURTESY The following are suggestions for generating a courteous tone; • Be sincere , tactful, thoughtful and appreciative • Omit expressions that hurt , irritate, or insult • Grant apologies graciously 55

Be Sincerely Tactful, Thoughtful, and Appreciative Though few people are intentionally abrupt or blunt,

Be Sincerely Tactful, Thoughtful, and Appreciative Though few people are intentionally abrupt or blunt, these negative traits are a common cause of discourtesy. Tactless, Blunt Stupid letter; I can’t understand any of it. More Tactful It’s my understanding… Clearly, you did not read my latest fax. Sometimes my wording is not precise; let me try again 56

Use Expressions that Show Respect No reader wants to receive message that offend. Skip

Use Expressions that Show Respect No reader wants to receive message that offend. Skip Irritating Expressions You are offending You failed to Contrary to your inference Inexcusable Simply nonsense 57

Activity • Bring courtesy in the following text: Hey man, what’s this I hear

Activity • Bring courtesy in the following text: Hey man, what’s this I hear about the good news? You sure pulled a fast one this past weekend-and then didn’t tell any of us about it. Give my regards to the little lady. And wish her the best; she’ll need it. 58

More courteous Warm congratulations on your wedding! Well, you certainly took us by surprise.

More courteous Warm congratulations on your wedding! Well, you certainly took us by surprise. In fact, just a few of us even suspected you were taking off to get married. But even though we did not hear about it, we wish you the best. Give our warm regards to your new partner. 59

Choose Nondiscriminatory Expressions Another requirement for courtesy is the use of nondiscriminatory language that

Choose Nondiscriminatory Expressions Another requirement for courtesy is the use of nondiscriminatory language that reflects equal treatment of people regardless of gender, race, ethnic origin, and physical features. 60

Sexist Terms: “Man” words • Freshman New student, Entering student • Manpower Workers, Employees

Sexist Terms: “Man” words • Freshman New student, Entering student • Manpower Workers, Employees • Man-made Constructed, Manufactured, Built • Chairman Chairperson, Chair 61

Singular pronouns • Anyone who comes to the class late will get his grade

Singular pronouns • Anyone who comes to the class late will get his grade reduced. • Each manager has an assigned parking place. He should park his car………. 62

Names • Treat each gender with respect. Examples: • Ted Aprill and Ruth Ted

Names • Treat each gender with respect. Examples: • Ted Aprill and Ruth Ted and Ruth Aprill • Mrs Aprill and Ted Ms. Aprill and Mr. Aprill 63

Titles • • Mr. Miss Mrs. Ms 64

Titles • • Mr. Miss Mrs. Ms 64

Ex : Show courtesy by avoiding tactless & blunt language • Your letter is

Ex : Show courtesy by avoiding tactless & blunt language • Your letter is not clear at all: • Obviously, if you would read your policy carefully you will be able to answer these questions yourself. 65

Ex : Use gender friendly substitutes • • The best man for the job

Ex : Use gender friendly substitutes • • The best man for the job Manpower Salesman Chairman 66

CORRECTNESS At the core of correctness is proper grammar, punctuation, and spelling. However a

CORRECTNESS At the core of correctness is proper grammar, punctuation, and spelling. However a message may be perfect grammatically and mechanically but still insult or lose a customer. 67

CORRECTNESS • • • Use the right level of language Check accuracy of facts,

CORRECTNESS • • • Use the right level of language Check accuracy of facts, figures and words Maintain acceptable writing mechanics Choose non discriminatory language Use parallel language 68

 The right level of language, accuracy, and acceptable mechanics • Select the right

The right level of language, accuracy, and acceptable mechanics • Select the right level of language for your communication either formal or informal. • Realize that formal language is most often used in business communication. • Check for correct figures, facts, and words. • Apply the principles of accepted mechanics to your writing. 69

Use the Right Level of Language • Formal and Less Formal Language More Formal

Use the Right Level of Language • Formal and Less Formal Language More Formal Less Formal Participate Join Procure Get Endeavor Try Check Accuracy of Figures, Facts, and Words A good check of data is to have another person read and comment on the validity of the material. 70

Few tips for effective verbal messages • Be direct • Consider your audience •

Few tips for effective verbal messages • Be direct • Consider your audience • Be clear • Watch your nonverbal signals • Pay attention to the receivers • Repeat when needed • Communicate bit by bit • Use varying techniques • Auditory/Visual/Kine sthetic 71

Summary • What is Business writing? • Types? • 7 Cs of Communication –

Summary • What is Business writing? • Types? • 7 Cs of Communication – – – – COMPLETENESS CONCISENESS CONSIDERATION CLARITY CONCRETENESS COURTESY CORRECTNESS 72