Nonverbal Messages Nonverbal Communication Definition A term commonly
Nonverbal Communication • Definition- A term commonly used to describe all human communication events that transcend spoken or written words. • Researchers have estimated as much as 65 percent of the social meaning we convey in face-to-face interactions is a result of nonverbal behavior.
Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication v. Nonverbal Communication has five distinct characteristics. ØNonverbal communication can be Intentional or Unintentional. ØNonverbal messages are Primary. ØNonverbal behavior is frequently Ambiguous. ØNonverbal communication is Continuous. ØNonverbal messages are Multichannel.
Intentional and Unintentional o Sometimes we are aware of the nonverbal messages we are sending, but most often we are not consciously aware of them. o Examples include tapping your feet, speaking forcefully, or standing tall o Many people that we talk to interpret nonverbal cues as intentional.
Primary • Nonverbal communication is primary, taking precedence over verbal communication. • Psychologist Albert Mehrabian (1972) found that about 93 percent of the emotional meaning of utterances is conveyed nonverbally. • Nonverbal messages are more believable than the verbal ones. • “What you do speaks so loudly that I cannot hear what you say. ”Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ambiguous § Most nonverbal behaviors are not codified; there is no agreed on lexicon of definitions for what it means to behave a certain way. For example, the word “smile” means a pleasant facial expression. When we say, “she was smiling, ” we are describing her facial expression. But the nonverbal meaning of that smile is ambiguous. § In short it is difficult to interpret nonverbal behaviors accurately, especially when you don’t even know the person. When we are in a relationship with someone, however, we learn to read and more accurately decode our partner’s nonverbal behaviors. Øhttp: //youtu. be/3 Yx. Xs. QMAv. Wg
Continuous q. Verbal messages are bound by silence. q. As long as you are in the presence of another person, your behavior could be noticed or interpreted as a message. v. You never stop communicating nonverbally.
Multichanneled • When interpreting someone’s nonverbal behavior, we use a variety of cues or channels to make sense of what is happening. These cues include: üVocal tone ü Body position ü Gestures ü Facial expressions ü General expressions • We not only notice a variety of nonverbal behaviors together rather than in isolation. • We interpret all these behaviors jointly with any verbal messages that accompany them to determine the real meaning the speaker intended. http: //youtu. be/9 T 3 X 0 h. Rb. Tek
Functions Of Nonverbal Messages
Serves Five Primary Functions • Provide Information • Regulate Interactions • Express or Hide Emotions and Affects • Present an Image • Express Status, Power, and Control
Providing Information • Our nonverbal behaviors provides information by repeating, substituting for, emphasizing , or contradicting our verbal messages. • For example if you say no and shake your head at the same rime, your nonverbal message repeats what you said verbally.
Regulate Interactions • We manage a conversation through subtle and sometimes obvious nonverbal cues. • We use shifts in eye contact, slight head movement, posture changes, raised eyebrow and nodding. • We use those cues to tell another person when to continue, to repeat, to elaborate, to hurry up or finish.
Express or Hide Emotions • While we can easily hide from others what we are thinking, we can’t hide things we are feeling as we experience them. • Our emotions are instantaneously conveyed by nonverbal behavior. • For instance if you knit your eyebrows together, tighten your jaw, and scream at your mother, I'm not angry, your emotional nonverbal language drowns out your verbal message.
Presents an Image • Much of our efforts to manage the impression that other from about us are done with nonverbal cues and messages. • People may carefully develop an image through the clothing, grooming, jewelry, and personal possession they display. • For example, when you see a man dressed in an expensive suit briskly walking down the street sending a text message on his i. Phone while wearing a blue tooth headset what do you think? You might think he is a successful business man.
Express Status, Power, and Control • Many nonverbal behaviors are signs of dominance regardless of weather the person displaying them intends to convey power and control. • Consider a high level manager conveys status and how employees acknowledge that status through nonverbal behavior. • The employee may show respect to the high level manger by using eye contact and listening attentively when the manager speaks or by not interrupting.
You. Tube Clip • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Dk. Yy. NOYez. YM
Everyday we respond to thousands on nonverbal cues and behaviors including Øpostures, facial expressions, eye gaze, gestures, and tone of voice. From our handshakes to our hairstyles, nonverbal details reveal who we are and impact how we relate to other people. ØScientific research on nonverbal communication and behavior began with the 1872 publication of Charles Darwin’s ; The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Since that time, there has been an abundance of research on the types , effects, and expressions of unspoken communication and behavior. While these signals are often so subtle that we are not consciously aware of them. v BY: Kendra Cherry, Psychology Expert
Facial Expressions Facial expressions are responsible for a huge proportion of nonverbal communication. Consider how much information can be conveyed with a smile or a frown.
Gestures Deliberate movements and signals are an important way to communicate meaning without words. Common gestures include: ü Waving ü Pointing ü Using fingers to indicate numeric amounts. Other gestures are arbitrary and related to culture.
Spatial Usage The way we use the space that surrounds us during an interaction sends nonverbal messages to our partners. We send nonverbal messages by the way we use our Personal space, Acoustic space of the setting, our Territory, and the objects or Artifacts we use to adorn our space. http: //youtu. be/vicu. ZS 0 Ch. YQ
Personal Space v Intimate distance, up to 18 inches, is comfortable spacing for private conversations among intimates. v Personal distance, from 18 inches to 4 feet, is comfortable spacing for casual conversations with a normal amount of background noise. v Social distance, from 4 to 12 feet, is comfortable spacing for impersonal or professional interactions, such as a job interview or team meeting. v Public distance, anything more than 12 feet, is comfortable spacing for people in a public forum where interaction and conversation is not desired.
Acoustic Space is the area over which your voice or other sounds can be comfortable heard. • Competent communicators adjust the volume of their voices so that their conversations can be easily heard. • Speaking too loudly or too softly can annoy both your conversational partner and those around you • Mobile phone conversations and excessively loud car or headphone music can be see as an acoustic invasion of space
Territory • Is the space over which we claim ownership. • We expect others to respect this territory. • It can also have a power dimension to it. For instance, higherstatus people generally claim larger, more prestigious, and more protected territory.
Artifacts • Artifacts are the objects we use to adorn our territory. • As a result, other people looking at these artifacts come to understand something about us. • Objects can include homes, cars, phones, and colors.
Self-Presentation Cues • Physical appearances which can include your race, gender, body type, facial features, clothing, personal grooming, and body art. • Use of time • Use of smells and scents https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Ov. Eci 5 Bjgd 4
The use of body motions, as well as the meanings they convey, differs among cultures and by gender. Several cultural differences in body motions are well documented.
Sign Language, Eye Contact q. Talking through hands. q. Watching you lips move. q. Only for deaf or physically wont talk. q. Eye contact to make sure they understand.
Learning Sign Language • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=w. MQHd 1 UBke. I
Other Culture Facts about eye contact! ØIn UK, USA, Australia and Western Europe Eye contact is expected in Western culture, it is a basic essential to a social interaction which shows a person’s interest and engagement with your conversation. ØIn Middle Eastern Cultures Eye contact is less common, and considered less appropriate than in Western cultures. There are strict gender rules, whereby women should not make too much eye contact with men as it could be misconstrued as a romantic interest. ØAsian Cultures eye contact is not considered an essential to social interaction, instead it is often considered inappropriate. ØAfrican and Latin American Cultures In many circumstances intense eye contact is seen as aggressive, confrontational and extremely disrespectful.
Citations • http: //kingpinlifestyle. com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/verbal. gif • http: //academic-views. ro/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Non-Verbal. Communication-Chart-Transparent 1. png • http: //www. cartoonstock. com/directory/n/nonverbal_communication. asp • http: //psychology. about. com/od/nonverbalcommunication/a/nonver baltypes. htm • Oxford University Press. http: //global. oup. com/us/companion. websites • http: //blog. joytours. com/2012/12/20/the-role-of-eye-contact-indifferent-cultures/ • www. youtube. com