Pumping Apparatus DriverOperator Lesson 14 Pumping Apparatus DriverOperator

• Slides: 111

Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator — Lesson 14 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator Handbook, 2 nd Edition Chapter 14 — Water Shuttle Operations Instructor

Learning Objectives 1. Select facts about pumpers and water tenders. 2. Distinguish between gravity and jetassisted dumps. 3. List disadvantages of jet-assisted dumps. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 1

Learning Objectives 4. List crucial decisions that must be made at the beginning of a water shuttle operation. 5. Select facts about selecting dump and fill site locations. 6. Answer questions about selecting (Continued) the route of travel. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 2

Learning Objectives 7. List safety issues to be considered when selecting a particular route of travel. 8. Select facts about water shuttles in the Incident Command System (ICS). 9. Answer questions about positioning the fill site pumper. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 3

Learning Objectives 10. Select facts about a fill site layout. 11. List the methods for filling tenders on the top of the apparatus. 12. Answer questions about operating and shutting down the fill site. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 4

Learning Objectives 13. Operate at a fill site as part of a water shuttle operation. 14. List the dump site operational methods. 15. Select facts about the dump site operational methods. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 5

Learning Objectives 16. List the water tender discharge methods. 17. Answer questions about single and multiple portable tank operations. 18. Select facts about shutting down the dump site. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 6

Learning Objectives 19. Operate at a portable water tank dump site as part of a water shuttle operation. 20. Establish, operate, and shut down a multiple portable tank water shuttle dump site. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7

Learning Objectives 21. State the equations for determining travel time, handling time, and tender flow rate. 22. Calculate tender flow rates. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 8

Pumpers • Fill site pumpers – Position at supply source and fill water tenders – Have a minimum pump capacity of 1, 000 gpm (4 000 L/min) per NFPA 1901 (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 9

Pumpers • Dump site pumpers – Located at or near the fire scene and used to draft water from portable water tanks (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 10

Pumpers • Need to be equipped with hard intake hose and strainers for drafting • May be specifically designed by jurisdiction – Light-duty trucks or trailers equipped with largevolume, auxiliary-powered, irrigation or trash pumps that discharge through large diameter hose – Capacities up to 1, 600 gpm (6 400 L/min) at a maximum of 80 psi (550 k. Pa) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 11

Water Tenders • The backbone of any water shuttle operation • Carry at least 1, 000 gallons (4 000 L) of water • Most carry from 1, 500 to 3, 000 gallons (6 000 L to 12 000 L) (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 12

Water Tenders • Those with water tanks with less than 2, 500 gallons (10 000 L) and rapid unloading capabilities are the most efficient for use in water shuttle operations. • Those with tanks exceeding 2, 500 gallons (10 000 L) are used as dump sites instead of portable water tanks. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 13

Water Tenders • Those used only for water shuttle operations do not require a fire pump if they are equipped with a suitable gravity dump system. • Some rural departments purchase vacuum tankers because of efficiency. These self-fill at a rate of up to 2, 000 gpm (8 000 L/min) with lift capability of up to 22 feet (6. 7 m) (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 14

Water Tenders • Some departments convert other types of tank trucks, including petroleum tankers, milk trucks, vacuum trucks, and surplus military vehicles. • Problems with these trucks: – Chassis are not designed for weight of water carried on them – Tanks are inadequately baffled for fire service use Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 15

Water Tender Requirements • Tank-to-pump line that is capable of supplying the pump with 500 gpm (2 000 L/min) until at least 80 percent of water is emptied – Should be at least 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 16

Water Tender Requirements • At least one external fill connection that is plumbed directly into the tank – Allow tank to be filled at a minimum rate of 1, 000 gpm (4 000 L/min) – Equipped with valve, strainer, and 30º elbow; valves 3 inches (77 mm) or larger must be slowclosing Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 17 (Continued)

Water Tender Requirements • At least one large tank discharge that is capable of emptying 90 percent of the tank volume at an average rate of 1, 000 gpm (4 000 L/min) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 18

Water Tender Filling and Dumping Capabilities • Those that use smaller diameter supply lines for filling should have at least two external fill connections piped directly to the tank. • If LDH is used, one fill connection to the tank is adequate. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 19

Water Tender Filling and Dumping Capabilities • The direct tank fill inlet(s) may be designed so that the tank is filled from bottom or top. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 20

Water Tender Filling and Dumping Capabilities • Although NFPA only requires one large tank discharge, or dump valve, be installed on a water tender, it is highly recommended that each tender be equipped with at least three. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 21

Gravity Dumps • Rely on gravity to empty water from the tank • Usually employ 8 -inch (200 mm) or larger round or square piping with a valve that extends to the exterior of the apparatus (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 22

Gravity Dumps • Have a valve that is designed to be opened manually or remotely Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 23

Jet-Assisted Dumps • Use of small diameter in-line discharge inserted into the piping of the large tank discharge, which creates a venturi effect that increases water flow through the large tank discharge Courtesy: Rimrock Fire Dept. (AZ) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 24

Disadvantages of Jet-Assisted Dumps • Apparatus must be equipped with fire pump. • The fire pump must be engaged before dumping water from the tank. • Water can still be discharged if the pump is not operating, but at a considerably lower rate. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 25

Disadvantages of Jet-Assisted Dumps • They increase cost of the apparatus. • There is a danger of water being discharged completely over the portable tank and hitting anyone or anything on the other side. • There is a danger of the pump and piping freezing in cold temperatures. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 26

Beginning of the Water Shuttle Operation • The success or failure of a water shuttle hinges on several decisions that must be made at the beginning of the incident. – Location of the dump site – Location of the fill site – Route of travel for the tenders between dump and fill sites Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 27

Selecting the Dump Site Location • Should be in close proximity to the incident scene • May be advantageous to locate at nearest intersection in cases of narrow lane, driveway, or dead-end street (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 28

Selecting the Dump Site Location • Large parking lots or other open areas very near the scene make excellent dump sites. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 29

Selecting a Fill Site Location • Should be selected by IC or water supply group supervisor • Should require a minimum of maneuvering of backing of the water tenders (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 30

Selecting a Fill Site Location • The best fill and dump sites are those in which the water tenders drive straight in, fill or dump, then proceed straight out (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 31

Selecting a Fill Site Location • If some maneuvering is unavoidable, remember that it is better to maneuver an apparatus before the tank is filled. • On large-scale operations, it may be advantageous to use multiple fill and dump sites. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 32

Selecting the Route of Travel • The route of travel should reflect both safety and operational efficiency considerations. • A circular route is considered to be the optimum arrangement. – Full tankers leave the fill site following one route; empty tenders leave the dump site using a different route. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 33

Selecting the Route of Travel • If possible, roadways should be closed to all traffic other than emergency vehicles. WARNING! At fill sites adjacent to roadways that have not been closed to public traffic, water tenders should be positioned off the roadway when possible. When not possible, traffic cones, signs, and/or other devices should be set out to warn motorists to avoid apparatus stopped there. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 34

Safety Issues When Selecting a Route of Travel • Narrow roads — Can cause tires to leave the road surface and cause a rollover • Long driveways — Require tight maneuvering of apparatus • Blind curves and intersections — Crossing the centerline on blind curves risks entering the path of other vehicles (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 35

Safety Issues When Selecting a Route of Travel • Winding roads — Require a lot of concentration by driver/operators • Steep grades — Slow the operation and increase wear on the vehicle • Inclement weather conditions — Avoid roads that have not been cleared of ice, snow, standing water, mud, or storm debris Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 36

Water Shuttles in the Incident Command System (ICS) • The IC may establish a water supply branch or group that includes the water shuttle operation. • The supervisor of this group is known as the Water Supply Group Supervisor; he or she only communicates directly with command. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 37

Water Shuttles in the Incident Command System (ICS) • The supervisor should appoint individuals to be in charge of the fill site and the dump site. • Jurisdictions with multiple radio frequencies may find it helpful to switch the water shuttle operation to a separate channel. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 38

Water Shuttles in the Incident Command System (ICS) • The supervisor should monitor water demand at the dump site and anticipate problems. • The IC should be in close contact with the supervisor in case conditions demand a significant change in water volume needed. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 39

Water Shuttles in the Incident Command System (ICS) • When a significant amount of water is required for a large fire fighting operation, it may be necessary to establish two or more independent water shuttle operations. • When two or more shuttles are required, the IC may establish a water supply branch with a Water Supply Branch Director in charge. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 40

Positioning the Fill Site Pumper • Water supplies for a shuttle operation come from either a fire hydrant or a static water supply source. • IFSTA recommends that a pumper be used to fill tenders at all fill site operations, regardless of whether a hydrant or static source is used. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 41

Positioning the Fill Site Pumper • A pumper connected to a hydrant can deliver greater water volume per minute than a hydrant alone. • If a pumper is not available and water tenders must refill from a hydrant, the first tender can leave the necessary intake hose and fittings for use by the next tender. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 42

Positioning the Fill Site Pumper • Driver/Operators must determine best position for drafting or hydrant connection that allows maximum access for tenders to be filled. • When positioning at a hydrant, driver/ operators should connect a large diameter intake hose between the large pump intake and the steamer connection on the hydrant. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 43

Positioning the Fill Site Pumper • If the hydrant is on a particularly strong main, smaller diameter lines may be connected between 2½-inch (65 mm) hydrant outlet(s) and auxiliary intake(s) on the pump. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 44 (Continued)

Positioning the Fill Site Pumper • When positioning at a draft, seek a spot that requires a minimum amount of lift or hard intake hose. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 45

Positioning the Fill Site Pumper • If the static water supply source is inaccessible, two or more high-volume portable pumps may be used to relay water. • A booster line or some other type of small discharge line within view of the driver/ operator should be continuously flowed from the fill site pumper to prevent loss of prime. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 46

Fill Site Layout • Once fill site pumper has positioned at the water supply source, lay out the remainder of hose and appliances needed to operate. • The most efficient hoses used are two 2½inch (65 mm) direct tank fill connections or one LDH direct tank fill connection on the rear of the vehicle. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 47

Fill Site Layout • First determine where to position the water tender when it arrives at the fill site. It should be positioned to require a minimum of hose from the fill site pumper. • The ideal position allows the driver/operator to enter and exit the site without the need to turn around or back up. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 48

Fill Site Layout • Once the exact fill site has been established, a traffic cone or similar marker may be used to denote the stopping point for the water tender driver/operator. The water tender should be pulled so that the driver’s side door window is adjacent to the cone. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 49

Fill Site Layout • If the tenders being filled have two 2½-inch (65 mm) direct tank fill connections, two hoselines should be laid to the approximate location of the rear of the tender when it is stopped for filling. • If available, 3 -inch (77 mm) hose should be used as it allows for quicker filling of the tank. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 50

Fill Site Layout • Each hoseline should have a gate valve installed between the last section and next to the last section of hose. • These are used to open the lines once they are connected to the tender for filling. If gate valves are not available, use hose clamps. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 51

Fill Site Layout • Many jurisdictions equip inlets on direct tank fill connections with sexless couplings. These speed connection of hose to the apparatus. • If the apparatus is equipped with sexless connections, it may be necessary to install sexless adapters on the end of the hoses that are used to fill the tenders. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 52

Fill Site Layout • If tenders being filled have LDH direct tank fill intakes, it is only necessary to lay one LDH from the fill site pumper to the fill location. • If a large in-line gate valve is not available for the LDH, it may be possible to place an LDH manifold between the last two sections of hose to act as a gate valve. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 53

Fill Site Layout • If no gate valve or manifold is available, it is best to open and close LDH fill lines at the pump panel of the fill site pumper. CAUTION! Using hose clamps on LDH can be unsafe. Flow through LDH should only be controlled at the pumper or with valved appliances. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 54

Fill Site Layout • If some of the water tenders to be filled have 2½-inch (65 mm) intakes and others have LDH intakes, it will be necessary to use adapters to make the connections. However, it may be faster and more efficient to lay out hoses of the appropriate sizes to allow connecting to either type of intake. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 55

Methods for Filling Tenders on the Top of the Apparatus • Fixed or portable overhead pipes at the static water source • Permanent or portable manifolds Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 56

Fixed or Portable Overhead Pipes at the Static Water Source • These devices are operated by placing one end of the fill pipe in a static source. • A pumper discharges water through a small diameter hose line into an in-line water siphon that is inside the fill pipe, creating an adequate flow rate through the fill pipe. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 57

Fixed or Portable Overhead Pipes at the Static Water Source • In-line water siphons should be pumped at 150 psi (1 050 k. Pa) and provide 700 to 800 gpm (2 8000 L/min to 3 200 L/min) through 4 inch (100 mm) pipe. • These devices are only used when the tenders have no other way of being filled than through the top opening. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 58

Permanent or Portable Manifolds • Located adjacent to a water source and fed by the fill site pumper • The fill site pumper connects between the water supply and the fill pipe to provide overhead water when a tender is positioned beneath the fill opening. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 59

Permanent or Portable Manifolds • If the water supply source is reliable, high fill rates may be accomplished. • The downside is that it may take jockeying (and loss of time) to get the tank opening positioned directly beneath the fill spout. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 60

Permanent or Portable Manifolds Note: Filling a tanker through the top with a portable fill device, or an open hose butt, is not recommended due to reaction of the hoseline. Firefighter safety is a primary concern; firefighters can be thrown off or slip from a tanker during top filling by this method. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 61

Operating the Fill Site • It is recommended that the fill site pumper remain in gear with the tender fill lines charged at all times. • A booster line or other waste line can be continuously flowed to prevent loss of prime or pump overheating. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 62

Operating the Fill Site • Make and break personnel — Make the fill connection when the tender arrives and disconnect the hose(s) when the tank is full; these personnel remain with these lines until other firefighters replace them. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 63

Operating the Fill Site • When reaching the fill site, driver/operators should cautiously pull into the filling position until the driver’s door is parallel to the stop marker. • When the apparatus has come to a complete stop, the make and break personnel connect the fill hose(s) to the direct tank fill intake(s). (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 64

Operating the Fill Site • Once the hose is connected, the intake valve(s) may be opened. • At this point, the make and break personnel return to the gate valve(s) or manifold on the fill hose(s) and slowly open the valve(s) to start water flowing. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 65

Operating the Fill Site • While filling is taking place, the tender driver/operator should remain in the cab of the apparatus. • Any tenders that arrive in the area of the fill site while one tender is being filled should stage a safe distance back, and maintain an orderly line. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 66

Operating the Fill Site • If the fill site has sufficient room, a second set of fill lines may be laid from the pumper for a second tender. • While one tender is being filled, the second may be pulled into position and connected to fill lines. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 67

Operating the Fill Site • When the first tender is full and lines are shut down, lines to the second tender may be opened to begin filling. • Note: Unless the fill site pumper is connected to a high flow hydrant, it is generally not recommended that both tenders be filled at the same time. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 68

Operating the Fill Site • Once the water tank is completely full, the make and break personnel should first slowly close the valve(s) on the gate valve or manifold. • They should then proceed to the connection at the direct tank fill inlet, close the tank fill valve, and operate the bleeder valve to relieve the pressure on the line(s). (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 69

Operating the Fill Site • Once the pressure has been relieved, the hoses should be disconnected and pulled off to the side of the fill site. • The driver/operator should then be signaled to proceed back to the dump site. • The next tender may then proceed to the fill site, and the process is repeated. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 70 (Continued)

Operating the Fill Site • The make and break personnel or fill site officer should monitor the ground conditions around the fill site as operations proceed. – During freezing conditions, ice may begin to form due to water spilled in the area. – If the road is not paved, it may begin to become soft. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 71

Shutting Down the Fill Site • Once the decision has been made that the water shuttle operation is no longer necessary, the fill site should remain in operation until all tenders participating in the shuttle have been refilled. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 72

Shutting Down the Fill Site • Most jurisdictions prefer to fill their tenders before they begin their return to quarters to ensure that they have adequate water to handle any incident they may encounter on their return. This also ensures that they are available to immediately respond to another call if needed. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 73

Shutting Down the Fill Site • It is recommended that the apparatus housed farthest from the scene be released first. • Once all the water tenders have been refilled, the fill site pumper and equipment may be shut down and prepared to return to service. • If the water supply source was a static source, all pumps and equipment should be flushed to clear stones or debris. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 74

Dump Site Operational Methods • Direct pumping operations • Nurse tender operation • Portable water tank operations Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 75

Direct Pumping Operations • Occur when a water tender pumps the water from its tank directly into the pump intake of the attack pumper • Are typically set up by having the attack pumper lay out the supply line, equipped with a clappered or gated siamese, to a location that is easily accessible to the tenders approaching the scene (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 76

Direct Pumping Operations • When the first water tender arrives at the dump site, the supply hose is connected to a discharge on the fire pump on the water tender. • The contents of the tender’s water tank are then pumped to the attack pumper. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 77

Direct Pumping Operations • While the first tender is supplying water to the attack pumper, a second water tender connects to the other inlet of the siamese and charges that line at the pressure slightly lower than that being pumped by the first tender. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 78

Direct Pumping Operations • When the first tender’s tank is empty, their supply line is shut down. • Because the second tender’s supply line is already connected and charged, there is no interruption of the water supply to the attack pumper. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 79

Direct Pumping Operations Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 80

Nurse Tender Operations • Generally involves a very large water tender that is positioned immediately adjacent to the attack pumper and fulfills the same function as a portable tank. • The attack pumper is either supplied by a discharge line from the pump of the nurse tender or drafts directly from the tank of the nurse tender. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 81

Nurse Tender Operations Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 82

Advantages of Nurse Tender Operations • In many cases the nurse tender is so large that the fire is controlled before there is a need to refill its tank. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 83

Disadvantages of Nurse Tender Operations • All shutter tenders are required to have a sizable fire pump to pump their loads into the nurse tender. • Even with a sizable pump, the dumping time for each tender is significantly longer than if they were able to discharge through their large diameter direct tank discharge valve. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 84

Portable Water Tank Operations • Use one or more portable water tanks as the dump site water supply source. • One or more of these tanks is positioned in a strategic location near the fire scene. • Once the tank is positioned, the dump site pumper deploys a hard intake hose with a low -level strainer into one of the tanks and prepares to draft water from the tank. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 85

Portable Water Tank Operations • When the first tender arrives on the scene, it discharges its water into the portable tank. • The dump site pumper may then begin drafting from the tank and supplying water to the attack pumper. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 86

Advantages of Portable Water Tank Operations • Do not require the water tenders to be equipped with a fire pump as long as they have an adequate-sized direct-tank discharge valve and adequate venting • May be the easiest of the three methods to ensure a constant supply of water to the attack pumper Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 87

Disadvantage of Portable Water Tank Operations • If a multiple tank operation is to be employed, a substantial amount of working space is required for the dump site Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 88

Water Tender Discharge Methods • Using a pump on the tender • Using a dump valve • Pumping and dumping simultaneously Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 89

Single Portable Tank Operations • The simplest form of a dump site operation is one in which a single portable water tank is used. • In this case, the tenders dump their water directly into the tank from which the dump site pumper is drafting. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 90

Single Portable Tank Operations • This method works on fires that require relatively low overall flow rates (less than 300 gpm [1 200 L/min]). • The portable tank and the dump site pumper must be positioned so that easy in-and-out access is allowed for the water tenders that are dumping into the tank. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 91

Single Portable Tank Operations • Several types of portable water tanks may be used. – Folding type – Type with several sections that must be assembled at the scene – Self-supporting or frameless portable tank (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 92

Single Portable Tank Operations • Regardless of type, it is recommended that the portable water tank be set up on a level surface and have a capacity that is at least 500 gallons (2 000 L) larger than the capacity of the water tank on the apparatus carrying it. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 93

Single Portable Tank Operations • The dump site pumper should have a lowlevel strainer attached to the hard intake hose allowing continuous drafting ability down to the point where only about 2 inches (50 mm) of water is left in the tank. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 94

Single Portable Tank Operations • Once the portable tank has been set up, the first tender may dump water into the tank. • Once the first tender has emptied its tank into the portable tank, it should immediately proceed toward the fill site to reload. • If there is space in the portable tank, the next tender should be positioned and its water dumped into the portable tank until it is filled. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 95

Multiple Portable Tank Operations • Incidents that require flow rates in excess of 300 gpm (1 200 L/min) are best served by this type of operation. • The number of portable tanks used at a dump site is limited only by the number of tanks and amount of water transfer equipment available at the scene. • Most multiple portable tank operations range from two to five portable tanks. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 96

Multiple Portable Tank Operations • When multiple portable tanks are used, each of the tanks is positioned so that water may be transferred from one tank to the next. • The ultimate destination of the water in all the tanks is to be routed into the last tank, from which the dump site pumper is drafting water that is being supplied to the attack pumper. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 97

Multiple Portable Tank Operations • Methods – Connect two tanks by their drain openings – Use jet siphons to move water from one tank to another (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 98

Multiple Portable Tank Operations • The dump site officer should monitor the ground conditions around the dump site as operations proceed. • If all the portable tanks become empty at some point during the operation, the dump site pumper may continue to support fireground operations using water in its onboard water tank. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 99

Multiple Portable Tank Operations • At this time, firefighters in hazardous positions should be withdrawn as loss of water to attack lines may be imminent. Once the portable tanks are refilled, normal operations may resume. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 100

Shutting Down the Dump Site • Before shutting down a dump site operation, it is generally a good idea to make sure that the attack apparatus and dump site pumper have topped off their onboard water tanks. • Once the tanks are full, all drafting and water transfer equipment can be disassembled, cleaned, and stowed. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 101

Shutting Down the Dump Site • Any tenders that were staged in preparation for dumping may be returned to service or used in any other manner the IC deems appropriate. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 102

Calculating Travel Time • Customary 0. 65 + (1. 7)(Distance in miles) • Metric 0. 65 + (1. 06)(Distance in km) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 103

Calculating Handling Time Fill site time + dump site time Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 104

Calculating Tender Flow Rate Water tank size (gal or L) – 10% Travel time + handling time Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 105

Summary • Water shuttle operations are needed when the distance from a fire to the nearest water source makes relay pumping impractical. • Unless vacuum tenders are being used, these operations usually involve a pumper stationed at the water source to refill water tenders that shuttle water to another pumper at the fire scene. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 106

Summary • In jurisdictions that do not have a pressurized water supply in all areas of the district, driver/operators must be trained on water shuttle techniques and be capable of performing any part of the operation to which they may be assigned. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 107

Discussion Questions 1. Name the two types of pumpers. 2. What are some disadvantages of jet -assisted dumps? 3. What are the crucial decisions that must be made at the beginning of a water shuttle operation? (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 108

Discussion Questions 4. Name some safety issues to be considered when selecting a particular route of travel. 5. What are the methods for filling tenders on the top of the apparatus? 6. Name the dump site operational (Continued) methods. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 109

Discussion Questions 7. Name the water tender discharge methods. 8. What are three types of portable water tanks? 9. State the equations for determining travel time, handling time, and tender flow rate. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 110