- Slides: 45
Today’s lesson will be successful if… You are aware of my expectations We have started our course in Philosophy
What does this mean?
Expectations: • In groups create post it notes – One colour: your expectations of me – 2 nd colour: my expectations of you – NEED: Highlighters, Pens, Folder, Dividers, Textbooks
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Note taking, in class, but mainly at home Cues Main Notes section Questions Summary
Today’s key questions… 1. Who was Plato? 2. How did Plato view the world?
Ancient Greek Philosophy: Plato
Title: Who influenced Plato? Sub Title: Socrates
? ? What is Beauty? What is Justice? What is Truth? What does it mean to be a good Citizen? ?
Pre-existing Matter Not creatio ex nihilo
Title: Who influenced Plato? Sub Title: Heraclitus
Heraclitus “You can never step in the same river twice”
The world is in a state of Flux/Change
“Something is no more ‘X’ than it is ‘Y’”
Who was Plato?
PLATO was… A DUALIST… • Plato believed that the soul and the body are two separate entities. • He also believed that there existed a world beyond this one. • Dualism is the belief in two distinct principles/having two parts. AN ABSOLUTIST… • Objective truths exists – universal, unchanging in all circumstances. • Things are either intrinsically right or wrong. A RATIONALIST… • The belief that knowledge is based on the use of REASON. • Reality has a logical structure that we can ‘work out’ using our reason.
CAN OUR SENSES BE TRUSTED?
Lesson 2 - Analysis of Plato’s Cave • Complete the card sort. • Then go to the bottom of your Connell Notes Page and summarise your learning from yesterday.
Plato’s Cave Play Doh • In groups, create a Play Doh version of Plato’s Cave. You have 10 minutes. • Label what each part of the story represents using one colour card
Philosophical Knowledge and Reasoning • A priori – a statement which is knowable without any reference to any experience (before/prior to experience) e. g. mathematics 5+7=12 • A posteriori – a state which is knowable only after experience e. g. my front door is green
2+2= 4 2
2+2= 4 A PRIORI 2
True knowledge cannot exists in a world which is in a state of flux – The world is continually changing. True knowledge can not be found here! It is found in the Realm(World) of the Forms (more on this later!)
Today’s key questions… 1. Who was Plato? 2. How did Plato view the world? 1. How does he demonstrate his theory through his allegory of the cave?
Lesson 3: Strengths and Weaknesses of Plato’s Allegory • A priori – a statement which is knowable without any reference to any experience (before/prior to experience) e. g. mathematics 5+7=12 • A posteriori – a state which is knowable only after experience e. g. my front door is green
Using what you know so far, • Create a table in your groups of the strengths and weaknesses of Plato’s allegory.
EXPLAIN do not just DESCRIBE!
TASK…Your first A level essay Three pens, three different colours An E grade answer will DESCRIBE the allegory A C grade answer will EXPLAIN the allegory An A grade answer will EXPLAIN why Plato used the allegory
Lesson 4: The World of the Forms The Realm of Appearances The Realm of the Forms
Which one is a dog? What would Plato say?
According to Plato’s Theory of Forms, every dog that we encounter in the world around us participates in the ‘ideal’ or perfect dog that exists in the world of the Forms – a realm that humans can only access through their ability to reason.
The Realm of Appearances The Realm of the Forms
‘And we say that the particulars are objects of sight but not of intelligence, while the forms are the objects of intelligence but not of sight. ’ The Republic 507 b
Ahh … these are all poor imitations – mere shadows – of the true essence of tree. The true essence of trees
The divided line • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=i 0 l 2 iqfa. Ea o
“. . . We customarily hypothesize a single form in connection with each of the many things to which we apply the same name. . For example, there are many beds and tables. . But there are only two forms of such furniture, one of the bed and one of the table. ”
What is beauty?
So how do we recognise the Forms?
Socrates asks a slave boy questions about geometry. At first the boy gives the wrong answer; when this is pointed out to him, he is puzzled, but by asking questions Socrates is able to help him to reach the true answer. As the boy wasn't told the answer, he could only have reached the truth by recollecting what he had already known but forgotten. This story can be found in Plato’s dialogue ‘Meno’.
The Realm of Appearances The Realm of the Forms Explain Plato’s theory of the Forms. What would you put in this essay? Plan it with your table.
Plato’s Aims • To show the contrast between the Realm of the Forms and the Realm of Appearances • To explain a philosophers search for knowledge • To show the ignorance of humanity – the reliance on the senses and the feelings of hostilities towards philosophical ideas
Glossary • Check through your glossary. What words do you still need to know? • Check with everyone on your table that you all have the same/similar definitions. • Are any missing?