Pumping Apparatus DriverOperator Lesson 15 Pumping Apparatus DriverOperator

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Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator — Lesson 15 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator Handbook, 2 nd Edition Chapter

Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator — Lesson 15 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator Handbook, 2 nd Edition Chapter 15 — Foam Equipment and Systems Instructor

Learning Objectives 1. List the reasons why foam and durable agents have increased in

Learning Objectives 1. List the reasons why foam and durable agents have increased in use in recent years. 2. Match to their definitions terms associated with the foam-making process. 3. Select facts about the principles of (Continued) foam. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 1

Learning Objectives 4. Explain how foam extinguishes and/or prevents fire. 5. Answer questions about

Learning Objectives 4. Explain how foam extinguishes and/or prevents fire. 5. Answer questions about foam proportioning. 6. List the four basic methods by which foam may be proportioned. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 2

Learning Objectives 7. Select facts about how foam is stored. 8. Answer questions about

Learning Objectives 7. Select facts about how foam is stored. 8. Answer questions about Class A foam. 9. Explain the common guidelines for (Continued) performing various applications with Class Pumping Apparatus A foams. Driver/Operator 3

Learning Objectives 10. List the type of Class A foam required for given situations.

Learning Objectives 10. List the type of Class A foam required for given situations. 11. Select facts about Class B foam. 12. List the variables that determine the rate of application of Class B foam. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 4

Learning Objectives 13. List the application rates of Class B foam for common fire

Learning Objectives 13. List the application rates of Class B foam for common fire scenarios. 14. Explain how to determine the application rate available from a nozzle. 15. Calculate foam application rates. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 5

Learning Objectives 16. Select facts about specific foam concentrates. 17. List the three things

Learning Objectives 16. Select facts about specific foam concentrates. 17. List the three things that happen when Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) is applied to a hydrocarbon fire. 18. List the three basic applications of high-expansion foams. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 6

Learning Objectives 19. Describe the two principles by which foam proportioning devices operate. 20.

Learning Objectives 19. Describe the two principles by which foam proportioning devices operate. 20. Answer questions about portable foam proportioners. 21. List the operating rules when using eductors. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7

Learning Objectives 22. Answer questions about apparatusmounted foam proportioning systems. 23. Distinguish between advantages

Learning Objectives 22. Answer questions about apparatusmounted foam proportioning systems. 23. Distinguish between advantages and limitations of compressed-air foam systems (CAFS). 24. Identify characteristics of various portable foam application devices. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 8

Learning Objectives 25. Install an in-line foam eductor and operate a high expansion foam

Learning Objectives 25. Install an in-line foam eductor and operate a high expansion foam generator. 26. Select from a list the reasons for failure to generate foam or for generating poor quality foam. 27. Match to their definitions various foam application techniques. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 9

Learning Objectives 28. Answer questions about the environmental impact of foam concentrates and solutions.

Learning Objectives 28. Answer questions about the environmental impact of foam concentrates and solutions. 29. Select facts about durable agents. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 10

Why Foam and Durable Agents Have Increased in Use Recently • Magnitude and frequency

Why Foam and Durable Agents Have Increased in Use Recently • Magnitude and frequency of hazardous materials incidents requiring foam for control • New advances in foam concentrate technology that have provided products which are more easily used by municipal and wildland firefighters (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 11

Why Foam and Durable Agents Have Increased in Use Recently • Technological improvements in

Why Foam and Durable Agents Have Increased in Use Recently • Technological improvements in foam proportioning equipment and systems that make their inclusion in the construction of new fire apparatus, or the retrofitting of existing apparatus, feasible for many fire departments Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 12

Foam Terms • Proportion — To mix with water • Aerate — To mix

Foam Terms • Proportion — To mix with water • Aerate — To mix with air • Foam concentrate — The raw foam liquid in its storage container before being combined with air and water (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 13

Foam Terms • Foam proportioner — The device that introduces foam concentrate into the

Foam Terms • Foam proportioner — The device that introduces foam concentrate into the water stream to make the foam solution • Foam solution — The mixture of foam concentrate and water before the introduction of air • Foam — The completed product after air is introduced into the foam solution Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 14

Principles of Foam • To produce quality fire fighting foam, foam concentrate, water, air,

Principles of Foam • To produce quality fire fighting foam, foam concentrate, water, air, and mechanical aeration are needed. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 15

Principles of Foam • Proper aeration should produce uniform-sized bubbles to provide a longer

Principles of Foam • Proper aeration should produce uniform-sized bubbles to provide a longer lasting blanket. A good foam blanket must maintain cover either Class A or Class B fuels for the required period of time. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 16

Principles of Foam • Some foams are now available that are rated for use

Principles of Foam • Some foams are now available that are rated for use on fires in both Class A and Class B fuels. • If a department still has single-class foam only, each must be matched to the fuel for which it was formulated. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 17

Principles of Foam • Class B fuels – Hydrocarbons — Petroleum based and float

Principles of Foam • Class B fuels – Hydrocarbons — Petroleum based and float on water; Class B foam is effective as an extinguishing agent. Examples: Crude oil, fuel oil, gasoline, benzene, naphtha, jet fuel, and kerosene (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 18

Principles of Foam • Class B fuels – Polar solvents — Flammable liquids that

Principles of Foam • Class B fuels – Polar solvents — Flammable liquids that mix with water; foam can be effective, but only in special alcohol-resistant formulations Examples: Alcohol, acetone, lacquer thinner, ketones, and esters (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 19

Principles of Foam • Class B foams designed solely for hydrocarbon fires will not

Principles of Foam • Class B foams designed solely for hydrocarbon fires will not extinguish polar solvent fires regardless of the concentration at which they are used. However, many foams that are intended for polar solvents may be used on hydrocarbon fires, but this should not be attempted unless the manufacturer of the particular concentrate being used says this is permissible. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 20

Principles of Foam CAUTION! Failure to match the proper foam concentrate with the fuel

Principles of Foam CAUTION! Failure to match the proper foam concentrate with the fuel can result in an unsuccessful extinguishing effort and could endanger firefighters. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 21

How Foam Extinguishes and/or Prevents Fire • Separating — Creates a barrier between the

How Foam Extinguishes and/or Prevents Fire • Separating — Creates a barrier between the fuel and the fire • Cooling — Lowers the temperature of the fuel and adjacent surfaces (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 22

How Foam Extinguishes and/or Prevents Fire • Suppressing (sometimes referred to as smothering) —

How Foam Extinguishes and/or Prevents Fire • Suppressing (sometimes referred to as smothering) — Prevents the release of flammable vapors and therefore reduces the possiblity of ignition or reignition (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 23

How Foam Extinguishes and/or Prevents Fire Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 24

How Foam Extinguishes and/or Prevents Fire Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 24

Foam Proportioning • Describes the mixing of water with foam concentrate to form a

Foam Proportioning • Describes the mixing of water with foam concentrate to form a foam solution • For maximum effectiveness, foam concentrates must be proportioned at the specific percentage for which they are formulated. This rate is clearly marked on the outside of the foam container. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 25

Foam Proportioning • Most fire fighting foam concentrates are intended to be mixed with

Foam Proportioning • Most fire fighting foam concentrates are intended to be mixed with 94 to 99. 9% water. Example: When using 3% foam concentrate, 97 parts water mixed with 3 parts foam concentrate equals 100 parts foam solution. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 26

Foam Proportioning • Class A foams are not proportioned as other foams. Their percentage

Foam Proportioning • Class A foams are not proportioned as other foams. Their percentage can be adjusted (within limits) to achieve specific objectives. – Dry (thick) foam suitable for exposure protection and fire breaks require higher percentage of foam. – Wet (thin) foam that rapidly sinks into a fuel’s surface can be adjusted to a lower percentage. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 27

Foam Proportioning • The selection of a proportioner depends on the foam solution, foam

Foam Proportioning • The selection of a proportioner depends on the foam solution, foam requirements, available water pressure, cost, intended use, and the agent to be used. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 28

Foam Proportioning • Proportioners and delivery devices are engineered to work together. Using a

Foam Proportioning • Proportioners and delivery devices are engineered to work together. Using a foam proportioner that is not compatible with the delivery device can result in unsatisfactory foam or no foam at all. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 29

Methods by Which Foam May be Proportioned • Induction • Injection • Batch mixing

Methods by Which Foam May be Proportioned • Induction • Injection • Batch mixing • Premixing Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 30

Induction • Uses the pressure energy in the stream of water to induct (draft)

Induction • Uses the pressure energy in the stream of water to induct (draft) foam concentrate into the fire stream • Is achieved by passing the stream of water through a venturi device called an eductor Examples: In-line eductors and foam nozzle eductors (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 31

Induction Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 32

Induction Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 32

Injection • Uses an external pump or head pressure to force foam concentrate into

Injection • Uses an external pump or head pressure to force foam concentrate into the fire stream at the correct ratio in comparison to the flow Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 33

Batch Mixing • Is the simplest method of mixing foam concentrate and water •

Batch Mixing • Is the simplest method of mixing foam concentrate and water • Occurs when an appropriate amount of foam concentrate is poured into a tank of water • Is commonly used to mix foam within a fire apparatus water tank or a portable water tank (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 34

Batch Mixing • Is common with Class A foam but should only be used

Batch Mixing • Is common with Class A foam but should only be used as last resort with Class B foam • May not be effective on large incidents – When the tank becomes empty, the foam attack lines must be shut down until the tank is filled with water and more concentrate is added • Requires that the pump and associated piping must be thoroughly flushed after use Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 35

How Foam is Stored • Foam concentrate is stored in a variety of containers,

How Foam is Stored • Foam concentrate is stored in a variety of containers, depending on the procedural manner in which the foam is generated and delivered. The four common foam concentrate storage methods include pails, barrels, 275 gallon (1 100 L) tote tanks, and apparatus tanks. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 36

Pails • Are usually 5 -gallon (20 L), made of plastic • Are perhaps

Pails • Are usually 5 -gallon (20 L), made of plastic • Are perhaps the most common containers used by the muncipal fire service to receive and store foam concentrate • Are durable and are not affected by the corrosive nature of foam concentrates (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 37

Pails • May be carried on the apparatus in compartments, on the side of

Pails • May be carried on the apparatus in compartments, on the side of the apparatus, or in topside storage areas • May be airtight to prevent a skin from forming on the surface Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 38

Barrels • Are used for larger quantities of concentrate • Are usually 55 -gallon

Barrels • Are used for larger quantities of concentrate • Are usually 55 -gallon (220 L) plastic or plastic -lined barrels or drums • Are most common in industrial applications (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 39

Barrels • May be carried directly to the emergency scene or may need to

Barrels • May be carried directly to the emergency scene or may need to be transferred to pails or apparatus tanks for transport to the point of application Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 40

Totes • Are 275 -gallon (1 100 L) containers used for bulk storage of

Totes • Are 275 -gallon (1 100 L) containers used for bulk storage of foam concentrate • Are used for large quantities of foam, such as in aircraft rescue and fire fighting (ARFF), industrial, or wildland firefighting applications Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 41

Apparatus Tanks • Are found on municipal and industrial pumpers, foam tenders, and ARFF

Apparatus Tanks • Are found on municipal and industrial pumpers, foam tenders, and ARFF apparatus • Eliminate the need to use separate pails or barrels (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 42

Apparatus Tanks • Vary in type, location, and design – Smaller foam tanks are

Apparatus Tanks • Vary in type, location, and design – Smaller foam tanks are located directly above the fire pump area. – Newer designs incorporate foam tanks as an integral cell within the water tank – Some apparatus have an additional pump and connection nearer ground level for refilling the concentrate tank. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 43

Apparatus Tanks • Vary in type, location, and design – Large foam concentrate tanks

Apparatus Tanks • Vary in type, location, and design – Large foam concentrate tanks may be directly adjacent to the water tank. – Foam tenders and some industrial foam pumpers have a large tank that contains foam concentrate and no water tank. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 44

Apparatus Tanks • Must be airtight • Should have a pressure vacuum vent •

Apparatus Tanks • Must be airtight • Should have a pressure vacuum vent • Range from 20 to 200 gallons (80 L to 800 L) • May carry 8, 000 gallons (32 000 L) or more of concentrate Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 45

Class A Foam • Is intended for use on Class A fuels • Is

Class A Foam • Is intended for use on Class A fuels • Is effective for fires in structures, wildland settings, coal mines, tire storage, and other incidents involving deep-seated fuels WARNING! Use Class A foam only on Class A fuels. It is not specifically formulated for fighting Class B fuels. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 46

Class A Foam • Is the formulation of hydrocarbon surfactants that reduce the surface

Class A Foam • Is the formulation of hydrocarbon surfactants that reduce the surface tension of the water in the foam solution. Reducing the surface tension provides better penetration of the water, thereby increasing its effectiveness. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 47

Class A Foam • May be used with fog nozzles, aerating foam nozzles, medium-

Class A Foam • May be used with fog nozzles, aerating foam nozzles, medium- and high-expansion devices, and compressed-air foam systems using almost any nozzle • Has a shelf life of as much as 20 years if properly stored (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 48

Class A Foam • Is used in such small percentages in solution that harm

Class A Foam • Is used in such small percentages in solution that harm to the environment is not usually a concern; however, there is some evidence that the concentrate may slightly affect aquatic life, so direct application into bodies of water is not recommended (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 49

Class A Foam • Has corrosive and supercleaning characteristics, so direct skin contact should

Class A Foam • Has corrosive and supercleaning characteristics, so direct skin contact should be avoided. Properly flushing application equipment after use is also recommended Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 50

Proportioning Class A Foams • Some Class A foam concentrates are mixed in proportions

Proportioning Class A Foams • Some Class A foam concentrates are mixed in proportions of 0. 1% to 1. 0%. As the expansion ratios are increased, the expansion and drainage characteristics of the foam change. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 51

Proportioning Class A Foams • Most foam nozzles produce more stable foams at 1.

Proportioning Class A Foams • Most foam nozzles produce more stable foams at 1. 0% concentration than at 0. 4% or 0. 5% concentrations. • Using percentages greater than 0. 5% with standard fog nozzles does not appear to increase fire fighting performance. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 52

Performing Various Applications with Class A Foams • Fire attack and overhaul with standard

Performing Various Applications with Class A Foams • Fire attack and overhaul with standard fog nozzles – 0. 2% to 0. 5% foam concentrate • Exposure protection with standard fog nozzles – 0. 5% to 1. 0% foam concentrate (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 53

Performing Various Applications with Class A Foams • Any application with air aspirating foam

Performing Various Applications with Class A Foams • Any application with air aspirating foam nozzles – 0. 3% to 0. 7% foam concentrate • Any application with compressed air foam systems – 0. 2% to 0. 5% foam concentrate Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 54

Application of Class A Foam • Areas requiring maximum penetration – Wet foam is

Application of Class A Foam • Areas requiring maximum penetration – Wet foam is very fluid and is desirable for these areas. • Vertical surfaces – Dry foam is a rigid coat that adheres well. Its slow drainage rate allows it to cling to surfaces for extended periods. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 55

Application of Class A Foam • Areas requiring a balance of penetration and clinging

Application of Class A Foam • Areas requiring a balance of penetration and clinging ability – Medium foam has the ability to blanket and wet the fuel equally well. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 56

Class B Foam • Is used to extinguish fires involving flammable and combustible liquids

Class B Foam • Is used to extinguish fires involving flammable and combustible liquids • Is used to suppress vapors from unignited spills of flammable and combustible liquids • May be applied either with standard fog nozzles or with air-aspirating foam nozzles (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 57

Class B Foam • May be proportioned into the fire stream via apparatus-mounted or

Class B Foam • May be proportioned into the fire stream via apparatus-mounted or portable foam proportioning equipment • Is manufactured from either a synthetic or protein base (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 58

Class B Foam • Protein-based foams – Are derived from animal protein – Have

Class B Foam • Protein-based foams – Are derived from animal protein – Have a shelf life of about 10 years – Are generally safer for the environment • Synthetic-based foams – Are made from fluorosurfactants – Have a shelf life of 20 to 25 years Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 59

Proportioning Class B Foam • Today’s Class B foams are mixed in proportions from

Proportioning Class B Foam • Today’s Class B foams are mixed in proportions from 1% to 6%. • Some multipurpose foams designed for use on both hydrocarbon and polar solvent fuels can be used at different concentrations, depending on which of the two fuels they are used on. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 60

Proportioning Class B Foam • Older polar solvent mechanical foam concentrates were designed to

Proportioning Class B Foam • Older polar solvent mechanical foam concentrates were designed to be used at concentrations of 6% or greater. These concentrates are not commonly found in use today. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 61

Foam Expansion • The increase in volume of foam solution when aerated • The

Foam Expansion • The increase in volume of foam solution when aerated • The method of aerating results in varying degrees of expansion, which depends on: – Type of foam concentrate used – Accurate proportioning of the foam concentrate in the solution – Quality of the foam concentrate – Method of aspiration Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 62

Rate of Application for Class B Foam • Depends on – Type of foam

Rate of Application for Class B Foam • Depends on – Type of foam concentrate used – Whether or not the fuel is on fire – Type of fuel (hydrocarbon/polar solvent) involved – Whether the fuel is spilled or in a tank; if the fuel is in a tank, the type of tank will have a bearing on the application rate. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 63

Rate of Application for Class B Foam • Hydrocarbon fuel spill fires (nondiked) using

Rate of Application for Class B Foam • Hydrocarbon fuel spill fires (nondiked) using portable extinguishing equipment – Protein and fluoroprotein foams — 0. 16 gpm/ft 2 (6. 5 [L/min]/m 2) for 15 minutes – ARFF and FFFP — 0. 10 gpm/ft 2 (4. 1 [L/min]/m 2) for 15 minutes (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 64

Rate of Application for Class B Foam • Polar solvent fuel spill fires (nondiked)

Rate of Application for Class B Foam • Polar solvent fuel spill fires (nondiked) using portable extinguishing equipment – Between 0. 10 and 0. 20 gpm/ft 2 (4. 1 [L/min]/m 2 and 8. 2 [L/min]/m 2), depending on the manufacturer’s UL listing (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 65

Rate of Application for Class B Foam • Hydrocarbon fuel fires in fixed roof

Rate of Application for Class B Foam • Hydrocarbon fuel fires in fixed roof storage tanks using portable extinguishing equipment – 0. 16 gpm/ft 2 (6. 5 [L/min]/m 2) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 66

Determining the Application Rate from a Nozzle • Divide nozzle flow rate by area

Determining the Application Rate from a Nozzle • Divide nozzle flow rate by area of the fire – A 250 gpm [1 000 L/min] nozzle on a 1, 000 -square-foot (100 m 2) fire equals a rate of 0. 25 gpm per square foot (10 [L/min]/m 2) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 67

Regular Protein Foams • Are derived from naturally occurring sources of protein such as

Regular Protein Foams • Are derived from naturally occurring sources of protein such as hoof, horn, or feather meal • Have good heat stability and resist burnback • Are not as mobile or fluid on the fuel surface as are other types of low-expansion foams (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 68

Regular Protein Foams • Degrade faster in storage than do synthetic foams • Are

Regular Protein Foams • Degrade faster in storage than do synthetic foams • Are rarely used in the fire service today Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 69

Fluoroprotein Foam • Is derived from protein foam concentrates to which fluorochemical surfactants are

Fluoroprotein Foam • Is derived from protein foam concentrates to which fluorochemical surfactants are added • Flows more easily than regular protein foam (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 70

Fluoroprotein Foam • Provides a strong “security blanket” for longterm vapor suppression • Can

Fluoroprotein Foam • Provides a strong “security blanket” for longterm vapor suppression • Can be formulated to be alcohol resistant by adding ammonia salts; this foam maintains its alcohol-resistive property for about 15 minutes Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 71

Film Forming Fluoroprotein Foam (FFFP) • Is based on fluoroprotein foam technology with aqueous

Film Forming Fluoroprotein Foam (FFFP) • Is based on fluoroprotein foam technology with aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) capabilities • Incorporates AFFF benefits for fast fire knockdown with the benefits of fluoroprotein foam for long-lasting heat resistance • Is available in an alcohol-resistant formulation Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 72

Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) • Is the most commonly used foam today •

Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) • Is the most commonly used foam today • Is completely synthetic • Consists of fluorochemical and hydrocarbon surfactants combined with high boiling point solvents and water (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 73

Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) • When applied to a hydrocarbon fire, three things

Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) • When applied to a hydrocarbon fire, three things occur: – An air/vapor-excluding film is released ahead of the foam blanket. – The fast-moving foam blanket then moves across the surface and around objects, adding further insulation. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 74

Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) • When applied to a hydrocarbon fire, three things

Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) • When applied to a hydrocarbon fire, three things occur: – As the aerated (7: 1 to 20: 1) foam blanket continues to drain water, more film is released, giving AFFF the ability to “heal” over areas where the foam blanket is disturbed. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 75

Alcohol-Resistant AFFF • Are usually used at 3% or 6% on polar solvents and

Alcohol-Resistant AFFF • Are usually used at 3% or 6% on polar solvents and 1% or 3% on hydrocarbons – Those used at 3% on hydrocarbons and 6% on polar solvents are called 3 by 6 concentrates. – Those used at 3% on both types of fuels are called 3 by 3 concentrates. – Those used at 1% on hydrocarbons and 3% on polar solvents are called 1 by 3 concentrates. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 76

Alcohol-Resistant AFFF • Create a membrane over polar solvent fuels, rather than a film;

Alcohol-Resistant AFFF • Create a membrane over polar solvent fuels, rather than a film; this separates the water in the foam blanket from attack of the solvent • Should be applied gently so that the membrane can form first • Should not be plunged into the fuel, but sprayed over the top Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 77

High-Expansion Foams • Are special-purpose foams • Have a detergent base • Have a

High-Expansion Foams • Are special-purpose foams • Have a detergent base • Have a low water content, which minimizes water damage (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 78

High-Expansion Foams • Have three basic applications: – In concealed spaces such as basements,

High-Expansion Foams • Have three basic applications: – In concealed spaces such as basements, coal mines, and other subterranean spaces – In fixed-extinguishing systems for specific industrial uses (rolled or bulk paper storage) – In Class A fire applications (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 79

High-Expansion Foams • Have expansion ratios of 200: 1 to 1, 000: 1 for

High-Expansion Foams • Have expansion ratios of 200: 1 to 1, 000: 1 for high-expansion uses and 20: 1 to 200: 1 for medium-expansion uses Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 80

Foam Proportioning Devices • Although the process of foam proportioning sounds simple, failure to

Foam Proportioning Devices • Although the process of foam proportioning sounds simple, failure to operate even the best foam proportioning equipment as designed can result in poor quality foam or no foam at all. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 81

Foam Proportioning Devices • In general, foam proportioning devices operate by one of two

Foam Proportioning Devices • In general, foam proportioning devices operate by one of two basic principles: – The pressure of the water stream flowing through a restricted orifice creates a venturi action that inducts (drafts) foam concentrate into the water stream. – Pressurized proportioning devices inject foam concentrate into the water stream at a desired ratio and at a higher pressure than that of the water. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 82

In-Line Foam Eductors • Are the most basic type of foam proportioner • Are

In-Line Foam Eductors • Are the most basic type of foam proportioner • Are designed to be either directly attached to the pump panel discharge or connected at some point in the hose lay (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 83

In-Line Foam Eductors • Must follow manufacturer's instructions about inlet pressure and the maximum

In-Line Foam Eductors • Must follow manufacturer's instructions about inlet pressure and the maximum hose lay between the eductor and the appropriate nozzle • Use the Venturi Principle to draft foam concentrate into the water stream Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 84

Venturi Principle • As water at high-pressure passes through a restriction, it creates a

Venturi Principle • As water at high-pressure passes through a restriction, it creates a low-pressure area within the eductor. • The low-pressure area creates a suction effect (called the Venturi Principle). • The educator pickup tube is connected to the eductor at this low-pressure point. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 85

Venturi Principle • Atmospheric pressure forces foam concentrate into a pickup tube and into

Venturi Principle • Atmospheric pressure forces foam concentrate into a pickup tube and into the water stream, creating a foam/water solution. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 86

Operating Rules to Observe When Using Eductors • The eductor must control the flow

Operating Rules to Observe When Using Eductors • The eductor must control the flow through the system. • The pressure at the outlet of the eductor must not exceed 65 to 70 percent of the eductor inlet pressure. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 87

Operating Rules to Observe When Using Eductors • Foam solution concentration is only correct

Operating Rules to Observe When Using Eductors • Foam solution concentration is only correct at the rated inlet pressure of the eductor, usually 150 to 200 psi (1 050 k. Pa to 1 400 k. Pa). • Eductors must be properly maintained and flushed after each use. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 88

Operating Rules to Observe When Using Eductors • Metering valves must be set to

Operating Rules to Observe When Using Eductors • Metering valves must be set to match foam concentrate percentage and the burning fuel. • The foam concentrate inlet to the eductor should not be more than 6 feet (2 m) above the liquid surface of the foam concentrate Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 89 (Continued)

Operating Rules to Observe When Using Eductors • For nozzle and eductor to operate

Operating Rules to Observe When Using Eductors • For nozzle and eductor to operate properly, both must have the same gpm (L/min) rating. • The eductor, not the nozzle, controls the flow. • If the nozzle has a lower flow rating than the eductor, the eductor will not flow enough water to pick up concentrate. • Using a nozzle with a higher rating than the eductor also gives poor results. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 90

Foam Nozzle Eductors • Operate on the same principle as the in-line eductor, but

Foam Nozzle Eductors • Operate on the same principle as the in-line eductor, but the eductor is built into the nozzle rather than into the hoseline • Require the foam concentrate to be available where the nozzle is operated; if the foam nozzle is moved, the foam concentrate also needs to be moved (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 91

Foam Nozzle Eductors • Compromise firefighter safety; firefighters cannot move quickly, and they must

Foam Nozzle Eductors • Compromise firefighter safety; firefighters cannot move quickly, and they must leave their concentrate behind if they are required to back out for any reason Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 92

Self-Educting Master Stream Foam Nozzles • Are used where flows in excess of 350

Self-Educting Master Stream Foam Nozzles • Are used where flows in excess of 350 gpm (1 400 L/min) are required • Are available with flow capabilities of up to 14, 000 gpm (56 000 L/min) • Use a modified venturi design to draw foam concentrate into the water stream (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 93

Self-Educting Master Stream Foam Nozzles • Advantage — A much lower pressure drop (10%

Self-Educting Master Stream Foam Nozzles • Advantage — A much lower pressure drop (10% or less) than typically associated with standard foam nozzle eductors, allowing for greater stream reach capabilities • May use a jet ratio controller (JRC) to supply foam concentrate to a self-educting master stream nozzle Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 94

Jet Ratio Controller (JRC) • A type of in-line eductor that allows the foam

Jet Ratio Controller (JRC) • A type of in-line eductor that allows the foam concentrate supply to be as far away as 3, 000 feet (900 m) from the self-educting master stream foam nozzle • Allows an elevation change of up to 50 feet (15 m). (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 95

Jet Ratio Controller (JRC) • Is supplied by a hoseline from the same fire

Jet Ratio Controller (JRC) • Is supplied by a hoseline from the same fire pump that is supplying other hoses to the nozzle • Flow of water to it represents about 2½ percent of the total flow in the system (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 96

Jet Ratio Controller (JRC) • As with a standard in-line eductor, as water flows

Jet Ratio Controller (JRC) • As with a standard in-line eductor, as water flows through the JRC, a venturi draws concentrate through the pickup tube and into the hoseline. The difference is that the JRC proportions the concentrate at a 66½ percent solution. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 97

Jet Ratio Controller (JRC) • This rich solution is then pumped to a selfeducting

Jet Ratio Controller (JRC) • This rich solution is then pumped to a selfeducting master stream foam nozzle where it is further proportioned with the water supplied by the fire pump down to a discharge proportion of 3%. To achieve a proper proportion, it is important that the JRC and nozzle match. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 98

Installed In-Line Eductor Systems • Use the same principles of operation as do portable

Installed In-Line Eductor Systems • Use the same principles of operation as do portable in-line eductors, but are attached to the apparatus pumping system • Should follow the same precautions as portable in-line eductors regarding hose lengths, matching nozzle and eductor flows, and inlet pressures (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 99

Installed In-Line Eductor Systems • Have foam concentrate supplied from either pickup tubes inserted

Installed In-Line Eductor Systems • Have foam concentrate supplied from either pickup tubes inserted into 5 gallon (20 L) pails or from foam concentrate tanks installed on the apparatus • Include a special version called a bypass proportioner that is used to reduce the friction loss across the eductor (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 100

Installed In-Line Eductor Systems • Are most commonly used to proportion Class B foams

Installed In-Line Eductor Systems • Are most commonly used to proportion Class B foams Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 101

Around-the-Pump Proportioners • Are one of the most common types of built-in proportioners installed

Around-the-Pump Proportioners • Are one of the most common types of built-in proportioners installed in mobile fire apparatus today (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 102

Around-the-Pump Proportioners • Consist of a small return (bypass) water line connected from the

Around-the-Pump Proportioners • Consist of a small return (bypass) water line connected from the discharge side of the pump back into the intake side of the pump • Are rated for a specific flow and should be used at this rate Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 103

Disadvantages of Around-the. Pump Proportioners • The pump cannot take advantage of incoming pressure.

Disadvantages of Around-the. Pump Proportioners • The pump cannot take advantage of incoming pressure. If the inlet water supply is any greater than 10 psi (70 k. Pa), the foam concentrate will not enter the pump intake. Some newer units are capable of handling intake pressures of up to 40 psi (280 k. Pa). (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 104

Disadvantages of Around-the. Pump Proportioners • The pump must be dedicated solely to foam

Disadvantages of Around-the. Pump Proportioners • The pump must be dedicated solely to foam operation. An around-the-pump proportioner does not allow plain water and foam to discharge from the pump at the same time. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 105

Disadvantages of Around-the. Pump Proportioners • When lines are shut down, water can still

Disadvantages of Around-the. Pump Proportioners • When lines are shut down, water can still circulate through the eductor adding more concentrate than needed. To avoid this, the bypass valve should be closed when no water is flowing. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 106

Bypass-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • Are one of the most accurate methods of foam

Bypass-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • Are one of the most accurate methods of foam proportioning • Are most commonly used in large-scale mobile apparatus applications such as airport crash vehicles and refinery fire fighting apparatus (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 107

Bypass-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 108

Bypass-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 108

Bypass-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • Advantages – Its ability to monitor the demand for

Bypass-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • Advantages – Its ability to monitor the demand for foam concentrate and to adjust the amount of concentrate supplied. – Its ability to discharge foam from some outlets and plain water from others at the same time. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 109

Bypass-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • Apparatus equipped with these proportioners have a foam concentrate

Bypass-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • Apparatus equipped with these proportioners have a foam concentrate line connected to each fire pump discharge outlet. • This line is supplied by a foam concentrate pump separate from the main fire pump. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 110

Bypass-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • The foam concentrate pump draws the concentrate from an

Bypass-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • The foam concentrate pump draws the concentrate from an onboard tank. • This pump is designed to supply foam concentrate to the outlet at the same pressure at which the fire pump is supplying water to that discharge. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 111

Bypass-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • The pump discharge and the foam concentrate pressure from

Bypass-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • The pump discharge and the foam concentrate pressure from the foam concentrate pump are jointly monitored by a hydraulic pressure control valve that ensures the concentrate pressure and water pressure are balanced. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 112

Bypass-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • The orifice of the foam concentrate line is adjustable

Bypass-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • The orifice of the foam concentrate line is adjustable at the point where it connects to the discharge line. • If 3% foam is used, the orifice is set to 3% of the total size of the water discharge outlet. • If 6% foam is used, the orifice is set to 6% of the total size of the water discharge outlet. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 113

Bypass-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • Limitations – Its need for a foam pump with

Bypass-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • Limitations – Its need for a foam pump with PTO or other power source – Bypass of concentrate in this system can cause heating, turbulence, and foam concentrate aeration Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 114

Variable-Flow Variable-Rate Direct Injection Systems • Operate off power supplied from the apparatus electrical

Variable-Flow Variable-Rate Direct Injection Systems • Operate off power supplied from the apparatus electrical system • Are controlled by monitoring the water flow and controlling the speed of a positive displacement foam concentrate pump, thus injecting concentrate at the desired ratio (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 115

Variable-Flow Variable-Rate Direct Injection Systems • Allow full flow through the fire pump discharges

Variable-Flow Variable-Rate Direct Injection Systems • Allow full flow through the fire pump discharges because there are no flowrestricting passages in the proportioning system • Provide foam concentrates from 0. 1% to 3% (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 116

Variable-Flow Variable-Rate Direct Injection Systems • Have a control unit with a digital display

Variable-Flow Variable-Rate Direct Injection Systems • Have a control unit with a digital display that shows the current water or foam solution flow rate, the total amount of water or solution flowed to this time, the current foam concentrate flow rate, and the amount of foam concentrate used to this time (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 117

Variable-Flow Variable-Rate Direct Injection Systems • Can be used with all Class A foam

Variable-Flow Variable-Rate Direct Injection Systems • Can be used with all Class A foam concentrates and many Class B concentrates • CANNOT be used with alcohol-resistant foam concentrates Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 118

Advantages of Variable-Flow Variable. Rate Direct Injection Systems • Their ability to proportion at

Advantages of Variable-Flow Variable. Rate Direct Injection Systems • Their ability to proportion at any flow rate or pressure within the design limits of the system • The system automatically adjusts to changes in water flow when nozzles are either opened or closed (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 119

Advantages of Variable-Flow Variable. Rate Direct Injection Systems • Nozzles may be either above

Advantages of Variable-Flow Variable. Rate Direct Injection Systems • Nozzles may be either above or below the pump, without affecting the foam proportioning • May be used with high-energy foam systems Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 120

Disadvantage of Variable-Flow Variable -Rate Direct Injection Systems • The foam injection point must

Disadvantage of Variable-Flow Variable -Rate Direct Injection Systems • The foam injection point must be within the piping before any manifolds or distribution to multiple fire pump discharges. This means that if foam solution is flowing through one pump discharge, only foam solution can be flowed through any other discharge that is plumbed to that discharge manifold. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 121

Variable-Flow Demand-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • Are versatile systems • Have a variable-speed mechanism,

Variable-Flow Demand-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • Are versatile systems • Have a variable-speed mechanism, which is either hydraulically or electrically controlled, that drives a foam concentrate pump; the pump supplies concentrate to a Venturi-type proportioning device built into the water line (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 122

Variable-Flow Demand-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 123

Variable-Flow Demand-Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 123

Advantages of Variable-Flow Demand. Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • The foam concentrate flow and

Advantages of Variable-Flow Demand. Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • The foam concentrate flow and pressure match system demand • No recirculation back to the foam concentration tank (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 124

Advantages of Variable-Flow Demand. Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • System is maintained in a

Advantages of Variable-Flow Demand. Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • System is maintained in a ready-to-pump condition and requires no flushing after use • Water and/or foam solution can be discharged simultaneously from any combination of outlets up to rated capacity Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 125

Limitation of Variable-Flow Demand. Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • The fire pump discharges have

Limitation of Variable-Flow Demand. Type Balanced Pressure Proportioners • The fire pump discharges have ratio controllers, thus pressure drops across the discharge are higher than those on standard pumpers. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 126

Batch-Mixing • Is the simplest means of proportioning foam • Is simply pouring an

Batch-Mixing • Is the simplest means of proportioning foam • Is simply pouring an appropriate amount of foam concentrate into a tank of water (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 127

Batch-Mixing • Occurs when the driver/operator pours a predetermined amount of foam concentrate into

Batch-Mixing • Occurs when the driver/operator pours a predetermined amount of foam concentrate into the tank via the top fill opening at the time foam is needed; the pump is operated normally, and foam is discharged through any hoseline that is opened (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 128

Batch-Mixing • Means that the size of the water tank and the proportioning percentage

Batch-Mixing • Means that the size of the water tank and the proportioning percentage of the foam concentrate dictate how much concentrate must be poured into the water tank • Is only used with regular AFFF (not alcoholresistant AFFF concentrates) and Class A concentrates (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 129

Batch-Mixing • Can be done at any time, anywhere, and with any equipment, and

Batch-Mixing • Can be done at any time, anywhere, and with any equipment, and eliminates the need for costly foam proportioning equipment (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 130

Batch-Mixing Note: Apparatus water tanks, pumps, and associated piping should be thoroughly flushed with

Batch-Mixing Note: Apparatus water tanks, pumps, and associated piping should be thoroughly flushed with fresh water after any pumping operation in which a foaming agent was batch -mixed in the vehicle’s water tank. The flushing operation must be conducted according to the MSDS supplied by the foam manufacturer. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 131

Disadvantages of Batch-Mixing • Class A foam solutions do not retain their foaming properties

Disadvantages of Batch-Mixing • Class A foam solutions do not retain their foaming properties if mixed in the water for more than 24 hours, and there may be further degradation, depending on the product used • Froth may form when the water tank is refilled (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 132

Disadvantages of Batch-Mixing • Foam solutions are solvents, so they can remove lubricants from

Disadvantages of Batch-Mixing • Foam solutions are solvents, so they can remove lubricants from ball valve seals • All the water onboard the apparatus is converted to foam solution (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 133

Disadvantages of Batch-Mixing • Does not allow for continuous foam discharge because the stream

Disadvantages of Batch-Mixing • Does not allow for continuous foam discharge because the stream has to shut down while the apparatus tank is refilled • It is difficult to maintain the concentrate ratio unless the water tank is completely emptied each time Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 134

History of Compressed-Air Foam Systems (CAFS) • Instead of using air cylinders, as was

History of Compressed-Air Foam Systems (CAFS) • Instead of using air cylinders, as was popular in the 1970 s, the U. S. Bureau of Land Management added a rotary air compressor to a standard fire department pumper. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 135

History of Compressed-Air Foam Systems (CAFS) • This system uses a standard centrifugal fire

History of Compressed-Air Foam Systems (CAFS) • This system uses a standard centrifugal fire pump to supply the water. Once the foam concentrate and water are mixed to form a foam solution, compressed air is added to the mixture before it is discharged from the apparatus and into the hoseline. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 136

Advantages of CAFS • A considerably longer fire stream than streams from low-energy systems

Advantages of CAFS • A considerably longer fire stream than streams from low-energy systems • Produce uniformly sized, small air bubbles that are very durable. • The foam adheres to the fuel surface and resists heat longer than low-energy foam. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 137

Advantages of CAFS • Hoselines containing high-energy foam solution weigh less than hoselines containing

Advantages of CAFS • Hoselines containing high-energy foam solution weigh less than hoselines containing low-energy foam solution or plain water. • A CAFS provides a safer fire suppression action that allows effective attack on the fire from a greater distance. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 138

Disadvantages of CAFS • A CAFS adds expense to a vehicle and adds to

Disadvantages of CAFS • A CAFS adds expense to a vehicle and adds to the maintenance that must be performed on the vehicle. • Hose reaction can be erratic if foam solution is not supplied to the hoseline in sufficient quantities. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 139

Disadvantages of CAFS • The compressed air accentuates the hose reaction in the event

Disadvantages of CAFS • The compressed air accentuates the hose reaction in the event the hose ruptures. • Additional training is required for personnel who are expected to make a fire attack using a CAFS or who will operate CAFS equipment. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 140

Characteristics of CAFS • Most apparatus equipped with a CAFS are also designed to

Characteristics of CAFS • Most apparatus equipped with a CAFS are also designed to flow plain water should the choice be made to do that. • The fire pump used on a CAFS-equipped fire vehicle is a standard centrifugal fire pump. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 141

Characteristics of CAFS • The foam proportioning system is a type of automatic, discharge-side

Characteristics of CAFS • The foam proportioning system is a type of automatic, discharge-side proportioning system. • Foam eductors are typically not used because they are not designed to work at either the 0. 1% or 1% eduction rates or the variable flow rates required for Class A foams. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 142

Characteristics of CAFS • Variable-flow rate sensing proportioners are necessary to ensure that foam

Characteristics of CAFS • Variable-flow rate sensing proportioners are necessary to ensure that foam concentrate is supplied to the fire stream at the proper rate. • In general, 2 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (0. 06 m 3/min) of airflow per gallon minute of foam solution flow produces a very dry foam at flows of up to 100 gpm (400 L/min) of foam solution. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 143

Characteristics of CAFS • Most structural and wildland fire attacks using CAFS are done

Characteristics of CAFS • Most structural and wildland fire attacks using CAFS are done with an air flow rate of 0. 5 to 10. 5 cfm (0. 015 m 3/min to 0. 03 m 3/min). CAUTION! To protect fire attack teams, nozzle flow rates (gpm, L/min) should be the same for Class A foam application as for plain water. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 144

Portable Foam Application Devices • While standard fire fighting nozzles can be used for

Portable Foam Application Devices • While standard fire fighting nozzles can be used for applying some types of lowexpansion foams, it is best to use nozzles that produce the desired result (such as fastdraining or slow-draining foam). Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 145

Handline Nozzles • Any nozzle that one to three firefighters can safely handle and

Handline Nozzles • Any nozzle that one to three firefighters can safely handle and that flows less than 350 gpm (1 400 L/min) • Smooth bore nozzles • Fog nozzles • Air-aspirating foam nozzles Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 146

Smooth Bore Nozzles • Are limited to Class A, CAFS applications • Provide an

Smooth Bore Nozzles • Are limited to Class A, CAFS applications • Provide an effective fire stream that has maximum reach capabilties • When using, disregard the standard rule that the discharge orifice of the nozzle be no more than one-half the diameter of the hose Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 147

Fog Nozzles • Break the foam solution into tiny droplets and use the agitation

Fog Nozzles • Break the foam solution into tiny droplets and use the agitation of water droplets moving through air to achieve the foaming action • Have expansion ratios between 2: 1 and 4: 1 (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 148

Fog Nozzles • Are best when used with regular AFFF and Class A foams,

Fog Nozzles • Are best when used with regular AFFF and Class A foams, but may be used with alcoholresistant AFFF foams on hydrocarbon fires • Cannot be used with protein and fluoroprotein foams and should not be used on polar solvent fires (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 149

Fog Nozzles • Some have foam aeration attachments that can be added to the

Fog Nozzles • Some have foam aeration attachments that can be added to the end of the nozzle to increase aspiration of the foam solution • Some have an adjustable sleeve that allows them to convert to air-aspirating nozzles Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 150

Air-Aspirating Foam Nozzles • Induct air into the foam solution by a venturi action

Air-Aspirating Foam Nozzles • Induct air into the foam solution by a venturi action • Are the only type of nozzles that can be used with protein and fluoroprotein concentrates (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 151

Air-Aspirating Foam Nozzles • May also be used with Class A foams in wildland

Air-Aspirating Foam Nozzles • May also be used with Class A foams in wildland applications • Provide maximum expansion of the agent • Have less stream reach than that of a standard fog nozzle Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 152

Master Stream Foam Nozzles • Large-scale flammable and combustible liquid fires are beyond the

Master Stream Foam Nozzles • Large-scale flammable and combustible liquid fires are beyond the capabilities of handlines. Master stream nozzles are required to deliver adequate amounts of foam in these situations. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 153 (Continued)

Master Stream Foam Nozzles • Standard fixed-flow or automatic-fog master stream nozzles may be

Master Stream Foam Nozzles • Standard fixed-flow or automatic-fog master stream nozzles may be used to deliver foam, when necessary. • Large-scale industrial foam apparatus and AFFF vehicles may be equipped with special aerating foam master stream nozzles. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 154

Medium- and High-Expansion Foam Generating Devices • Produce a high-air-content, semistable foam – Medium-expansion

Medium- and High-Expansion Foam Generating Devices • Produce a high-air-content, semistable foam – Medium-expansion — Air content ranges from 20 parts air to 1 part foam solution (20: 1) to 200 parts air to 1 part foam solution (200: 1) – High-expansion — Ranges from 200: 1 to 1, 000: 1 • Water-aspirating type • Mechanical blower type Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 155

Water-Aspirating Type • Is similar to other foam-producing nozzles except that it is much

Water-Aspirating Type • Is similar to other foam-producing nozzles except that it is much larger and longer • Has a back that is open to allow airflow • Pumps foam solution through the nozzle in a fine spray that mixes with air to form a moderate-expansion foam (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 156

Water-Aspirating Type • Has a screen on the end that further breaks up the

Water-Aspirating Type • Has a screen on the end that further breaks up the air and mixes it with water • Typically produces a lower-air-volume foam than do mechanical blower generators Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 157

Mechanical Blower Type • Is similar in appearance to a smoke ejector • Operates

Mechanical Blower Type • Is similar in appearance to a smoke ejector • Operates on the same principle as the wateraspirating nozzle except that the air is forced through the foam spray by a powered fan instead of being pulled through by water movement (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 158

Mechanical Blower Type • Produces foam with a high air content and is typically

Mechanical Blower Type • Produces foam with a high air content and is typically associated with total-flooding application • Is limited in use to high-expansion foams Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 159

Reasons for Failure to Generate Foam or for Generating Poor Quality Foam • Failure

Reasons for Failure to Generate Foam or for Generating Poor Quality Foam • Failure to match eductor and nozzle flow, resulting in no pickup of foam concentrate • Air leaks at fittings that cause loss of suction • Improper cleaning of proportioning equipment that results in clogged foam passages (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 160

Reasons for Failure to Generate Foam or for Generating Poor Quality Foam • Partially

Reasons for Failure to Generate Foam or for Generating Poor Quality Foam • Partially closed nozzle that results in a higher nozzle pressure • Too long a hose lay on the discharge side of the eductor • Kinked hose (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 161

Reasons for Failure to Generate Foam or for Generating Poor Quality Foam • Nozzle

Reasons for Failure to Generate Foam or for Generating Poor Quality Foam • Nozzle too far above eductor (results in excessive elevation pressure) • Mixing different types of foam concentrates in the same tank, which can result in a mixture too viscous to pass through the eductor Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 162

Various Foam Application Techniques • Direct-application method – Finished Class A foam in applied

Various Foam Application Techniques • Direct-application method – Finished Class A foam in applied directly onto the material that is burning. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 163

Various Foam Application Techniques • Roll-on method – Directs Class B foam stream on

Various Foam Application Techniques • Roll-on method – Directs Class B foam stream on the ground near the front edge of a burning liquid pool or spill. The foam then rolls across the surface of the fuel. Foam application continues until it spreads across the entire surface of the fuel and the fire is extinguished or the vapors suppressed. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 164

Various Foam Application Techniques • Roll-on method (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 165

Various Foam Application Techniques • Roll-on method (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 165

Various Foam Application Techniques • Bank-down method – Class B foam stream is directed

Various Foam Application Techniques • Bank-down method – Class B foam stream is directed onto a vertical surface, allowing foam to run down onto and spread across surface of the fuel. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 166 (Continued)

Various Foam Application Techniques • Rain-down method – Directs stream of Class B foam

Various Foam Application Techniques • Rain-down method – Directs stream of Class B foam into the air above fire and allows foam to gently rain down onto surface of fuel. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 167

Environmental Impact of Class A and Class B Foam Concentrates and Solutions • The

Environmental Impact of Class A and Class B Foam Concentrates and Solutions • The primary concern is the impact of finished foam after it has been applied to a fire or spill. • The biodegradability of these foams in either solution or concentrate is determined by the rate at which environmental bacteria dissolve or degrade the foam. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 168

Environmental Impact of Class A and Class B Foam Concentrates and Solutions • The

Environmental Impact of Class A and Class B Foam Concentrates and Solutions • The decomposition of these foams results in the consumption of oxygen. In waterways, a reduction in oxygen can kill water-inhabiting creatures and vegetation. • Foam concentrates, solutions, or finished foam should not be discharged into any body of water. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 169

Environmental Impact of AFFF Concentrate • Environmental issues revolve around glycol ethers and perfluoroctylysulfonates

Environmental Impact of AFFF Concentrate • Environmental issues revolve around glycol ethers and perfluoroctylysulfonates (PFOS). Foam manufacturers are trying to find alternatives to these chemicals. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 170

Durable Agents • Are the term used for a number of different water additives

Durable Agents • Are the term used for a number of different water additives used as extinguishing agents and for pretreating structures threatened by fires spreading toward them • Retain their fire retarding properties longer than Class A foam (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 171

Durable Agents • Are also known as gelling agents, fire blocking gels, and aqueous

Durable Agents • Are also known as gelling agents, fire blocking gels, and aqueous fire fighting gels • Are used in the same way as Class A foam, but are chemically and structurally quite different (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 172

Durable Agents • Are different from Class A foam in that they: – Are

Durable Agents • Are different from Class A foam in that they: – Are water-absorbent polymers rather than hydrocarbon-based surfactants like Class A foams – When mixed with water, form minute polymer bubbles that are filled with water; Class A foams form tiny water bubbles that are filled with air – Are considerably more expensive – Make surfaces to which applied very slippery (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 173

Durable Agents • Are normally siphoned from a container with an eductor, but in

Durable Agents • Are normally siphoned from a container with an eductor, but in an emergency can be batch -mixed in the apparatus water tank • Can be used for fire extinguishment, line construction, or structure protection (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 174

Durable Agents • Can be applied through hoselines with any standard fire nozzle, including

Durable Agents • Can be applied through hoselines with any standard fire nozzle, including master stream appliances, or dropped by air tankers or helicopters • Are normally applied at a ratio of 1: 100 or a 1 percent solution in water for fire extinguishment (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 175

Durable Agents • Are normally applied at 1½ to 2 percent for line construction;

Durable Agents • Are normally applied at 1½ to 2 percent for line construction; at 2 or 3 percent for structure protection • Can be repeatedly rehydrated with a fine water mist to extend their protection for several days Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 176

Summary • Advances in foam technologies combined with a greater need for foam application

Summary • Advances in foam technologies combined with a greater need for foam application have increased the use of foaming agents by fire departments throughout North America. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 177

Summary • Regardless of the type of foam system used by a particular fire

Summary • Regardless of the type of foam system used by a particular fire department, it is the responsibility of the driver/operator to deliver properly proportioned foam solution to the nozzle or nozzles applying the foam. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 178

Summary • To fulfill this responsibility, driver/operators must be familiar with the type of

Summary • To fulfill this responsibility, driver/operators must be familiar with the type of foam system their department uses, along with its capabilities and limitations. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 179

Summary • Driver/Operators must know how to introduce foam into the system, maintain its

Summary • Driver/Operators must know how to introduce foam into the system, maintain its flow for as long as necessary, and troubleshoot any problems that develop while the system is in operation. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 180

Summary • In addition, the driver/operator must know how to properly flush the system

Summary • In addition, the driver/operator must know how to properly flush the system after use, and maintain the foam system in a state of constant readiness. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 181

Discussion Questions 1. Why have foam and durable agents increased in use in recent

Discussion Questions 1. Why have foam and durable agents increased in use in recent years? 2. Name three ways in which foam extinguishes and/or prevents fire. 3. What are the four basic methods by which foam may be proportioned? 4. Name various ways in which foam is stored. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 182

Discussion Questions 5. Explain how to determine the application rate available from a nozzle.

Discussion Questions 5. Explain how to determine the application rate available from a nozzle. 6. What are three things that happen when AFFF is applied to a hydrocarbon fire? 7. What are three basic applications of high-expansion foams? 8. Describe some reasons for failure to generate foam or for generating poor quality foam. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 183