Bell Work 10 -22 -15 1. What were the Intolerable Acts? 2. What was the 1 st Continental Congress?
The British are coming, the British are coming!
The First Shots of the Revolution: Lexington and Concord • The 1 st Continental Congress adjourned (ended) in October with plans to meet again in May.
• April 19, 1775 the British marched into Lexington and Concord to seize the colonists’ gunpowder and weapons. • By the time the battles were over more than 300 British soldiers were killed by the militia. – What is a militia?
The “Shot Heard ‘Round the World’” • As the British approached Concord, they were outnumbered so they waited on a hill for more men to arrive • Shots were exchanged but still being outnumbered the British retreated back to Boston • They set out on the next morning for Lexington • They were challenged by a group of 77 militiamen led by Captain John Parker
• At Lexington is where Parker said his famous quote: “Stand your ground; don’t fire unless fired upon, but if they mean to have a war let it begin here. ”
2 nd Continental Congress: A Revolutionary Meeting • After the battles of Lexington and Concord the Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia. – The purpose was to decide whether or not to declare Independence from Britain. – If the answer was YES, then plan to organize the war effort (troops and supplies).
• The Second Continental Congress established the militia as the Continental Army to represent the thirteen colonies. • They also elected George Washington as Commander in Chief of the Continental Army.
What will happen next?
Exit Questions- ½ sheet of paper for a grade 1. Of all the events that led up to the American Revolution, which two do you think are the MOST significant? Why? 2. What two battles marked the beginning of the American Revolution? 3. What is a patriot? 4. Who was chosen to lead the Continental Army?
Bell Work 10 -26 -15 • Match the term and definition 1. Townshend Acts 2. Stamp Act 3. Intolerable Acts 4. 2 nd Continental Congress A. A meeting to decide whether or not to declare independence B. This act taxed glass, paint, lead, paper, and tea C. This act taxed paper products D. This Act closed the Boston Harbor in response to the Tea Party
Review: American Revolution begins! First Continental Congress Battles of Lexington and Concord • Met in Philadelphia to decide how to respond to unfair British taxes. • Delegates of the First Continental Congress made plans to arm citizens. • General Thomas Gage sent troops to • Colonists agreed not to buy or sell any Concord to take gunpowder. goods traded by the British. • The only good that would be traded out of SC was rice. • British troops fired at colonists, killing many but only angering them. • Representatives agreed to meet again • King George II declares the American if the Intolerable Acts had not been colonies in rebellion. repealed.
The Declaration of Independence: “We’ve had enough of you King George!”
SC Delegates to the Convention: • Americans were divided over the issue of declaring independence, but persuasive arguments convinced them to support it. • SC Delegates: Edward Rutledge, Arthur Middleton, Thomas Lynch Jr. , and Thomas Heyward Jr. (Lowcountry Elite) • Most SC delegates opposed declaring Independence to maintain high status in British society. • SC was also against the Declaration because it contained a clause to ban the slave trade.
Edward Rutledge leads the way: • Edward Rutledge was also against Independence, but changed his mind after hearing inspiring speeches. • Rutledge also asked the vote to be delayed by 3 weeks so he could convince the other delegates. • Rutledge was able to get all SC delegates to sign because he convinced the Congress to keep slavery legal.
Declaration of Independence • Based on the ideas of John Locke – Equality – Natural rights of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” – Purpose of the gov’t. is to secure these rights for the people – People have the right to abolish the gov’t. if it does not protect their natural rights
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. ” Above is the most famous line in the Declaration of Independence. What does this tell you about the beliefs of the writers of the Declaration of Independence?
Exit Card: 1. Who are the SC signers of the Declaration of Independence? 2. What was SC’s original opinion about declaring Independence? 3. Identify 3 reasons why colonists wanted to declare Independence from Great Britain. 4. Why do you think the Declaration of Independence is important?
Bell Work 10 -27 -15 1. What did the 2 nd Continental Congress decide to do during their meeting? 2. What was South Carolina’s original position on declaring independence? 3. What are three reasons the colonists wanted to declare independence from Britain?
Declaration of Independence 1. Preamble -An introduction explaining why the Declaration is being written. 2. Natural Rights -The colonists explain the rights of people and the role of government power. 3. Grievances A list of the colonists’ complaints. 4. Resolution of Independence -The colonists declare independence from Britain.
Impact of the Declaration: • Explained that the colonies wished to break ties with the British government and listed reasons why. – Laundry list of problems. • Written by Thomas Jefferson and officially created the United States of America. • Inspired many people to join the fighting and side with the American/Patriot cause.
Declaration Activity: • The Declaration of Independence was the biggest and most important breakups (well, as far as America is concerned) in history! • Your job is to write a juicy breakup letter to King George separating the colonies from England. • Letter format: addressed to King George (or a pet name for him) • A signature at the end of the letter (You and your partners’) • Your letter must include all 4 parts of the Declaration – Preamble: Introduction as to why you are writing this. – Natural Rights: Explanation of the rights of the people and the job of the government. – Grievances: You must include AT LEAST 5 reasons why you wish to break up with England. – Resolution: Your declaration of independence. • Your letter must be at least 10 sentences long. (But, can be longer)
Use this excerpt to answer the next three questions. “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. ” 1. The above quotation comes from which document? A. B. C. D. Mayflower Compact Articles of Confederation Declaration of Independence United States Constitution A. B. C. D. Thomas Jefferson James Smith James Madison John Hancock A. B. C. D. to establish laws for the first successful English colony to establish the first constitution of the United States to establish a stronger more centralized government for the United States to let the world know the reasons that the American colonies were declaring their independence from Great Britain 2. Who was the primary author of these words mentioned above? 3. What was the intent of the document that contained these words mentioned above?
Bell Work 10 -28 -15 1. As the colonists prepare for war, people are left with an important decision to make. Should they remain loyal to the British or join the Patriots? Why?
The Revolutionary War Patriots v. Loyalists: All must choose a side!
Choosing sides in the war: • Not all of SC or colonists agreed that the US should declare independence from Great Britain. • Differing views led to “Civil War” within SC and both sides formed Militia to fight. – Militia: Civilians who are trained as soldiers, but are not part of the regular army. • 1/3 of citizens were for war, 1/3 against war, and 1/3 wanted to remain neutral.
The Patriots! • Patriots (aka Partisans): colonists who supported the Continental Congress and War for Independence. • Most were wealthy white men from the Lowcountry. • SC Patriots were plantation owners who created a provisional (temporary) government to control the colony during the war.
Loyalists! • Loyalists (aka Tories): Those who opposed the war and/or were loyal to the king and England. • Most soldiers living in the Upcountry were Loyalists, or Tories. • SC had more Loyalists than any other colony, except NY!! • Many citizens were not true Loyalists, but wished to live free from control/danger. • Example: German immigrants who had no allegiance to either
Lowcountry Elite Patriots • British taxes were bad for trading goods from plantations and limited money in the colony. • Local merchants also struggled because they could not afford taxes and hated limits on trade. Loyalists • If they rebelled, they ran the risk of losing businesses and high position in the government.
UP/Backcountry Men Patriots Loyalists • They had more interaction with the colonists, which might lead them to be Patriot during the war. • Many were not true loyalists, but wished their lives to be free from control. • Quakers living in the Upcountry were also against fighting any wars.
Women Patriots • Most were wives and daughters of officers and soldiers. Loyalists • Some women pretended to dress as men and fight in actual battles. • Women were: Patriots, Loyalists, and those who wished to not be involved at all. • Women had to fill the place of men by managing the farms and plantations. • Completed duties such as cooking, mending, laundry, child care, and nursing.
African Americans • Continued to work as slaves in South Carolina. • South Carolina rejected the appeal to allow slaves to join the Continental Army, for fear of a slave uprising. – Slaves were later allowed to make up 1/3 of the army, but they were not allowed to serve as soldiers. • Some African Americans fought for the British because they were promised to earn their freedom. • South Carolina did not offer slaves freedom in return for their military service.
African Americans Patriots • Later in the war, slaves who volunteered for the Continental Army were sometimes freed. Loyalists • Many thought that if the Patriots won the war they would not free slaves. • British actively recruited African Americans to fight by offering them freedom.
Native Americans Patriots • Few if any were ever Patriots. Loyalists • They hoped the British would give some of their land back if they won. • They feared Patriots would take even more land if they won, which they did do after the war. • Many Native Americans avoided war until the colonists attacked them on the frontier. • Many of the Native Americans supported the British, including the Cherokee.
Exit Ticket: 12/5/14 I _________________, pledge my loyalty to _______ for the following 3 reasons: 1. ________________________________ 2. ________________________________ 3. ________________________________ I promise to fight for the__________________, and refuse to surrender until the cause of __________________ has been fulfilled! Sincerely, ________________________
History Challenge 1. 2. 3. 4. People in South Carolina who supported the government of Great Britain in its attempts to rule the colony during the American Revolution were referred to by those opposing Great Britain’s rule as what? A. B. C. D. Native Americans Patriots Tories Sons of Liberty A. B. C. D. Edward Rutledge Thomas Lynch Jr. Thomas Heyward Jr. Christopher Gadsden All of these South Carolinians were signers of the Declaration of Independence except? A. B. C. D. What is the best definition for unalienable as it is seen in the Declaration of Independence? Something that cannot be taken away Things that are sometimes allowable Rights that are only provided by law Beliefs that vary from person to person In 1773, the Sons of Liberty protested the British law that gave the East India Company exclusive rights to sell what product in the American Colonies? A. B. C. D. Tea Cotton Indigo Sugar
The British are coming… to South Carolina!
The British Target Charles Town • Charles Town was chosen as a major key to British victory in America. – Why would capturing Charles Town be so valuable to the British? • British General Henry Clinton brought a large force to lay siege to Charles Town. • Clinton expected many loyalists to join forces with the British but most were removed. (Snow Campaign) – Clinton still planned to target the unfinished fort at Sullivan’s Island.
Sir Henry Clinton
Sullivan’s Island • SC assembled 5, 000 Militia and Continental troops; the trained American army of the Revolution. • The fort was constructed with slave labor and made out of palmetto logs and sand. • The simple fort was not expected to hold up, but luck was on the side of the colonists!
Fort Moultrie • The Fort was named after Colonel William Moultrie who was in charge of the SC Militia. • Luckily, several British ships ran into shallow ground and others had to come in close range. • The Palmetto Logs also worked like a sponge and seemed to soak up the cannonball fire. • British ships were hit by American cannons while their cannons were useless.
The Palmetto Fort
The Crescent Moon Flag • SC militia at Fort Moultrie had the Crescent Moon on their helmets and on their flag. • During battle, the flag pole was shattered and Sergeant William Jasper ran to raise the flag saying…. • The British surrendered the next morning in disbelief and Charles Town was saved!
The Battle Scene
Sergeant William Jasper
Does this flag look familiar?
The State Flag of South Carolina • What was added to the Crescent moon flag after the battle of Fort Moultrie? • In what ways do you see our state flag symbol used in South Carolina?
The State Flag
Significance of the Battle Of Fort Moultrie 1. An early loss of Charles Town would have given SC to the British early in the war. 2. The British could use the port to control trade and ship of munitions and troops. 3. A silver Palmetto tree was added to the flag in honor of the victory. In 1861 the banner officially became the state flag.
Check Questions 1. Why would capturing Charlestown be significant for the British? 2. What physical features allowed for the American victory at Sullivan’s Island?
Decide your Loyalty • Your colony has just been attack at Sullivan’s Island. It is time for you to step up and join the fight! Will you be a Patriot or a Loyalist? – Your assignment: Pledge your loyalty to the Patriots of Loyalists and list 3 reasons why you will support that side. – On the back of your paper you have a choice: 1. Summarize the Battle of Sullivan’s Island OR 2. Draw a scene showing the Battle of Sullivan’s Island.
Bell Work 1. Which of the following best describes the SC Militias’ construction of defenses on Sullivan’s Island? A. B. C. D. daub and waddle- a mixture of mud, sticks and leaves Tabby- a mixture of crushed seashells, straw and mud palmetto logs and sand Kiln dried bricks 2. What is the difference between a Patriot and a Loyalist?
Warfare of the American Revolution
Fighting the War: • Both sides used volunteer citizens as militia to fight many of the battles, not professionals. • The British Regular army was better trained and used European style Warfare. • The American Continental Army was outnumbered, but used guerilla warfare and knowledge of the territory for an edge.
British: Traditional Warfare • British fought in organized line that fired at once, then were replaced by those behind them. • Once the British broke their enemy’s lines they charged and sent in cavalry, called dragoons, to run down the fleeing enemy. • British had better weapons and more troops, making this style the best choice.
Americans: Guerilla Warfare • Used small groups of Militia to launch surprise attacks on the enemy then flee and disappear into the woods or swamps (Hit and Run). • Allowed Americans to weaken better trained British forces by using knowledge of the land to inflict damage and then flee. • Famous leaders using Guerilla Warfare in SC were Francis Marion and Thomas Sumter. – Nicknamed the Swamp Fox and Gamecock
Muskets and Rifles
Swords and Bayonets
Continental Army Uniforms
British Uniforms Redcoats Lobster Backs
Exit Card Questions: 1. Define Guerilla Warfare and explain how the colonists used it to their advantage. 2. Describe the Uniforms of Patriots and Loyalists. Which might be a disadvantage in battle? 3. Identify one advantage in battle that Loyalists had and one advantage that Patriots had. 4. What 2 SC leaders used Guerilla warfare in battle? 5. At the beginning of the war, both sides engaged in Traditional Warfare. How would you feel as a Patriot going against the Royal British Army? 6. Near the war’s end, Patriots began using Guerilla Warfare. Explain how you would have felt as a British Troop having to fight this style of warfare?
Independent Assignment (HW) • Write a response to today’s activity. What were the differences between the warfare tactics? How was each tactic used and why was guerilla warfare so successful?
Bell Work 1. Charles Towne was a major port on the Atlantic Coast. All of the following were reasons why the British wanted to take Charleston except: A. British reinforcements could be shipped easily to Charles Towne. B. The British wanted to return Charles Towne to Patriots. C. The British wanted to stop South Carolina from trading and using profits to supply the Continental Army. D. The British could launch deeper attacks into South Carolina by taking Charleston. 2. Which of the following best describes a "militia" or "partisan" soldier? A. A person who is forced to fight of an army, but does not agree with the cause. B. A person who travels with the army a performs various duties, but does not carry an actual weapon. C. A person who claims to be loyal to one side, but is actually spying for the opposite side. D. A person who is trained to fight as a soldier, but is not part of the regular army.
The British are back… The Siege of Charles Town
The War Moves South • After a serious defeat in NY at Saratoga, the British decided to turn their attention to the Southern Colonies and SC. • British hoped that they would find loyalists in SC and convince neutral citizens to join the crown. • However, British treated colonists poorly, burning churches, looting or confiscating homes and harassing and mistreating citizens.
Charles Town under attack! • May 19, 1780 British first targeted Charleston and laid siege to the city for two months. – Siege: Armed forces try to take an armed fort/town by surrounding it + stopping supplies from entering. • The British blockade the harbor and cut off supply lines until the Patriots were forced to surrender. • Loss of the largest southern city was a major loss and the British captured 5, 000 American troops.
Impact of the loss of Charles Town: • The British imprisoned 87 of the state’s most important representatives, including Edward Rutledge and Christopher Gadsden. – Fortunately, Francis Marion and President John Rutledge escaped! • Gave British a Coastal port/harbor to launch attacks and send in reinforcements and supplies. • British Paroled American prisoners, but forced them to fight for the crown (Angered Colonists).
Francis Marion’s escape from Charles Town: In February of 1780, Marion was placed in command of a training-camp at Bacon's Bridge, on Ashley River; it was thought that no one else could so speedily organize an army out of raw materials. Before the Siege of Charleston by the British was quite completed, he happened one evening to be eating supper with a party of friends in that city. The host, Captain Alexander Mc. Queen, ordered all doors be locked after dinner, a custom of the day. Those attending the party drank to their victories and became drunk. Francis MARION was not a heavy drinker and wanted to escape the house. Wishing to retire without disturbing the company, he stepped quietly to an open window and jumped out. His agility was like that of a squirrel, but on this occasion it did not save him from a broken ankle. In the damaged city there was no room for officers unfit for active duty, and Colonel Marion was carried out on a wagon and taken to his home at Pond Bluff. The accident turned out to be a blessing in disguise, for it saved Marion from being cooped up in Charleston with the army, which was soon surrendered to Sir Henry Clinton. After that catastrophe, as soon as he was able to mount a horse, Colonel Marion set out with a few friends for North Carolina to meet the army that George Washington had sent to the rescue under Baron de Kalb. When Marion reached the army he found that able commander already superseded by the weak and vain glorious Horatio Gates, who had no sense of the value of partisan warfare and did not know how to make use of such talents as Marion's.
Letter from British officer Hildebrand Oakes (1754 -1822) The Fleet with eight thousand Troops on board destined for the taking of Charleston, sailed on the twenty sixth of December and after the most disagreeable Voyage I ever remember, we arrived on the second of February a good deal shattered. . . we moved for North Edisto River and arrived there in the Evening. In four Days the whole of John's Island was in our Possession without a Shot being fired. On the twenty fifth we made a landing on James Island, where we got our first View of the Town, which from the Number and force of their Vessels of different kinds, and the Strength of their Batterys appeared very formidable. . . On April 1, the army was in place to begin the first trench 800 yards from the American positions. We bombarded the city for 10 days until there defenses were soundly crushed. On the eleventh of this Month finding they were completely blockaded and we were ready to take the Place. . . They sent out a Flag saying they would accept the Terms of peace offered and yesterday they marched out Prisoners of War by the best Accounts I can get to the Amount of five Thousand… Everything in this Part of the Country wears the most promising Appearances: Since the Surrender of Charles Town the Militia have come in great Numbers, and laying down their Arms; they all express their earnest Desires to accept of any Terms, or do anything towards the establishing Peace and good order in these Provinces that shall be proposed; and which I make not Doubt will be soon effected.
Siege on Charleston Activity: SW complete one of the following: • (A) Create journal writings from one of the survivors (Francis Marion, John Rutledge, etc. ) of the attacks on Charleston and describe their experience. • (B) Create news report posters explaining the events that occurred during the siege on Charleston, including a headline and illustration. • Activities must include at least 5 facts/details about the siege on Charleston + be at least 8 sentences.
Siege on Charleston Grading Rubric: 10 Includes a headline or journal entry title to address work. includes at least 5 accurate facts from the Siege on Charleston. Frequently incorporates details from handouts and notes in the report. Has no grammatical or spelling errors. 7 Includes a headline or journal entry title to address work. Includes at least 3 -4 accurate facts from the Siege on Charleston. Incorporates details from handouts and notes in journals/News report. Has few grammatical or spelling errors. 3 No headline or journal entry title to address work. includes at least 0 -2 accurate facts from the Siege on Charleston. Does not incorporate details from handouts and notes in journals/News reports. Has many grammatical or spelling errors.
Patriots v. Loyalists Activity: • Activity #1: Complete chart explaining the loyalties of 5 major groups from SC. Must include 2 -3 sentences explaining why each group chose the side they did.
1. Come in QUIETLY. 2. Turn your homework into the basket (Patriot/Loyalist) Chart 3. Turn in your EXTRA CREDIT to the wire basket. (REMEMBER MONDAY IS THE LAST DAY!!!) 4. Prepare yourself for History Challenge!
What led to the Revolution? Activity 1. Order the events chronologically. (10 pts) * Write the event on the line. (pg. 70 -71) Be sure to spell correctly. 2. Match the description to the event. (10 pts) * Glue each description onto your paper in the correct place. 3. Create an image or symbol to represent the event. (10 pts) Remember to use your time wisely. We will go over this at the end of class.
Bellringer 12 -5 -14 1. What is the Preamble? 2. What was the purpose Declaration of Independence?