FOREIGN BODIES FOREIGN BODIES FOREIGN BODY ASPIRATION FOREIGN

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FOREIGN BODIES

FOREIGN BODIES

FOREIGN BODIES FOREIGN BODY ASPIRATION

FOREIGN BODIES FOREIGN BODY ASPIRATION

FOREIGN BODY ASPIRATION �Foreign body aspiration can be a life-threatening emergency requiring immediate intervention.

FOREIGN BODY ASPIRATION �Foreign body aspiration can be a life-threatening emergency requiring immediate intervention. �symptoms can go unnoticed for years with serious sequelae. �The removal of a foreign body in the respiratory tract generally leads to a rapid recovery

Age incidence �Children from the age of 9 to 30 months are susceptible to

Age incidence �Children from the age of 9 to 30 months are susceptible to airway foreign bodies due to these children's mobility and their oral orientation �Older children and adults add to the problem by giving the toddler inappropriate foods, such as peanuts and popcorn, or small objects, which the child promptly puts into his or her mouth and which can be aspirated

Contributing factors include �Age : Infants and young children curiosity and their inclination for

Contributing factors include �Age : Infants and young children curiosity and their inclination for exploration �the male gender �immature coordination of swallowing, �lack of molars before age 4 years, �Neurologic impairment, �seizure disorders, �anatomic or functional esophageal disorders, �immature laryngeal sphincter control �an unsafe environment

Factors that Make Young Children Susceptible to Aspiration �Age younger than 3 years �Male

Factors that Make Young Children Susceptible to Aspiration �Age younger than 3 years �Male gender �Children often cry, shout, run, and play with objects in their mouths �Absence of molars to chew certain foods adequately �Immature coordination of swallowing and airway protection �Oral exploration of the environment �Immature laryngeal sphincter control

Types of F. B � Organic material � Peanut � Sunflower seed � Almond

Types of F. B � Organic material � Peanut � Sunflower seed � Almond � Popcorn � Apple Orange seeds � Nonorganic � Buttons � Toys parts � Pins and needles

Evaluation �The most important factor in evaluating a child who possibly aspirated an FB

Evaluation �The most important factor in evaluating a child who possibly aspirated an FB is an accurate history. �The common signs and symptoms will be present in 50% to 90% of cases � In a series of 100 FB aspiration cases, a choking crisis occurred in 95% and was the most sensitive clinical parameter. � FBs that lodge in the larynx and trachea can be completely obstructive, causing sudden death. �persistent cough, hemoptesis, fever, malaise, and respiratory compromise retractions

�Inspiratory stridor and respiratory distress with indrawing of the supraclavicular, substernal or intercostal areas

�Inspiratory stridor and respiratory distress with indrawing of the supraclavicular, substernal or intercostal areas indicate that the object is in the larynx or subglottic area. �Foreign bodies in the trachea or bronchus cause a wheeze

Symptoms �Penetration syndrome " defined as a sudden onset of choking and intractable cough

Symptoms �Penetration syndrome " defined as a sudden onset of choking and intractable cough with or without vomiting” �Cough �Fever �Breathlessness �Wheezing �Cyanosis �No symptoms

Radiographic examination �consists of anteroposterior and lateral views of the extended neck and chest.

Radiographic examination �consists of anteroposterior and lateral views of the extended neck and chest. � 56% of patients will have a normal chest radiograph �CXR findings: �air trapping �atelectasis �mediastinal shift �Pneumonia �a radiopaque object

Radiographic Findings in Patients With Foreign Body Aspiration Child Group, No. of Radiographs With

Radiographic Findings in Patients With Foreign Body Aspiration Child Group, No. of Radiographs With Diagnosis (% Relative Frequency) Adult Group, No. of Radiographs With Diagnosis (% Relative Frequency) Atelectasis 11 (14) 9 (50) Air trapping 49 (64) 3 (17) Pneumonia 10 (13) 3 (17) Visible foreign body 3 (4) 2 (11) Normal radiograph 9 (12) 2 (11)

Progress of disease �Symptomatic phase �Asymptomatic phase �Complications �Pneumonia �Lung abscess �Bronchiectasis �Hemoptasis �Erosion

Progress of disease �Symptomatic phase �Asymptomatic phase �Complications �Pneumonia �Lung abscess �Bronchiectasis �Hemoptasis �Erosion & perforation

signs �Respiratory distress �Localized wheezing �Poor air entry

signs �Respiratory distress �Localized wheezing �Poor air entry

The complications that develop as a result of aspiration �obstruction due to granulation tissue

The complications that develop as a result of aspiration �obstruction due to granulation tissue or strictures, �atelectasis, �bronchiectasis, �pneumonia, �empyema, �lung abscess, �perforation with pneumothorax, �systemic sepsis.

Special consideration �Great care needs to be taken with peanuts, which is why they

Special consideration �Great care needs to be taken with peanuts, which is why they should not be given to young children. Not only can they obstruct the bronchus, but the oil content can also produce a lipoid pneumonia which is known to develop rapidly.

treatment �Bronchoscopic removal of the foreign body

treatment �Bronchoscopic removal of the foreign body

ESOPHAGEAL FOREIGN BODIES

ESOPHAGEAL FOREIGN BODIES

Esophageal FB �The most common site (70%) of lodgement is at the level of

Esophageal FB �The most common site (70%) of lodgement is at the level of the cricopharyngeus muscle (the area between the clavicles on the x-ray). �The other two sites of lodgement are �mid-oesophagus �the gastro-oesphageal junction. �Coins and smooth blunt objects are the most commonly ingested items

Foreign Bodies �Cricopharyngeus muscle 63%– 84% �Aortic crossover mid-esophagus 10%– 17% �Lower esophagus sphincter

Foreign Bodies �Cricopharyngeus muscle 63%– 84% �Aortic crossover mid-esophagus 10%– 17% �Lower esophagus sphincter 5%– 20%

Congenital and acquired esophageal anomalies that contribute to FB obstruction of the esophagus. �Esophageal

Congenital and acquired esophageal anomalies that contribute to FB obstruction of the esophagus. �Esophageal atresia �Esophageal anastomosis �vascular ring, �cartilaginous rests, �middle mediastinal mass, �an esophageal stricture, �achalasia, �Duplication cyst

Clinical symptoms of a patient with an FB that obstructs the esophagus �sudden onset

Clinical symptoms of a patient with an FB that obstructs the esophagus �sudden onset of acute and severe coughing, � pain in the pharyngeal or retrosternal region, �gagging, �poor feeding, �Drooling �respiratory symptoms �Periesophageal inflammation from an unsuspected esophageal FB can cause airway symptoms such as wheezing, stridor, and coughing. �Significant respiratory symptoms can be seen with an esophageal FB as the esophageal dilation can result in airway compression.

Radiologic evaluation include a lateral view and an anteroposterior view of both the neck

Radiologic evaluation include a lateral view and an anteroposterior view of both the neck and chest

treatment �Esophagoscopic removal

treatment �Esophagoscopic removal

Batteries unique injuries �Related to: �Direct caustic injury, alkaline corrosive �pressure necrosis, �tissue necrosis

Batteries unique injuries �Related to: �Direct caustic injury, alkaline corrosive �pressure necrosis, �tissue necrosis from electrical discharge, �toxin release (mercury poisoning). �Disc batteries can cause corrosive injury to the esophagus within 4 hours

Complications caused by esophageal impaction of button batteries �Include: � tracheoesophageal fistula �esophageal burn

Complications caused by esophageal impaction of button batteries �Include: � tracheoesophageal fistula �esophageal burn with and without perforation, �Aortoesophageal fistula, �esophageal stricture, �death.

treatment �Emergency endoscopy must be performed for batteries retained in the esophagus because of

treatment �Emergency endoscopy must be performed for batteries retained in the esophagus because of the high propensity of early mucosal injury.

GASTROINTESTINAL FOREIGN BODIES

GASTROINTESTINAL FOREIGN BODIES

� 97% of ingested FBs that passed through the esophagus on radiographic study were

� 97% of ingested FBs that passed through the esophagus on radiographic study were spontaneously evacuated � Commonly ingested sharp FBs include bones, nails, safety pins, needles, sharp toys, and toothpicks. � Disc battery ingestion requires removal if lodged in the esophagus. Once the battery is in the stomach, it can be managed conservatively with spontaneous passage expected without complications � Ingestion of multiple magnets usually causes minimal initial physical findings. � Late complications include � bowel perforation, � volvulus, � ischemia, � enteroenteral fistulas. � Removal of magnets is recommended when there are more than one and while they are still in the stomach. Once they are distal to the stomach, observation is necessary to ensure that they all pass per the rectum.

types �Sharp objects �Blunt objects �Disc batteries �magnets

types �Sharp objects �Blunt objects �Disc batteries �magnets

Sharp objects �Majority pass without problems �Need careful observation �Surgical intervention: �Peritonitis �Bleeding �Obstruction

Sharp objects �Majority pass without problems �Need careful observation �Surgical intervention: �Peritonitis �Bleeding �Obstruction �Failure to progress

Blunt objects �Coins; buttons; marbles �Most of these objects pass �Observation at home �surgical

Blunt objects �Coins; buttons; marbles �Most of these objects pass �Observation at home �surgical intervention if complicated: �Peritonitis �Bleeding �Obstruction �Failure to progress within 4 -6 weeks

Disc batteries �Serious complications because of �Corrosive injury �Electric current �Should be removed if

Disc batteries �Serious complications because of �Corrosive injury �Electric current �Should be removed if no progress within 6 to 12 hours

magnets �Ingestion of multiple magnets usually causes minimal initial physical findings. �Late complications include

magnets �Ingestion of multiple magnets usually causes minimal initial physical findings. �Late complications include �bowel perforation, �volvulus, �ischemia, �enteroenteral fistulas. �Removal of magnets is recommended when there are more than one and while they are still in the stomach. Once they are distal to the stomach, observation is necessary to ensure that they all pass per the rectum.