Body Image Going for the 3 Increases: Increase in Health, Increase in Happiness & Increase in Energy Strategies for Success in Weight Management By: James J. Messina, Ph. D.
Is your Body Image bothering you? Are you happy with your body? l Positive body image & healthy mental attitude are important for all people to achieve happiness & maintain wellness l
"To lose confidence in one's body is to lose confidence in one's self ” Simone de Beauvoir "No one can make you feel inferior without your consent. " Eleanor Roosevelt.
Is your body-image healthy? l For next 12 statements, rate degree to which it applies to you. Select only one number for each statement using following ranking: l 0 = Never 1 = Sometimes 2 = Often 3 = Always After rating all statements, total your points to get "Body Image" score l l
Is your body-image healthy? 1. 2. 3. 4. I don’t like looking at myself in mirrors Shopping for clothes makes me weight-focused & is unpleasant I don’t like to be looked at in public I avoid participating in sports or outside exercise because of my
Is your body-image healthy? 5. 6. 7. 8. I feel ashamed of my body in the presence of a special person I don’t like my body I feel that other people must think my body is ugly I feel that friends and family are embarrassed to be seen with me
Is your body-image healthy? I compare my body to others to see if they are heavier than I am 10. Enjoying activities is difficult because I am self-conscious about my appearance 11. I am preoccupied with feeling guilty about my weight 12. I have negative & critical 9.
Is your body-image healthy? Your final score may suggest the following: l 0 - 7 Great attitude/Keep it up ! l 8 - 14 Slightly dissatisfied l 15 - 21 Moderately dissatisfied l 22 - 28 Very dissatisfied l 29 - 36 Extremely dissatisfied
What is body image disturbance Many engage in disordered eating when experiencing body image dissatisfaction l Disordered eating behaviors can include skipping meals, crash dieting, fasting for short or long periods of time, bingeing & purging l The physical, mental & psychological effects of disordered eating vary depending upon the duration & severity of the negative eating pattern l
Magnitude of Body Image Problems l Body dissatisfaction is increasing at a faster rate than ever before among both men and women l 89% of the 3, 452 female respondents wanted to lose weight. l Garner (1997, January/February). The 1997 body image survey results. Psychology Today, pp. 31 - 44, 75 -84.
Magnitude of Body Image Problems l Thinness has not only come to represent attractiveness, but also has come to symbolize success, self -control & higher socioeconomic status l Marketdata Enterprises, Inc. estimated the size of the weight loss industry for 1994 at $32, 680 billion
Magnitude of Body Image Problems l Body image dissatisfaction & eating disorders are more prevalent among females than males -which is apparent in that over 90% of patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa are women l Anderson & Di. Domenico (1992). Diet vs. shape content of popular male and female magazines: A dose-response relationship to the incidence of eating disorders? International Journal of Eating Disorders, 11 (3), 283 -287.
Magnitude of Body Image Problems l Dieting to deal with poor body image has been powerful contributor to dysphoria because of failure often associated - 95 -98% of all dieters regain their weight l Heatherton & Polivy (1992)Chronic dieting and eating disorders: A spiral model. In Crowther, Tennenbaum, Hobfold, & Parris The etiology of bulimia nervosa: The individual and familial context. Washington, DC: Hemisphere.
People with body image problems at risk for disordered eating l Women l High-achievers l Have other compulsive behaviors l Are in occupations, in living situations, or who participate in activities where there is a focus on appearance l Are depressed
People with body image problems at risk for disordered eating l Have a relative with an eating disorder l Come from dysfunctional families l Are survivors of sexual abuse l Children of alcoholic parents l Survivors of sexual assault l Athletes
Are you a disordered eater? Does your bathroom scale set the tone for your whole day? l Do you avoid mirrors or any reflections of yourself? l Is your worth determined by your appearance? l Do you worry about gaining weight? l Do you avoid foods? l Do you feel guilty after eating? l
Are you a disordered eater? Do you obsess about some particular body feature? l Do you wish that you can shape your body/looks in any way you want? l Do you exercise at a high intensity level over an hour a day? l Do you exercise to justify your eating? l Do you use laxatives or diuretics as a way to control your weight? l
Sources of Body Image concerns 400 -600 advertisements bombard us everyday in magazines, on billboards, on tv, and in newspapers l One in eleven has a direct message about beauty, not even counting the indirect messages l These messages on beauty demean, objectify, demoralize, or sexualize images about women l
Sources of Body Image concerns Parental messages about body image and teasing by others (e. g. peers and/or family) have been correlated with body image dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms. l Thus parental and peer messages about one's body shape or weight seem to influence body image dissatisfaction (Thelen & Cormier, 1995). l
Sources of Body Image concerns l Mothers whose daughters were eating disordered were themselves more eating disordered & thought that their daughters should lose more weight than the mothers of the non-eating disordered girls. l Pike & Rodin (1991). Mothers, daughters, and disordered eating. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100 (2), 198 -204.
Sources of Body Image concerns l Mothers' and fathers' reported encouragement of their daughters to lose weight was positively correlated with the daughter's body weight, desire to be thinner, and dieting efforts l Thelen & Cormier (1995). Desire to be thinner and weight control among children and their parents. Behavior Therapy, 26, 85 -99.
Things you can do to change your Body Image 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Stop talking about your weight Make a list of women you admire Question the motives of the fashion industry Stop weighing yourself so much! Concentrate on things you do well
Things you can do to change your Body Image Do physical things for fun 7. Value your dollars & do not spend with poor image portrayers 8. Voice your opinion against poor body image messages 9. Be a role model of positive image 10. Break the barriers 6.
Final tips to improve body image 1. 2. 3. 4. Get rid of clothes that don't fit. Don't buy clothing that you hope will fit you "someday. " Remember that you are made of a personality and a body. Remind yourself of your positive qualities, not your size. Try to wean yourself of your scale and a daily weigh-in. Weight doesn't have to dictate how you feel about yourself each day. Try to be less critical of your weight. Look at your body non-judgmentally.