- Slides: 32
Interaction Between Body Systems
The Body The body is very complex; made of trillions of cells that form organs and organ systems that all work together for the human body to function properly.
Cells > Tissues > Organ Systems Cells form tissue. Tissues form Organs form Organ Systems make up the body and allow it to function properly. Cardiac muscle cell Cardiac muscle tissue Heart Circulatory System
Nutrients The cells in our body are dependent on the different body systems to supply it with nutrients such as: Minerals Lipids Carbohydrates Proteins Water
The Respiratory System Supplies the circulatory system with oxygenated blood and removes carbon dioxide from the body.
The Respiratory System How do we know it’s there? When we exchange gases with the environment, our lungs expand to pull gases in and relax to push gases out. This forces our chest to move and we can see this happening!
The Circulatory System Carries nutrients from the digestive system and oxygen from the respiratory system around to the rest of the body.
The Circulatory System It then takes carbon dioxide waste back to the lungs and takes other wastes to the urinary system to be disposed of.
The Circulatory System How do we know it’s there? Check your pulse! Your pulse is the beating of your heart pumping blood throughout your body through arteries and veins. It is through this system that nutrients and wastes are transported!
The Urinary System Cleans the wastes out of the blood and stores them in the bladder for excretion through the urethra.
The Urinary System How do we know it’s there? We urinate when our bladders are full. This is the action our bodies take when waste and excess volume need to be excreted from the body.
The Digestive System Takes in food and digests it to extract energy and nutrients then rids of the remaining waste.
The Digestive System How do we know it’s there? We can hear our digestive system at work when our stomachs growl. From feeling hungry to feeling full, our digestive system controls these feelings by moving food through the system.
The Immune System Protects the body from potentially harmful, foreign substances, like viruses and bacteria, so that the body can have healthy cells, tissues, and organ systems.
The Immune System A single neutrophil (a type of white blood cell) engulfing the anthrax bacteria. Intruders Attack!
The Immune System How do we know it’s there? When we get sick, our bodies fight off the foreign invaders causing us to feel ill. Also, when we get a scrape or cut, the center often turns a white color, which are white blood cells sent by the immune system to attack the bacteria!
The Nervous System Composed of two smaller systems, the Central Nervous System and the Peripheral Nervous System. These systems work together to coordinates the body’s response to changes in its internal and external environment.
The Nervous System How do we know it’s there? When we touch something hot, we quickly remove our hand as a reaction. This reaction is so quick because of the nerves in the ends our of fingers, which relay signals to and from the brain.
The Integumentary System Protects the body from damage; comprised of the skin and its appendages including hair and nails.
The Integumentary System Serves to waterproof, cushion, and protect the deeper tissues, excrete wastes, regulate temperature and is the location of receptors of the nervous system for pain, sensation, pressure and temperature.
The Integumentary System How do we know it’s there? We can see it.
The Musculoskeletal System Provides form, stability, and movement to the human body, and protection for internal organs.
The Musculoskeletal System How do we know it’s there? Our abilities to walk, talk and dance are dependent on this system. When we move, our bodies are supported by our muscles and our bones.
The Endocrine System Consists of small organs that release signaling molecules known as hormones. The endocrine system is important for regulating metabolism, development, and tissue function and also plays a part in determining mood.
The Endocrine System How do we know it’s there? Have you changed in size since you were a baby? Of course you have! Hormones secreted by the endocrine system regulate growth!
The Reproductive System Consists of organs which work together for the purpose of reproduction. Many non-living substances such as fluids, hormones, and pheromones are also important accessories to the reproductive system.
The Reproductive System How do we know it’s there? We would not be here without it. When we were conceived and born, the reproductive system was at work. This is how women are able to have babies!
Feedback Systems Keeping the body in balance
Negative Feedback o Have you ever been scolded for not cleaning your room? o Cleaning your room is how you respond to being scolded. o A negative feedback system involves the detection of an undesirable condition and the response to make that condition ideal. Negative Feedback + _
Negative Feedback Basic structure: INPUT DETECTION RESPONSE OUTPUT SHUT OFF
Other Kinds of Feedback Positive Feedback o Instead of responding opposite to the detected condition, this system reinforces the condition until an escape clause is encountered. o Some cancer cells use a positive feedback system to replicate. They lack an escape due to a cell malfunction replicating uncontrollably until the organism ultimately dies. Positive Feedback + +
Other Kinds of Feedback Feed-forward o Not technically feedback, but similar. o The system responds in anticipation of a change o Hunger is an example of feed-forward. If you typically eat lunch at noon, your body will begin to make digestive enzymes in anticipation.