LUSI Xray PumpProbe Instrument David Fritz XPP Instrument

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LUSI X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz – XPP Instrument Scientist LCLS Science Advisory Committee

LUSI X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz – XPP Instrument Scientist LCLS Science Advisory Committee Meeting March 18, 2008 Team Leader: Kelly Gaffney Second Scientist: Marc Messerschmidt Lead Engineer: J. Brian Langton Designer: Jim Defever Designer: Jim Delor LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

Outline Introduction Scientific Scope Experimental Techniques Instrument Overview Preliminary Instrument Design Review Early Science

Outline Introduction Scientific Scope Experimental Techniques Instrument Overview Preliminary Instrument Design Review Early Science Instrument Summary LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

Contributors J. Brian Langton Jim Deferver Jim Delor Marc Messerschmidt Paul Montanez Jean-Charles Castagna

Contributors J. Brian Langton Jim Deferver Jim Delor Marc Messerschmidt Paul Montanez Jean-Charles Castagna Richard Jackson David Reis Kelly Gaffney J. Larsson Thomas Tschentscher Jerry Hastings Sébastien Boutet Aymeric Robert John Bozek Yiping Feng Niels van Bakel Gunther Haller John Arthur Nadine Kurita Don Arnett LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument XPP Lead Engineer LUSI/XPP Designer XPP Scientist CXI Lead Engineer LUSI/CXI Designer XPP Team Leader (U. Michigan) XPP Team Leader (SLAC) XPP Team Leader (Lund U. ) XPP Team Leader (DESY) LUSI Project Director CXI Instrument Scientist XCS Instrument Scientist AMO Instrument Scientist LUSI Detector Scientist LUSI Controls Scientist LCLS Photon Beam System Manager LUSI Chief Engineer LUSI Engineer David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

X-ray Pump-Probe Science photoexcitation Stampfli and Bennemann Phys. Rev. B 49, 7299 (1994) Phase

X-ray Pump-Probe Science photoexcitation Stampfli and Bennemann Phys. Rev. B 49, 7299 (1994) Phase Transitions Order / Disorder Metal/Insulator Phonon Dynamics Charge Transfer Reactions Photosynthesis Photovoltaics Vision Photoactive Proteins photoexcitation LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

Experimental Techniques Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction (TRXD) Single crystals Time-Resolve Diffuse Scattering (TRDS) Single crystals,

Experimental Techniques Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction (TRXD) Single crystals Time-Resolve Diffuse Scattering (TRDS) Single crystals, powders & liquids Time-Resolved Protein Crystallography (TRPX) LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

XPP Instrument Location Near Experimental Hall X-ray Transport Tunnel AMO (LCLS) XPP Endstation XCS

XPP Instrument Location Near Experimental Hall X-ray Transport Tunnel AMO (LCLS) XPP Endstation XCS CXI Far Experimental Hall LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

NEH Hutch 3 LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz dmfritz@slac.

NEH Hutch 3 LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

XPP X-ray Component Layout LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz

XPP X-ray Component Layout LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

XPP Optics Table (Hutch 2) LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David

XPP Optics Table (Hutch 2) LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

XPP Optics & Diagnostics Table Harmonic Rejection Mirrors Attenuators Be Lenses Slits LCLS SAC

XPP Optics & Diagnostics Table Harmonic Rejection Mirrors Attenuators Be Lenses Slits LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

XPP X-ray Instrumentation Diagram LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz

XPP X-ray Instrumentation Diagram LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

XPP Diffractometer Purpose Orient and position samples Position detector XPP Diffractometer Requirements 30 micron

XPP Diffractometer Purpose Orient and position samples Position detector XPP Diffractometer Requirements 30 micron sample sphere of confusion < 100 micron detector sphere of confusion (< 1 pixel) 10 cm – 100 cm sample to detector distance Accommodate large sample environments (up to 50 kg) LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

Detector Mover LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz dmfritz@slac. stanford.

Detector Mover LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

XPP Detector System 2 D detector (BNL) 1024 x 1024 pixels 90 micron pixel

XPP Detector System 2 D detector (BNL) 1024 x 1024 pixels 90 micron pixel size High Detector Quantum Efficiency (DQE) 10 4 dynamic range per pixel at 8 ke. V 120 Hz Readout Rate LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

XPP Laser System Phase locked to the LCLS RF with less than 100 fs

XPP Laser System Phase locked to the LCLS RF with less than 100 fs rms jitter The following laser parameters shall be remotely controlled via the instrument controls system: Pump Oscillator Dazzler Medium Energy Amplifier Pointing on the sample Polarization state at the sample Pulse energy at the sample Pulse duration (up to 5 ps) and temporal shape Arrival time with respect to the X-ray pulse (neglecting jitter) to any arbitrary time delay with a 10 fs precision. Pump Pulse Picker High Energy Amplifier Pump Vacuum Transport OPA Harmonic Crystals Compressor SHG THG Up to 20 m. J per pulse energy at sample (800 nm) < 50 fs pulse duration Wavelength Tunable Integrated Diagnostics OPA Diagnostics LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument Pulse Duration Spectrum Spatial Profile Pulse Energy Contrast Ratio David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

Electro-Optic Timing LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz dmfritz@slac. stanford.

Electro-Optic Timing LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

Non-sequential Sampling 100 consecutive shots Single shot, Lorentzian fit Diagnostic required to measure LCLS/laser

Non-sequential Sampling 100 consecutive shots Single shot, Lorentzian fit Diagnostic required to measure LCLS/laser timing EOS demonstrated at SPPS LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

Preliminary Instrument Design Review Design review held on December 7, 2007 PIDR Committee Members

Preliminary Instrument Design Review Design review held on December 7, 2007 PIDR Committee Members John Arthur (LCLS) Aaron Lindenberg (SLAC, Stanford) Robert Schoenlein (LBNL) Michael Toney (SSRL) Quotes from Report “The committee found the preliminary design well thought out, and the proposed design viable. The design appears to be appropriately flexible and applicable to a wide range of ultrafast time-resolved diffraction science. ” “The committee recommends that the experimental team move forward with the design leading to a Final Design Review, taking into account the comments and recommendations enumerated below. ” LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

Early Science XPP Instrument LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz

Early Science XPP Instrument LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

Summary Instrument design emphasizes flexibility X-ray scattering techniques Time Resolved X-ray Diffraction Time Resolved

Summary Instrument design emphasizes flexibility X-ray scattering techniques Time Resolved X-ray Diffraction Time Resolved Diffuse Scattering Time Resolved Protein Crystallography X-ray optics can tailor FEL parameters for users X-ray detector is ideal for XPP Experiments Versatile laser system Positive Preliminary Instrument Design Review LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

Support Slides LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz dmfritz@slac. stanford.

Support Slides LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

RF Distribution Scheme (LBNL) 476 MHz & 119 MHz 1530 nm CW fiber laser

RF Distribution Scheme (LBNL) 476 MHz & 119 MHz 1530 nm CW fiber laser AM temp. control, 0. 01 C ref. arm piezo, mirror delays P 2 km fiber f 1 +55 MHz freq. shifter f 1 + 110 MHz C 2 H 2 freq. locker 2 110 MHz beat LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument output mixer 110 MHz oscillator David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

RF Distribution Scheme (LBNL) Phase delay in fs versus time: 3 fs in 10

RF Distribution Scheme (LBNL) Phase delay in fs versus time: 3 fs in 10 hours LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

Laser/FEL Timing Master Clock Electron Gun Accelerating Elements RF Distribution Network Experimental Pump Laser

Laser/FEL Timing Master Clock Electron Gun Accelerating Elements RF Distribution Network Experimental Pump Laser Sources of Short Term Jitter E-beam phase to RF phase jitter Electron beam energy jitter + dispersive electron optics End station laser phase to RF Phase ~ 1 ps limit LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

1. 5. 3. 3 LUSI Slit System D. Le Bolloc’h et al. , J.

1. 5. 3. 3 LUSI Slit System D. Le Bolloc’h et al. , J. Synchrotron Rad. , 9, 258 -265 (2002). Slit systems requirements Variable horizontal and vertical gap from 0 μm – 10 mm Can withstand full LCLS flux – unfocused Minimize background scatter from blades LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

1. 5. 2. 3 LUSI Intensity-Position Monitor Intensity Position Requirements 0. 1% relative accuracy

1. 5. 2. 3 LUSI Intensity-Position Monitor Intensity Position Requirements 0. 1% relative accuracy in intensity ~ 5 micron position accuracy over 2 mm range > 95% transmission for photons >6 ke. V Can withstand full LCLS flux – focused to 30 microns Preserve transverse coherence LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

1. 5. 2. 1 LUSI Pop-in Profile Monitor Requirements Large FOV Mode Translation stage

1. 5. 2. 1 LUSI Pop-in Profile Monitor Requirements Large FOV Mode Translation stage 50 x 50 mm FOV 50 micron resolution Narrow FOV Mode 10 x 10 mm FOV 10 micron resolution 45º mirror 2 – 25 ke. V operational range Use with attenuation is acceptable YAG: Ce screen LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument 10 x Zoom lens CCD camera David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

1. 5. 3. 2 X-ray Focusing Lens System B. Lengeler et al. , J.

1. 5. 3. 2 X-ray Focusing Lens System B. Lengeler et al. , J. Synchrotron Rad. , 6, 1153 -1167 (1999). LUSI X-ray Focusing Lens Purpose Increase the X-ray fluence at the sample LUSI X-ray Focusing Lens Requirements Produce a variable spot size between 2 – 10 micron and 40 – 60 microns (out of focus) Preserve coherence Withstand full flux LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

1. 5. 3. 4 LUSI Attenuator System LUSI Attenuator Purpose Reduce incident X-ray flux

1. 5. 3. 4 LUSI Attenuator System LUSI Attenuator Purpose Reduce incident X-ray flux Sample damage Detector saturation Diagnostic saturation Alignment of optics and diagnostics LUSI Attenuator Requirements Preserve coherence Withstand unfocused flux 10 8 attenuation at 8. 3 ke. V 10 5 attenuation at 24. 9 ke. V 3 steps per decade LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

1. 5. 2. 2 LUSI Pop-in Intensity Monitor LUSI PIM Requirements Measure intensity with

1. 5. 2. 2 LUSI Pop-in Intensity Monitor LUSI PIM Requirements Measure intensity with a 1% relative accuracy > 2 cm x 2 cm sensing area 10 4 dynamic range PIM 1 Purpose Alignment of mono. crystal 1 PIM 2 Purpose Calibration of attenuators Calibration of slits PIM 3 Purpose Alignment of sample and beam stops (transmission method) LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

1. 5. 3. 5 LUSI Pulse Picker http: //www. azsol. ch/ Pulse Picker Requirements

1. 5. 3. 5 LUSI Pulse Picker http: //www. azsol. ch/ Pulse Picker Requirements Millisecond shutter speed Allows any pattern of pulses to be selected. Withstand full LCLS flux - unfocused Requires 1 mm B 4 C to protect the steel blade Pulse Picker Purpose Reduce LCLS repetition rate Important if longer sample recover time is needed Damage experiments - sample needs to be translated LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu

1. 5. 3. 6 Harmonic Rejection Mirrors A B LUSI Harmonic Rejection Mirror Purpose

1. 5. 3. 6 Harmonic Rejection Mirrors A B LUSI Harmonic Rejection Mirror Purpose Isolate fundamental radiation from 3 rd harmonic Angle beam downward (liquid interface experiments) C LUSI Harmonic Rejection Mirror Requirements > 80% system throughput Preserve coherence Withstand full flux > 10 5 contrast (10 7 overall) LCLS SAC March 18, 2008 X-ray Pump-Probe Instrument David Fritz [email protected] stanford. edu