Plant Anatomy Physiology By Johnny M Jessup Agricultural

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Plant Anatomy & Physiology By: Johnny M. Jessup Agricultural Instructor/FFA Advisor

Plant Anatomy & Physiology By: Johnny M. Jessup Agricultural Instructor/FFA Advisor

The Four Basic Parts of Plants n Leaves n Stems n Roots n Flowers

The Four Basic Parts of Plants n Leaves n Stems n Roots n Flowers

Leaves n Functions n n Make food through photosynthesis Site of gas exchange Respiration

Leaves n Functions n n Make food through photosynthesis Site of gas exchange Respiration n Photosynthesis n n Store food

Tissues of the Leaf (Epidermis) n Cuticle n n Waxy substance that covers the

Tissues of the Leaf (Epidermis) n Cuticle n n Waxy substance that covers the leaves & stems Waterproof layer that keeps water in plants

Tissues of the Leaf (Epidermis) n Stomata n n Openings in the epidermis mainly

Tissues of the Leaf (Epidermis) n Stomata n n Openings in the epidermis mainly located on the underside of leaves Exchange of gases

Tissues of the Leaf (Epidermis) n Guard Cells n n Two cells located on

Tissues of the Leaf (Epidermis) n Guard Cells n n Two cells located on each side of stomata Open and closes stomata

Tissues of the Leaf (Mesophyll Layer) n Palisade mesophyll n n Primary site of

Tissues of the Leaf (Mesophyll Layer) n Palisade mesophyll n n Primary site of photosynthesis Spongy mesophyll n n Contains air & chloroplasts Site of photosynthesis and gas exchange

Tissues of the Leaf n Vascular Bundles n n Called veins In spongy mesophyll

Tissues of the Leaf n Vascular Bundles n n Called veins In spongy mesophyll Phloem moves food from leaf to the rest of the plant Xylem moves water & minerals up to leaves from roots

Tissues of the Leaf

Tissues of the Leaf

External Parts of the Leaf n Petiole n n Blade n n Leaf stalk

External Parts of the Leaf n Petiole n n Blade n n Leaf stalk or part that connects the leaf to the stem. The large, flat part of a leaf. Midrib n The large center vein.

External Parts of the Leaf

External Parts of the Leaf

Leaf Forms

Leaf Forms

Leaf Margins

Leaf Margins

Leaf Tips

Leaf Tips

Leaf Bases

Leaf Bases

Leaf Arrangements (Simple)

Leaf Arrangements (Simple)

Leaf Arrangements (Compound)

Leaf Arrangements (Compound)

Leaf Crops

Leaf Crops

Stems n Functions n Movement of materials Water & minerals from roots to leaves

Stems n Functions n Movement of materials Water & minerals from roots to leaves n Manufactured food from leaves to roots n n n Support leaves & reproductive structures Food storage

External Stem Structure n Lenticels n n Bud Scale Scars n n Breathing pores.

External Stem Structure n Lenticels n n Bud Scale Scars n n Breathing pores. Show where terminal buds have been located. Leaf Scars n Show where leaves were attached.

External Stem Structure n Terminal Bud n n Bud on the end of the

External Stem Structure n Terminal Bud n n Bud on the end of the stem. Axillary Lateral Bud n Bud on the side of the stem.

External Stem Structure

External Stem Structure

Internal Stem Structure n Xylem n n Phloem n n The tissue that transports

Internal Stem Structure n Xylem n n Phloem n n The tissue that transports water & nutrients up from roots to stems & leaves. Tissue that transports food down from leaves to roots. Cambium n Thin, green, actively growing tissue located between bark & wood and produces all new stem cells.

Internal Stem Structure n Bark n n Heartwood n n Old, inactive phloem. Old,

Internal Stem Structure n Bark n n Heartwood n n Old, inactive phloem. Old, inactive xylem. Sapwood n New, active xylem.

Internal Stem Structure (Monocots) n n Vascular bundles contain both xylem & phloem. Examples:

Internal Stem Structure (Monocots) n n Vascular bundles contain both xylem & phloem. Examples: n n Grasses Corn

Monocot Stems (Vascular Bundle)

Monocot Stems (Vascular Bundle)

Internal Stem Structure (Dicots) n n Plant stems have xylem & phloem separated by

Internal Stem Structure (Dicots) n n Plant stems have xylem & phloem separated by the cambium. Example: n Trees

Internal Stem Structure (Dicots)

Internal Stem Structure (Dicots)

Specialized Types of Stems n Corm n n n Underground Solid, fleshy, scale covered

Specialized Types of Stems n Corm n n n Underground Solid, fleshy, scale covered Examples n n Gladiolus Crocus

Specialized Types of Stems n Bulb n n n Layers of fleshy scales that

Specialized Types of Stems n Bulb n n n Layers of fleshy scales that overlap each other Underground stem Examples n n n Tulips Lilies Onions

Specialized Types of Stems n Tubers n n n Food Storage Area Short, thick

Specialized Types of Stems n Tubers n n n Food Storage Area Short, thick underground stem Examples n n Potato Caladium

Specialized Types of Stems n Crown n Closely grouped stems or plantlets Just above

Specialized Types of Stems n Crown n Closely grouped stems or plantlets Just above or below ground Examples n n African violet Ferns

Specialized Types of Stems n Spurs n n Short stems found on woody limbs

Specialized Types of Stems n Spurs n n Short stems found on woody limbs adapted for increased fruit production Examples n n Apple Pear

Specialized Types of Stems n Rhizomes n n Underground stems that produce roots on

Specialized Types of Stems n Rhizomes n n Underground stems that produce roots on the lower surface and extend leaves and flower shoots above ground Examples n n Iris Lily of the Valley

Specialized Types of Stems n Stolons n n Stem that grows horizontally above the

Specialized Types of Stems n Stolons n n Stem that grows horizontally above the soil surface Examples n n Strawberries Airplane Plant

Stem Crops

Stem Crops

Roots n Functions n n Anchor the plant Absorb water & minerals Store food

Roots n Functions n n Anchor the plant Absorb water & minerals Store food Propagate or reproduce some plants

Different Types of Roots n Tap Root n n n One main root, no

Different Types of Roots n Tap Root n n n One main root, no nodes Continuation of the primary root Ideal for anchorage Penetration is greater for water Storage area for food

Different Types of Roots n Fibrous Root n n Many finely branched secondary roots

Different Types of Roots n Fibrous Root n n Many finely branched secondary roots Shallow roots cover a large area n n More efficient absorption of water & minerals Roots hold the soil to prevent erosion

Different Types of Roots n Aerial Roots n Clinging air roots n n n

Different Types of Roots n Aerial Roots n Clinging air roots n n n Short roots that grow horizontally from the stems Roots that fasten the plant to a support Absorptive air roots n Absorb moisture from the air

Different Types of Roots n Adventitious Roots n n Develop in places other than

Different Types of Roots n Adventitious Roots n n Develop in places other than nodes Form on cuttings & rhizomes

External Parts of Roots n Root Cap n Indicates growth of new cells.

External Parts of Roots n Root Cap n Indicates growth of new cells.

External Parts of Roots n Root Hairs n n n Tiny one celled hairlike

External Parts of Roots n Root Hairs n n n Tiny one celled hairlike extensions of the epidermal cells located near the tips of roots. Increase surface area. Absorb water & minerals.

Internal Parts of Roots Much like those of stems with phloem, cambium and xylem

Internal Parts of Roots Much like those of stems with phloem, cambium and xylem layers. n Phloem n n The outer layer. Carries food down the plant. Xylem n n The inner layer. Carries water & minerals up to the stem.

Root Crops

Root Crops

Flowers n Function n Contain the sexual organs for the plant. Produces fruit, which

Flowers n Function n Contain the sexual organs for the plant. Produces fruit, which protects, nourishes and carries seeds. Attracts insects for pollination.

Parts of the Flower n Sepals n n n Outer covering of the flower

Parts of the Flower n Sepals n n n Outer covering of the flower bud. Protects the stamens and pistils when flower is in bud stage. Collectively known as the calyx.

Parts of the Flower n Petals n n Brightly colored Protects stamen & pistils.

Parts of the Flower n Petals n n Brightly colored Protects stamen & pistils. Attracts pollinating insects. Collectively called the corolla.

Parts of the Flower (Stamen) n Male reproductive part n Anther n n Produces

Parts of the Flower (Stamen) n Male reproductive part n Anther n n Produces pollen Filament n Supports the anther

Parts of the Flower (Pistil) n Female reproductive part n Ovary n n n

Parts of the Flower (Pistil) n Female reproductive part n Ovary n n n Enlarged portion at base of pistil Produces ovules which develop into seeds Stigma n Holds the pollen grains

Parts of the Flower (Pistil) n Style n n Connects the stigma with the

Parts of the Flower (Pistil) n Style n n Connects the stigma with the ovary Supports the stigma so that it can be pollinated

Parts of the Flower

Parts of the Flower

Imperfect Flower n n Male or female reproductive organs, but not both. Example: n

Imperfect Flower n n Male or female reproductive organs, but not both. Example: n n A male flower has sepals, petals, and stamen, but no pistils. A female flower has sepals, petals, and pistils, but no stamen.

Perfect Flowers n Contains both male and female reproductive structures.

Perfect Flowers n Contains both male and female reproductive structures.

Incomplete Flowers n Missing one of the four major parts of the flower. n

Incomplete Flowers n Missing one of the four major parts of the flower. n n Stamen Pistil Sepal Petal

Complete Flowers n Contains male and female reproductive organs along with petals and sepals.

Complete Flowers n Contains male and female reproductive organs along with petals and sepals.

Flowers Imperfect flowers are always incomplete but……. . n Perfect flowers are not always

Flowers Imperfect flowers are always incomplete but……. . n Perfect flowers are not always complete and……. . n Complete flowers are always perfect. n

Importance of Flowers Important in florist & nursery businesses. n Many plants are grown

Importance of Flowers Important in florist & nursery businesses. n Many plants are grown solely for their flowers. n Plants have flowers to attract insects for pollination, but people grow them for beauty & economic value. n

Important Flower Crops

Important Flower Crops

Designed By: n Johnny M. Jessup, FFA Advisor n Hobbton High School

Designed By: n Johnny M. Jessup, FFA Advisor n Hobbton High School