INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Basic Structure and

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INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Basic Structure and Organization Mrs. La. Flamme

INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Basic Structure and Organization Mrs. La. Flamme

4 HS-EHS-2 4 Essential Question- What is the difference between anatomy and physiology?

4 HS-EHS-2 4 Essential Question- What is the difference between anatomy and physiology?

Definitions: 4 Anatomy: the study of the form and structure of an organism 4

Definitions: 4 Anatomy: the study of the form and structure of an organism 4 Physiology: the study of the process of living organisms; (why and how they work) 4 Pathophysiology: is the study of how disease occurs and how living organisms respond to the disease process

Anatomical Position 4 A human being in such a position is standing erect, with

Anatomical Position 4 A human being in such a position is standing erect, with face forward, arms at the side, and palms forward

Coronal (Frontal) Plane 4 Divides the body into a front and a back –

Coronal (Frontal) Plane 4 Divides the body into a front and a back – Anterior (Ventral) front – Posterior (Dorsal) back

Transverse Plane 4 Divides the body into a top and a bottom – Superior

Transverse Plane 4 Divides the body into a top and a bottom – Superior above – Cranial near the head – Inferior below – Caudal near the “tail-end”

Mid-sagittal (Median) Plane 4 Divides the body into a right and left side –

Mid-sagittal (Median) Plane 4 Divides the body into a right and left side – Medial close to the midline – Lateral away from the midline

Points of Reference 4 Proximal – close to the point of reference 4 Distal

Points of Reference 4 Proximal – close to the point of reference 4 Distal – distant from the point of reference – Example – in describing the relationship of the wrist and elbow to the shoulder (point of reference)…. . the wrist is distal and the elbow is proximal to the shoulder

Points of Reference 4 Superficial – on or near the surface of the skin

Points of Reference 4 Superficial – on or near the surface of the skin 4 Deep- term referring to within the body

IAN 4 Page 2 Draw a person in anatomical position and list four characteristics

IAN 4 Page 2 Draw a person in anatomical position and list four characteristics of this position 4 Page 3 Body Planes – Color the Transverse Plane Orange – Color the Midsagittal Plane Blue – Color the Frontal Plane Yellow

4 HS-EHS-2 4 Essential Question- Why do healthcare providers need to learn medical directional

4 HS-EHS-2 4 Essential Question- Why do healthcare providers need to learn medical directional terms of the body?

Cavities of the Body ◌Dorsal cavity ◌ Cranial cavity ◌ Spinal cavity ◌Ventral cavity

Cavities of the Body ◌Dorsal cavity ◌ Cranial cavity ◌ Spinal cavity ◌Ventral cavity ◌ Thoracic cavity ◌ Abdominopelvic cavity ◌ Abdominal cavity ◌ Pelvic cavity

Abdominal Regions Epigastric Region Right Hypochondriac Region Right Lumbar Region Right Iliac Region Hypogastric

Abdominal Regions Epigastric Region Right Hypochondriac Region Right Lumbar Region Right Iliac Region Hypogastric Region Left Hypochondriac Region Left Lumbar Region Left Iliac Region Umbilical Region

Abdominal Quadrants

Abdominal Quadrants

Cranial Cavity 4 Houses the brain

Cranial Cavity 4 Houses the brain

Nasal Cavity 4 For the nose structures

Nasal Cavity 4 For the nose structures

Buccal Cavity 4 Mouth cavity for the teeth and tongue

Buccal Cavity 4 Mouth cavity for the teeth and tongue

Orbital Cavity 4 Orbits for the eyes

Orbital Cavity 4 Orbits for the eyes

Quick triage…

Quick triage…

Life Functions 4 Life Functions are organized and related activities which allow living organisms

Life Functions 4 Life Functions are organized and related activities which allow living organisms to live, grow, and maintain themselves ~ homeostasis (balanced cellular enviroment 4 These vital functions include movement, ingestion, digestion, transport, respiration, synthesis, assimilation, growth, secretion, excretion, regulation, and reproduction

Body Processes 4 Metabolism: the functional activities of cells that result in growth, repair,

Body Processes 4 Metabolism: the functional activities of cells that result in growth, repair, energy release, use of food, and secretions 4 Anabolism: the building up of complex materials from simpler ones such as food and oxygen

Body Processes 4 Catabolism: the breaking down and changing of complex substances into simpler

Body Processes 4 Catabolism: the breaking down and changing of complex substances into simpler ones, with a release of energy and carbon dioxide Anabolism + Catabolism = Metabolism 4 Homeostasis: the maintenance of optimal internal environment of the human body

4 End of content for Organizational Quiz on Thursday.

4 End of content for Organizational Quiz on Thursday.

4 HS-EHS-2 4 Essential Question- What is the basic unit of structure and function

4 HS-EHS-2 4 Essential Question- What is the basic unit of structure and function of all living things?

Cells 4 Microscopic 4 Basic unit of structure and function of all living things

Cells 4 Microscopic 4 Basic unit of structure and function of all living things 4 Bodies made up of trillions of cells 4 Live for a few weeks or months, then they die, and are then replaced

Functions of Cells: 4 Take in food and oxygen 4 Produce heat and energy

Functions of Cells: 4 Take in food and oxygen 4 Produce heat and energy 4 Eliminates waste 4 Fights foreign pathogens like bacteria and viruses 4 Fights against allergens in the environment

Human Development 4 Early in human development, certain groups of cells become highly specialized

Human Development 4 Early in human development, certain groups of cells become highly specialized for specific functions. 4 Special cells grouped according to function, shape, size, and structure are called tissues.

Tissue 4 When cells of the same type join together for a common purpose

Tissue 4 When cells of the same type join together for a common purpose they for a tissue 4 60 -99 percent water – Two much water (edema) – Not enough (dehydration) 4 Four types – Epithelial tissue – Connective tissue – Muscle tissue – Nervous tissue

Epithelial tissue 4 Covers the surface of the body and is the main tissue

Epithelial tissue 4 Covers the surface of the body and is the main tissue in the skin 4 Lines the intestines, the respiratory tract, the circulatory and urinary tracts 4 Secrete and protect

Connective tissue 4 Supporting fabric of the organs and other body parts – Soft

Connective tissue 4 Supporting fabric of the organs and other body parts – Soft • Adipose (fat) • Loose (collagen, elastin) • Fibrous (ligaments, tendons, fasciae) – Hard • Cartilage • Bone – Vascular • Blood • Lymph 4 Support and connect

Nerve tissue 4 Made up of special cells called neurons 4 Have the ability

Nerve tissue 4 Made up of special cells called neurons 4 Have the ability to react to stimulus 4 Controls and coordinates body activities

Muscle tissue 4 Produces power and movement by contraction of muscle fibers – Skeletal

Muscle tissue 4 Produces power and movement by contraction of muscle fibers – Skeletal [voluntary] – Cardiac – Visceral/smooth [involuntary] 4 Move and protect

Organs and Systems 4 Two or more tissues joined together are organs – Heart,

Organs and Systems 4 Two or more tissues joined together are organs – Heart, stomach, lungs 4 Organs and other body parts working together to perform a particular function are called organ systems

4 Cells combine to form tissues, tissues combine to form organs, and organs and

4 Cells combine to form tissues, tissues combine to form organs, and organs and other body parts combine to form systems…. . the human body

Class activity 4 Use Types of Tissue handout to create a study guide of

Class activity 4 Use Types of Tissue handout to create a study guide of the tissues – their function and types 4 Observe at least two tissue slides under the microscope and sketch what you observe on your handout

Cavities of the Body

Cavities of the Body

Abdominal Regions Epigastric Region Right Hypochondriac Region Right Lumbar Region Right Iliac Region Hypogastric

Abdominal Regions Epigastric Region Right Hypochondriac Region Right Lumbar Region Right Iliac Region Hypogastric Region Left Hypochondriac Region Left Lumbar Region Left Iliac Region Umbilical Region