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INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Basic Structure and Organization Mrs. La. Flamme
4 HS-EHS-2 4 Essential Question- What is the difference between anatomy and physiology?
Definitions: 4 Anatomy: the study of the form and structure of an organism 4 Physiology: the study of the process of living organisms; (why and how they work) 4 Pathophysiology: is the study of how disease occurs and how living organisms respond to the disease process
Anatomical Position 4 A human being in such a position is standing erect, with face forward, arms at the side, and palms forward
Coronal (Frontal) Plane 4 Divides the body into a front and a back – Anterior (Ventral) front – Posterior (Dorsal) back
Transverse Plane 4 Divides the body into a top and a bottom – Superior above – Cranial near the head – Inferior below – Caudal near the “tail-end”
Mid-sagittal (Median) Plane 4 Divides the body into a right and left side – Medial close to the midline – Lateral away from the midline
Points of Reference 4 Proximal – close to the point of reference 4 Distal – distant from the point of reference – Example – in describing the relationship of the wrist and elbow to the shoulder (point of reference)…. . the wrist is distal and the elbow is proximal to the shoulder
Points of Reference 4 Superficial – on or near the surface of the skin 4 Deep- term referring to within the body
IAN 4 Page 2 Draw a person in anatomical position and list four characteristics of this position 4 Page 3 Body Planes – Color the Transverse Plane Orange – Color the Midsagittal Plane Blue – Color the Frontal Plane Yellow
4 HS-EHS-2 4 Essential Question- Why do healthcare providers need to learn medical directional terms of the body?
Cavities of the Body ◌Dorsal cavity ◌ Cranial cavity ◌ Spinal cavity ◌Ventral cavity ◌ Thoracic cavity ◌ Abdominopelvic cavity ◌ Abdominal cavity ◌ Pelvic cavity
Abdominal Regions Epigastric Region Right Hypochondriac Region Right Lumbar Region Right Iliac Region Hypogastric Region Left Hypochondriac Region Left Lumbar Region Left Iliac Region Umbilical Region
Cranial Cavity 4 Houses the brain
Nasal Cavity 4 For the nose structures
Buccal Cavity 4 Mouth cavity for the teeth and tongue
Orbital Cavity 4 Orbits for the eyes
Life Functions 4 Life Functions are organized and related activities which allow living organisms to live, grow, and maintain themselves ~ homeostasis (balanced cellular enviroment 4 These vital functions include movement, ingestion, digestion, transport, respiration, synthesis, assimilation, growth, secretion, excretion, regulation, and reproduction
Body Processes 4 Metabolism: the functional activities of cells that result in growth, repair, energy release, use of food, and secretions 4 Anabolism: the building up of complex materials from simpler ones such as food and oxygen
Body Processes 4 Catabolism: the breaking down and changing of complex substances into simpler ones, with a release of energy and carbon dioxide Anabolism + Catabolism = Metabolism 4 Homeostasis: the maintenance of optimal internal environment of the human body
4 End of content for Organizational Quiz on Thursday.
IAN 4 Page 2 Draw a person in anatomical position and list four characteristics of this position 4 Page 3 Body Planes – Color the Transverse Plane Orange – Color the Midsagittal Plane Blue – Color the Frontal Plane Yellow 4 Page 4 Cavities of the Body – label 4 Page 5 Abdominal Regions/Quadrants