BLOOD Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 10 Blood The

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BLOOD Anatomy and Physiology: Chapter 10

BLOOD Anatomy and Physiology: Chapter 10

Blood The only fluid tissue in the human body Connective Tissue Color Range Oxygen-rich

Blood The only fluid tissue in the human body Connective Tissue Color Range Oxygen-rich blood Oxygen-poor blood p. H 7. 35– 7. 45 Blood temperature is slightly higher than body temperature

Formed Elements = Living Cells Plasma = Non-Living Matrix 90% Water Many Dissolved Substances

Formed Elements = Living Cells Plasma = Non-Living Matrix 90% Water Many Dissolved Substances • Nutrients • Salts (metal ions) • Respiratory gases • Hormones • Waste products Proteins Erthyrocytes Leucocytes Platelets • Albumin – regulates osmotic pressure • Clotting proteins – help to stem blood loss when a blood vessel is injured • Antibodies – help protect the body from antigens

Erythrocytes (RBCs) Leukocytes (WBCs) Carry oxygen “Bags of Hemoglobin” Defense against disease Outnumber white

Erythrocytes (RBCs) Leukocytes (WBCs) Carry oxygen “Bags of Hemoglobin” Defense against disease Outnumber white blood cells 1000: 1 Complete cells, with a nucleus and organelles Platelets Derived from ruptured multinucleate cells (megakaryocytes) Anucleate (no nucleus) Very few organelles Unable to divide, grow, or synthesize proteins Wear out in 100 to 120 days Eliminated by phagocytes in the spleen or liver Able to move into and out of blood vessels (diapedesis) Needed for the clotting process Can respond to chemicals released by damaged tissues Normal levels are between 4, 000 and 11, 000 cells per millimeter Normal platelet count = 300, 000/mm 3

Hemoglobin · Iron-containing protein · Binds strongly, but reversibly, to oxygen · Each hemoglobin

Hemoglobin · Iron-containing protein · Binds strongly, but reversibly, to oxygen · Each hemoglobin molecule has four oxygen binding sites · Each erythrocyte 250 million molecules has hemoglobin

TYPES OF LYMPHOCYTES Granulocytes Granules in their cytoplasm can be stained Agranulocytes Lack visible

TYPES OF LYMPHOCYTES Granulocytes Granules in their cytoplasm can be stained Agranulocytes Lack visible cytoplasmic granules Neutrophils • Multi-lobed nucleus with fine granules • Act as phagocytes at active sites of infection • Fight bacterial and viral infections Eosinophils Lymphocytes • Nucleus fills most of the cell • Play an important role in the immune response, especially to viruses • Large brick-red cytoplasmic granules • Found in response to allergies, asthma, and parasitic worms Monocytes Basophils • Have histamine-containing granules • Initiate inflammation • Take part in response to hay fever and bug bites • Largest of the white blood cells • Function as macrophages • Important in fighting chronic infection

HEMATOPOIESIS Blood cell formation Occurs in red bone marrow All blood cells are derived

HEMATOPOIESIS Blood cell formation Occurs in red bone marrow All blood cells are derived from a common stem cell Hemocytoblast Lymphoid stem cell lymphocytes Myeloid stem cell other formed elements

HEMOSTASIS Stoppage of blood flow Result of a break in a blood vessel Platelet

HEMOSTASIS Stoppage of blood flow Result of a break in a blood vessel Platelet plug formation Vascular spasms Anchored platelets release serotonin Serotonin causes blood vessel muscles to spasm Spasms narrow the blood vessel, decreasing blood loss Coagulation Fibrin forms a meshwork (the basis for a clot)

Blood Clotting Blood usually clots within 3 to 6 minutes The clot remains as

Blood Clotting Blood usually clots within 3 to 6 minutes The clot remains as endothelium regenerates The clot is broken down after tissue repair Undesirable Clots Thrombus Embolus A clot in an unbroken blood vessel A thrombus that breaks away and floats freely in the bloodstream Can be deadly in areas like the heart Can later clog vessels in critical areas such as the brain

Bleeding Disorders Thrombocytopenia Hemophilia Platelet deficiency Hereditary bleeding disorder Even normal movements can cause

Bleeding Disorders Thrombocytopenia Hemophilia Platelet deficiency Hereditary bleeding disorder Even normal movements can cause bleeding from small blood vessels that require platelets for clotting Normal clotting factors are missing

Blood Types and Transfusions Type You Can Give Blood To You Can Receive Blood

Blood Types and Transfusions Type You Can Give Blood To You Can Receive Blood From A+ A+ AB+ A+ A- O+ O+ A+ B+ AB+ O+ O- B+ B+ AB+ B+ B- O+ O- AB+ Everyone A- A+ A- AB+ AB A- O- O- Everyone O- B- B+ B- AB+ AB - B- O- AB+ AB- A- B- O-

Human Blood Groups Type A Type B Type AB Type O Type A Antigens

Human Blood Groups Type A Type B Type AB Type O Type A Antigens Type B Antigens Type A Antigens No Antigens Type B Antibodies Type A Antibodies Type B Antigens Type A Antibodies Donate to A or AB Donate to B or AB No Antibodies Type B Antibodies Receive from A or O Receive from B or O Donate to AB Universal Donor i. A i i. B i Universal Recipient Receive from O i. A i. B ii

ABO Blood Groups U. S. Blood-type Distribution O+: 38 percent of population A+ :

ABO Blood Groups U. S. Blood-type Distribution O+: 38 percent of population A+ : 34% of population B+ : 9% of population O- : 7% of population A- : 6% of population AB+ : 3% of population B- : 2% of population AB- : 1% of population

Transfusions Large losses of blood have serious consequences Loss of 15 to 30 percent

Transfusions Large losses of blood have serious consequences Loss of 15 to 30 percent causes weakness Loss of over 30 percent causes shock, which can be fatal Transfusions are the only way to replace blood quickly Transfused blood must be of a compatible blood group

Rh Blood Groups · Named because of the presence or absence of one of

Rh Blood Groups · Named because of the presence or absence of one of eight Rh antigens (agglutinogen D) · Most Americans are Rh+ · Problems can occur in mixing Rh+ blood into a body with Rh– blood · Danger is only when the mother is Rh– and the father is Rh+, and the child inherits the Rh+ factor

Rh Dangers During Pregnancy The mismatch of an Rh– mother carrying an Rh+ baby

Rh Dangers During Pregnancy The mismatch of an Rh– mother carrying an Rh+ baby can cause problems for the unborn child The first pregnancy usually proceeds without problems The immune system is sensitized after the first pregnancy In a second pregnancy, the mother’s immune system produces antibodies to attack the Rh+ blood (hemolytic disease of the newborn) Rh- can donate to Rh+, but Rh+ cannot donate to a Rh- individual who has been previously sensitized to it

Blood Typing · Blood samples are mixed with anti-A and anti-B serum · Coagulation

Blood Typing · Blood samples are mixed with anti-A and anti-B serum · Coagulation or no coagulation leads to determining blood type · Typing for ABO and Rh factors is done in the same manner · Cross matching – testing for agglutination of donor RBCs by the recipient’s serum, and vice versa

Human Blood Groups · A foreign protein (antigen) may be attacked by the immune

Human Blood Groups · A foreign protein (antigen) may be attacked by the immune system · Blood is “typed” by using antibodies that will cause blood with certain proteins to clump (agglutination)

Developmental Aspects of Blood · Sites of blood cell formation · The fetal liver

Developmental Aspects of Blood · Sites of blood cell formation · The fetal liver and spleen are early sites of blood cell formation · Bone marrow takes over hematopoiesis by the seventh month · Fetal hemoglobin differs from hemoglobin produced after birth