# Clause combination IND DEP definition A clause combination

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Clause combination IND + DEP

definition � A clause combination is a formula that characterizes a sentence. � Every clause combination has three elements: � The number of independent clauses in the sentence (IND); � A plus sign (“+”); � The number of dependent clauses in the sentence (DEP). � Clause combination = IND + DEP � Every sentence has a clause combination with these three elements.

IND+DEP � The three elements of a clause combination always appear in this order: IND+DEP. � In terms of clause combination, 1+2 ≠ 2+1. � How do two such sentences differ? � The first sentence has only one independent clause (1+2) while the second has two (2+1). � In addition, the first sentence has two dependent clauses (1+2) while the second has just one (2+1). � Maintaining the proper order of the elements is essential.

How many clauses in a sentence? � How does one determine the number of clauses in a sentence? � Fact: Every clause has its own subject-verb combination. � Number of clauses = number of subject-verb combinations � To determine the number of clauses in a sentence, identify the number of subject-verb combinations in the sentence. � Once you know the number of subject-verb combinations, you know the number of clauses. � Then you can determine the clause combination.

Example 1 � Consider this example: � Every clause has its own subject-verb combination. � How many subject-verb combinations appear in this example? 1 subject verb clause (common noun) has � Subject-verb combinations = 1 � 1 subject-verb combination = 1 clause: � Every clause has its own subject-verb combination

Example 1: another view

Example 2 � Consider this example: � At 8: 00 a. m. , Theo rinsed their bowls in the sink, placed the milk and juice back in the fridge, walked to the den, and kissed his mom on the cheek. (Grisham, 2011, p. 4) � subject-verb combinations… subject verb 1 Theo (proper noun) rinsed…placed…walked…kissed � 1 subject-verb combination = 1 clause

Example 2: another view

Example 3 � Consider this example: � It was early spring and the air was crisp and cool. (Grisham, 2011, p. 5) � subject-verb combinations… 1 subject verb It (pronoun) was 2 air (common noun) was � 2 subject-verb combinations = 2 clauses. clause 1 It was early spring 2 the air was crisp and cool

Example 3: another view

Example 4 � Consider this sentence: � When she saw him she smiled and put a hand over her mouth. (Grisham, 2011, p. 7) � subject-verb combinations… subject verb 1 she (pronoun) saw 2 she (pronoun) smiled…put � 2 subject-verb combinations = 2 clauses clause 1 When she saw him 2 she smiled and put a hand over her mouth

Example 4: another view

Example 5 � Consider this sentence: � She had moved to Strattenburg three years earlier when her husband, also from Cameroon, took a job at the local college where he taught languages. (Grisham, 2011, p. 17) � subject-verb combinations… subject 1 She (pronoun) 2 husband (common noun) 3 he (pronoun) verb had moved took taught

Example 5 (continued) � Consider this sentence: � She had moved to Strattenburg three years earlier when her husband, also from Cameroon, took a job at the local college where he taught languages. (Grisham, 2011, p. 17) � 3 subject-verb combinations = 3 clauses 1 2 clause She had moved to Strattenburg three years earlier when her husband, also from Cameroon, took a job at the local college 3 where he taught languages

Example 5: another view

Example 6 � Consider this sentence: � Some of her clients were from Central America, and when Theo saw them at the office he was ready to practice. (Grisham, 2011, p. 17) � subject-verb combinations… subject 1 Some (pronoun) 2 Theo (proper noun) 3 he (pronoun) verb were saw was

Example 6 (continued) � Consider this sentence: � Some of her clients were from Central America, and when Theo saw them at the office he was ready to practice. (Grisham, 2011, p. 17) � 3 subject-verb combinations = 3 clauses 1 2 3 clause Some of her clients were from Central America when Theo saw them at the office he was ready to practice

Example 6: another view

Example 7 � Consider this sentence: � You have a crucial eyewitness whose testimony could potentially change the outcome of the trial, and you have one person who knows about this eyewitness. (Grisham, 2011, p. 186) �subject-verb combinations… subject verb 1 You (pronoun) have 2 testimony (common noun) could…change 3 you (pronoun) have 4 who (pronoun) knows

Example 7 (continued) � Consider this sentence: � You have a crucial eyewitness whose testimony could potentially change the outcome of the trial, and you have one person who knows about this eyewitness. (Grisham, 2011, p. 186) � 4 subject-verb combinations = 4 clauses clause 1 You have a crucial eyewitness 2 whose testimony could potentially change the outcome of the trial 3 you have one person 4 who knows about this eyewitness

Example 7: another view

Clause combination � Every sentence has a clause combination. � Clause combination = IND + DEP � Maintaining the proper order of the elements is essential. � In terms of clause combination, 1+2 ≠ 2+1. � Number of clauses = number of subject-verb combinations � Once you know the number of subject-verb combinations, you know the number of clauses. � Then you can determine the clause combination. � Clause combination = IND + DEP

References � Grisham, J. (2011). Theodore Boone: Kid lawyer. New York: Puffin Books.