- Slides: 37
Present Tenses Simple Present Continuous Simple Present Perfect Continuous Permanent (every week) temporary (this week) past, unknown time present habits annoying present habits Timetables, schedules after future time words (when, as soon as, etc) experiences, from the past up to now personal plans – near future after future time words (when, as soon as, etc) + duration Past Tenses Simple Past Continuous past known, specific time + duration past habits annoying past habits (=used to, would) Simple Past Perfect Continuous before Simple Past or a specific time in the past + duration Future Tenses Simple Future not certain on the spot decision, not planned Future Continuous Simple Future Perfect certain, duration, at a specific future time finished by a specific (at 5 tomorrow, this time future time next…) Future Perfect Continuous + duration
can’t: 0% possibility, certainty may – might possibility, needn‘t – permission don’t need to – don’t have to it isn’t necessary must – have to obligation must: 100% possibility, certainty in the past we use: modal + have + 3 rd column mustn’t prohibition can – be able to ability, permission could ability, permission, possibility should – ought to – had better advice
RELATIVES (avoid “that”) For people: who, whom, whose For things: which, whose For place: where, preposition + which For time: when CONTRAST § although, even though, though + πρόταση § despite, in spite of + gerund or noun § despite, in spite of + the fact that + πρόταση § Πρόταση. However, / nevertheless, / nonetheless, + πρόταση § However / No matter how + adjective or adverb § No matter what + πρόταση RESULT such + (a/an) + adjective + noun that… so + adjective or adverb that… REASON § because, as, since + πρόταση § because of, due to, owing to, on account of + gerund or noun § because of, due to, owing to, on account of + the fact that +πρόταση PURPOSE § to, in order to, so as to + infinitive § so that + πρόταση § too + adjective or adverb to infinitive • adjective or adverb + enough to infinitive § enough + noun
Present Active: (not) sending Perfect Active: (not) having sent Present Passive: (not) being sent Perfect Passive: (not) having been sent at the beginning of a sentence after verbs of like / dislike I like going to the cinema. Swimming is good for you. after prepositions He insisted on seeing me. it is used Subject: possessive adjective (my, your, his, …) possessive case (Mary’s) (formal) I can’t stop his / Tom’s writing to his parents. after : admit, avoid, deny, imagine, keep, mind, prevent, suggest, go (swimming), etc. after : feel like, can’t help, I ’m busy, can’t stand, there’s no point in, it’s no good/use, it’s (not) worth, have difficulty/trouble, in addition to, besides, as well as , etc.
Present Active: (not) to send Pres. Cont. Active: (not) to be sending Perfect Active: (not) to have sent Perfect Cont. Active: (not) to have been sending after adjectives & nouns I am happy to meet you. after : too & enough The tea is too hot to drink. Present Passive: (not) to be sent Perfect Passive: (not) to have been sent after: I would like , after certain verbs and expressions: I would love, I would prefer can afford, agree, I would like to go home. it is used Subject: (for) me, you, him, etc. I want him to come early. The tea is too hot for him to drink. allow, decide, expect, forbid, intend, manage, promise, offer, refuse, remind, threaten, want, be supposed to, etc. after: the first /second/last/ next/best He is the first to win the race. after: only & question words He showed me how to do it.
it is used after: had better, would rather, would sooner You had better go home. after modals You should go home. after the verbs: let & make in the active voice Mum let me go to the party.
GERUND INFINITIVE He will always remember travelling to New York. (past memories) He remembered to turn off the lights. (remember to do sth) He will never forget travelling to New York. (past memories) He forgot to turn off the lights. (forget to do sth) I regret buying that bike. (μετανιώνω) I regret to inform you that you have failed the test. (I am sorry to tell you) He stopped smoking. (stop permanently) He stopped the lesson to have something to eat. (stop temporarily) Why don’t you try adding some more salt? (δοκιμάζω) Let’s try to fix your bike. (προσπαθώ) I prefer / like watching cartoons. (general preference) Today I would prefer / like to watch a horror film. (specific preference)
BE & past participle (3 rd column) Verbs with two objects: Dad gave me a bike for my birthday. let – allowed to Ø I was given a bike for my birthday. (more common) Ø A bike was given to me for my birthday. Mum let me go to the party. Ø I was allowed to go to the party. help/hear/see/make + full infinitive in the passive Mum made me tidy my room. Ø I was made to tidy my room. Verbs such as: believe, expect, feel, hope, know, report, say, think, etc. : They believe (that) she is in France. Ø She is believed to be in France. Ø It is believed that she is in France.
THE 12 TENSES – ACTIVE VOICE Simple Continuous Perfect Simple Perfect Continuous Present Tenses I eat I am eating I have eaten I have been eating Past Tenses I ate I was eating I had eaten I had been eating Future Tenses I will eat I will be eating I will have eaten I will have been eating THE 12 TENSES – PASSIVE VOICE Simple Continuous Perfect Simple Perfect Continuous Present Tenses It is eaten It is being eaten It has been eaten (not used) Past Tenses It was eaten It was being eaten It had been eaten (not used) Future Tenses It will be eaten (not used) It will have been eaten (not used)
I had my hair cut yesterday. We will have our car repaired. John is having his meal cooked. I had my room painted by Mr. Smith. HAVE / GET STH past participle (3 rd column) have sb + bare infinitive (ask sb – ζητώ)) I had Mr. Smith paint my room. make sb + bare infinitive (force sb - αναγκάζω) I made Mr. Smith paint my room. let sb + bare infinitive (allow sb - επιτρέπω) I let Mr. Smith paint my room. get sb + full infinitive (persuade sb – πείθω) I got Mr. Smith to paint my room.
Changes: verbs / time words / pronouns Introductory verbs Tenses used: Past & Past Perfect Statements “I am leaving tomorrow. ” He said (that) he was leaving the next day. He told me (that) he was leaving the next day. Questions Commands “Why did you leave? He asked (me) why I had left. “Open the window. ” He told me to open the window. “Will you be here? ” He asked (me) if I would be there. “Don’t open this. ” He told me not to open that.
Direct Speech Reported Speech Simple Present Simple Past Present Continuous Past Continuous Simple Past Direct Speech Reported Speech today that day Simple Past Perfect tonight that night Past Continuous now then Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous yesterday Simple Present Perfect Simple Past Perfect the day before Past Perfect Continuous the previous day ago before am / is / are going to was / were going to last (week) the previous (week) (the week) before will / would tomorrow the next day the following day can / could may / might next (week) the following (week) here there must / have to had to this that should these those ought to
Zero general truths, facts • if + Simple Present if you mix red and blue, you get purple. 1 st • if + Simple Present will / can / may / etc. + infinitive if I have enough money, I will buy a new car. • if + Simple Present imperative If you have free time, come with us to the cinema. true, likely to happen in the present or future 2 nd untrue, unreal in the present to give advice (if I were you) 3 rd untrue, unreal in the past, imaginary situations also used to express regrets or criticism Mixed (2 nd & 3 rd) • if + Past would / could / should / might + infinitive If I were rich, I would buy a yacht. • if + Past Perfect would / could / should / might + have + past participle If I had studied, I would have passed my exam. • if + Past (2 nd) would have + past participle (3 rd) If Jane were taller, the model agency would have accepted her. • if + Past Perfect (3 rd) would + infinitive (2 nd) If I hadn’t been vaccinated as a child, I would be in danger now.
§ § § Other expressions to introduce conditionals unless = if not providing / provided (that) / so long as /as long as (1 st) suppose / supposing (that) / on condition that / only if what if / even if / but for + gerund or noun otherwise / or else : στην απόδοση Inversion with conditionals “If” can be omitted in conditionals. In this case, “should” (1 st), “were” (2 nd), “had” (3 rd) come before the subject. st 1 : If you come – Should you come 2 nd: If I were you – Were I you 3 rd: If I had gone – Had I gone Note: § if + will / would is used to make a request or express insistence (If you will/would be quiet, we will watch the film. ) § If + should is used to express sth less likely to happen (If he should come - probably he won’t come) § If it had not been for / Had it not been for / But for / If it were not for is used to show that one action depends on another § If possible = if it is possible If in doubt = if you are in doubt If you happen to see John (possibility) If he were to apologise (more formal) = if he apologized If need be = if necessary = if it is necessary
Unreal Situations PRESENT annoyance complaint PAST • I wish / If only + Past tense • Mary wishes she had a bigger house. • I wish I were you. (advice) He wishes he could fly. • I wish / If only + new subject + would • I wish it wouldn’t rain all the time. • I wish you would stop borrowing my things. • I wish / If only + Past Perfect • I wish I had studied more. if only is used for emphasis or to express a strong desire or regret
• Past Tenses WISH • I wish to do sth = I want to unreal do sth (can’t happen) • All tenses HOPE • I hope to do sth = I want to real do sth and expect that it (may happen) will happen
Real Situations Would rather Had better = prefer expresses preference = should expresses advice Present / future + bare infinitive I would rather go to the cinema tonight. Past + have + 3 rd column I would rather have gone to the cinema last night. I would I had I’d Present / future + bare infinitive You had better stay at home tonight. Past It would have been better if you had stayed at home last night.
Would rather Real Situations (ταυτοπροσωπία) Present / future + bare infinitive I would rather go to the cinema tonight. Past + have + 3 rd column I would rather have gone to the cinema last night. Would rather + 2 nd subject Unreal Situations (ετεροπροσωπία) Present / future + Simple Past I would rather you went to the cinema tonight. Past + Past Perfect I would rather you had gone to the cinema last night.
Real Situations – expressing preference would rather • I would rather read a book than watch TV. prefer • I prefer reading books to watching TV. • general preference would prefer • Today I would prefer to read a book rather than watch TV. • specific preference
We use PAST TENSES UNREAL PRESENT use: Simple Past • 2 nd Conditional • Wish about the present • I would rather / sooner you UNREAL PAST use: Past Perfect • 3 rd Conditional • Wish about the past (new subject) • I would rather / sooner you I would rather you stayed at home tonight. (new subject) I would rather you had stayed at home last night. • As if / as though She behaves as if I were her slave. • As if / as though She sounded as if she had seen a ghost. • It’s (high / about) time It’s about time we went home. Note: as if /as though can also express real situations – we can you any tense (You look as if you need a rest) Note: It’s time (for you) to go to bed – expresses a real situation, sth to be done at once
§ when certain negative adverbs are placed at the beginning of a sentence for emphasis, then the verb is in the interrogative form, although the sentence is not a question: never / rarely / seldom / hardly / barely / scarcely / little / so / such / in no way / no sooner … than / under no circumstances/ on no account / by no means / no longer / not only … but also / nowhere / etc. We rarely go to the cinema. – Rarely do we go to the cinema. § Inversion in the main clause: only after / only when / only if / only by / not since / not till / not until Only when they had left, did he burst into tears. § Inversion in conditionals with should (1 st), were (2 nd), had (3 rd) § After: as / neither / nor / so to express agreement (So do I) § After so & such: So clever is he that… / Such was his anger that… § Hopeless as it may seem… / Try though you might…
§ It is more common in American English and is used when the sentence shows a degree of urgency or strong emotion. In British English it is more common to say: I suggest that someone should do sth. It is formed: verb + sb + that + bare inf It is/was + adjective + that + bare inf They suggested (that) he (should) leave at once. § After the verbs: advise / ask / demand / desire / insist / prefer / propose / urge / recommend / suggest / require / request / decide / order The doctor suggests that he stop smoking. § After the adjectives: it is/was + crucial / essential / important / necessary / urgent / vital / advisable / certain / preferable / desirable / imperative / anxious / eager It is urgent that you not tell anyone. § After the nouns: idea / order / proposal / recommendation / request / suggestion The recommendation is that the money be invested.
Emphasis on the verb: we use: do, does, did John does run fast. We do like cartoons. They did arrive on time. Emphasis on another word in the sentence: John found the car keys on the table yesterday. § It was John who found the car keys on the table yesterday. § It was the car keys that John found on the table yesterday. § It was on the table where John found the car keys yesterday. § It was yesterday when John found the car keys. Ø It was because you were late that we missed the train. Ø What impressed me most was his kindness.
I like tennis. I wen t t Athen o s. I ca n r So do I. So does Bill does too. un ’t r I can fas t. So d id I. id Bill. id to o. So So can Bill can B I. ca n t ill. oo. I. . n ca Bill r he can er. t i Ne ther t eith ’ i Ne l can Bil . ast f n u I don’t like tennis. I d idn Ath ’t go en to s. Neith er do I. Bill d er does B oesn i ’t eit ll. her. Neit her di d Bill her did I. didn ’t ei Bill. ther.
Positive Sentence, Negative Sentence, negative tag positive tag He can run fast, can’t he? He can’t run fast, can he? They went abroad, didn’t they? They didn’t go abroad, did they? v I am, aren’t I? v I used to, didn’t I? v Write to me, will you/won’t you? (imperative) v Don’t go, will you? (negative imperative) v Let’s go, shall we? v Let him/me/etc, will you/won’t you? v v v I have got…, haven’t I? (possess) I have a shower, don’t I? (main verb) There is/are…, isn’t/aren’t there? This/That is…, isn’t it? Everyone is here, aren’t they? No one/Anyone/Someone…, …they?
Wh- questions Question word + aux verb + subject + main verb Yes/No questions aux verb + subject + main verb Are you feeling OK? Yes, I am. Did you do your HW? No, I didn’t. What Which Whose Where When Why How Where did you go? – I went to Rome. Indirect questions = Affirmative sentences Indirect questions or questions within a question are used to ask for information and advice in a polite way. These kind of sentences begin with an introductory phrase, such as: I wonder if you can tell me / I’d like to know / Do you know / Could you tell me / etc. They are followed by the actual question in the form of an affirmative statement: wh-word + subject + verb Could you tell me what time it is?
PAST HABITS PRESENT HABITS Simple Past (ο χρονικός προσδιορισμός είναι απαραίτητος) I played tennis when I was young. Be + used to + gerund/noun Used to + bare infinitive (ο χρονικός προσδιορισμός δεν είναι απαραίτητος) Χρησιμοποιείται για συνήθεια ή κατάσταση του παρελθόντος I used to play tennis when I was young. I used to live in Athens. Would + bare infinitive (ο χρονικός προσδιορισμός είναι απαραίτητος) Δεν χρησιμοποιείται για κατάσταση στο παρελθόν, ούτε σε ερώτηση-άρνηση I would play tennis when I was young. Be/Get + used to/accustomed to + gerund/noun Can be used in all past tenses I was/got used/accustomed to working at the weekend. Be + accustomed to + gerund/noun Can be used in all present/future tenses I am used/accustomed to working at the weekend. I will be used/accustomed to getting up early. Get + used to + gerund/noun Get + accustomed to + gerund/noun Can be used in all present/future tenses I will soon get used/accustomed to working at the weekend.
Adverbs Adjectives are used: § before nouns § after the verbs: be / become / appear / get / feel / look / seem / smell / sound / taste / stay compound adjectives: smart-looking / much-liked / well-paid / a ten-year old child Adverbs of manner: adjective+-ly § same as adjectives: early, far, fast, late, etc. § two forms with different meanings: hard, hardly (scarcely) / deep, deeply (greatly) / late, lately (recently) / short, shortly (soon) / near, nearly (almost) / high, highly (very much) Adverbs are used: before or after verbs, before adjectives Order of adverbs: § Subject-Verb-Object + Manner / Place / Time § verb of movement: S-V-O+ Place / Manner / Time Order of adjectives: N / O / S A Sh C O M P (Number) / Opinion / Size / Age / Shape / Colour / Origin / Material / Purpose It’s a lovely small old square brown Chinese wooden writing table.
Adverbs, Comparisons § -er / -est: one syllable, two syllables in –ly, -er, -y, -w § more / most: two or more syllables, adverbs in -ly § irregular: much/many/a lot of – more - most good/well – better - best bad/badly – worse - worst little – less – least far – farther - farthest (longer in distance) far – further - furthest (longer in distance & more) Types of Comparisons § (not so/as) as + positive degree + as She isn’t as tall as her sister. § as much wine as / as many books as § The + comparative …, the + comparative The easier the exam, the better your marks will be. § Comparative + and + comparative It’s getting colder and colder every day. § the same as / similar to / different from § very + positive degree It is very big. § much / even/ far / a bit / a little / a lot / slightly / any / rather / + comparative degree He is much better than me. He is much more handsome than me. § a most enjoyable party = a very enjoyable party There adjectives ending in –ly (friendly, likely, lively, lonely, lovely, silly, ugly). They cannot be made into an adverb, but we use a phrase instead: in a friendly manner, in a silly way, etc. list of adverbs used before adjectives from stronger to weaker: incredibly – extremely – really – very – rather – fairly – quite - slightly
Unountable no article, no plural form, followed by a singular verb Countable singular & plural form a lot of (aff), many (int-neg), few, a few, some, any, several, a large/great/good number of, plenty of Plural nouns: are objects consisting of two parts garments (trousers) instruments (binoculars) tools (scissors) Group nouns: audience, crowd, staff, team… can take either a singular or plural verb depending on whether we see the group as a whole or individuals a lot of (aff), much (int-neg), little, a little, some, any, a great/good deal of, a large/small amount/quantity of, plenty of they are: § fluids, solids, gases, particles (beer, bread, air, flour) § subjects of study (mathematics) § languages (Chinese) § sports (football, billiards) § diseases (flu) § natural phenomena (darkness, fog, gravity) § others: accommodation, advice, behaviour, courage, education, evidence, proof, information, knowledge, luck, news, peace, work, weather… § collective nouns: baggage, luggage, furniture, jewellery, money, rubbish… Note: some nouns can be used in the singular and plural with a different meaning: hair-hairs, glass-glasses, wood-woods, custom-customs, …
Affirmative Interrogative Negative Countable singular (apple) - - - Countable plural (apples, people) a lot of / lots of / a few / too many, some, no a lot of / lots of / a few / few a lot of / lots of / a few / / (how) many, any few / many, any Uncountable a lot of / lots of / a little / little a lot of / lots of / a little (water, bread, money) little / too much, some, no / (how) much, any / little / much, any a lot of/lots of affirmative (κυρίως), with countable & uncountable nouns many interrogative & negative, with plural countable nouns a few aff/int/neg, with plural countable (means there are some, λίγα αλλά αρκετά) few aff/int/neg, with plural countable nouns (not enough, πολύ λίγα, όχι αρκετά) much a little interrogative & negative, with uncountable nouns aff/int/neg, with uncountable nouns (means there is some, λίγο αλλά αρκετό) aff/int/neg, with uncountable nouns (not enough, πολύ λίγο, όχι αρκετό) only / just + a little/a few (δηλώνει ανεπάρκεια) There are only a few people here. very / too / so + little/few (δηλώνει ανεπάρκεια) There is too little time left. quite a few / a little (δηλώνει επάρκεια) There is quite a little time left. some/somebody/etc. any/anybody/etc. no/ nobody/etc. affirmative, with countable & uncountable inter/neg, with countable & uncountable affirmative, with countable & uncountable (negative meaning) almost never / nobody / etc. = hardly ever / anybody / etc. = σχεδόν ποτέ/κανείς/…
every before singular nouns, with a singular verb (Every boy is happy. ) αναφέρεται σε πολλούς (τρεις και περισσότερους), σημαίνει όλοι everybody/everything/etc. with a singular verb (Everybody is happy. ) each before singular nouns, with a singular verb (Each student was given a gift. Each of them is happy. ) σημαίνει ο καθένας ξεχωριστά all refers to more than two, positive meaning, with a plural verb (All the boys laughed. All of them laughed. ) none refers to more than two, negative meaning, with a plural or singular verb (None of the boys laughed. ) – είναι το αντίθετο του “all” Δεν ακολουθείται από ουσιαστικό εκτός αν υπάρχει η φράση “none of…” both refers to two, positive meaning, with a plural verb, plural noun (They are both happy. Both of them are happy. Both students are happy. ) neither / not either refers to two, negative meaning, with a singular verb, singular noun (Neither boy likes pizza. ) – είναι το αντίθετο του “both” neither of / either of singular or plural verb (Neither of them likes / like pizza. = Either of the boys doesn’t like pizza. I liked neither of them. = I didn’t like either of them. ) whole with countable nouns, σημαίνει όλο, ολοκληρωμένο Μαζί του υπάρχει: a/the/this/my/etc + whole + countable noun (a whole book, the whole day) one/ones to avoid repetition of a countable noun both… and… + plual verb Both Mary and John are students. (και…) either… or… + singular/plural verb You can either dance or sing in the competition. (ή…ή…) neither…nor… + singular/plural verb Neither Mary nor John is / are happy. (ούτε…) whether…or…+ verb You have to do it whether you like it or not only… but also… /but as well+ sing/plural verb He not only danced but also sang. / but sang as well.
else with a singular verb (I don’t think anyone else is coming. What else do you need? ) someone else’s κάποιου άλλου (This bag is not mine. It’s someone else’s. ) or else ειδάλλως (Get a taxi or else you’ll be late. ) Φαίνεται να υπάρχει: It seems that there is a problem. There seems to be a problem. It looks like there is a problem. Neither of my teachers is strict. (I have two teachers. Neither # Both) None of my teachers is strict. (I have more than two teachers. None # All) Demonstratives (this-that-these-those) This / These: for people & things near us for present & future situations That / Those: for people & things not near us for past situations (those days) to refer back to sth mentioned before It – There It + be: to refer to sth already mentioned used with time, distance, weather (It’s freezing, It’s late, etc) There + be: υπάρχει – for sth mentioned for the 1 st time, or to say that it exists (There are some letters for you. ) Μην μπερδεύετε τις λέξεις: not – none – no one not: είναι η άρνηση του ρήματος (He is not happy. ) – χρησιμοποιείται για να δημιουργήσουμε αρνητικές φράσεις, αλλά ποτέ πριν από ουσιαστικό (Not surprisingly, they won the match. ) no: καθόλου – ακολουθεί ουσιαστικό (He has no time, no friends and no happiness. ) none: ούτε ένας, ούτε μία, ούτε ένα, καθόλου, τίποτε - για περισσότερους από δύο ανθρώπους & πάγματα, από μια ομάδα ανθρώπων ή πραγμάτων (She invited all the students, but none came. She invited all the students, but none of them came. None of the students came. ) Το αντίθετο του “all” no one = nobody: κανένας, καμία, κανένα - ενικός, αναφέρεται μόνο σε ανθρώπους (No one can answer this question. ) Το αντίθετο του “someone, somebody”
Examples for example / for instance / in the case of / such as / like (I eat fruit, such as / like apples and bananas. ) Exception except (for) / apart from / but for (Everybody came to the party except (for) / apart from / but for John. ) instead (of) / rather than (when one thing replaces the other) (He went to the cinema instead of / rather than staying at home. ) Like / As Like: for similarities-παρομοιώσεις (He works like a slave) after the verbs: feel, look, smell, taste, sound +noun (It feels like velvet) As: to say what sb/sth really is, to talk about jobs, roles (He works as a doctor) after: accept, be known, describe, use, regard, refer to, as usual, as…as, the same as, as much (He’s known as an expert on computers)
the others = the rest (Only those books are mine; the others are my brother’s. ) others = several more apart from the ones mentioned (Some people like dancing, while others prefer swimming. ) each other = one another (The two boys always help each other. ) every other = alternative (I clean the house every other day. ) the other day = a few days ago, τις προάλλες (I saw John the other day. ) the other one(s) = not this/these but sth else (I don’t like this book. I prefer the other one. ) another = one more apart from those mentioned / also used with expressions of distance, money and time (It will take us another two hours to finish this project. )
Personal Subject Pronouns before the main verb Personal Object Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns after the verbs: before the behave, enjoy, infinitive, burn, cut, hurt, kill, after the main verb look at, etc. Possessive Adjectives Possessive Pronouns before a noun or a gerund not followed by a noun on my own = by myself I me myself my mine yourself yours he himself his she herself hers it it itself its we us ourselves ours yourselves yours they themselves theirs
’s : - people or animals, singular, irregular plural nouns (the girl’s dress, the children’s balls) - phrases of place (at the dentist’s) - time/distance expressions (last month’s issue) ’ : - people or animals, plural regular nouns (the boys’ balls) - time/distance expressions (three months’ work) of : - inanimate (άψυχα) things (the legs of the table) - people in longer phrases (the mother of one of my friends) ’s / of : places/organisations (Britain’s history/ The history of Britain)