- Slides: 29
Present tenses Present Simple and Present Continuous
Present Simple POSITIVE FORM: �base form of the verb (infinitive, no to) I play You play He, she, it plays We play You play They play
Present Simple � for the third person singular we add –s or –es to the base form of the verb: � most verbs add -s. She loves rugby. � -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, and -o add -es. He goes to work by bus. She finishes school at 3. � consonant + -y change -y to -ies. She studies French. � vowel + -y only add -s. He never plays chess.
Present Simple NEGATIVE FORM �helping verb do (does) + NOT + base form of the verb I do not (don’t) play You do not play He, she, it does not (doesn’t) play We do not play You do not play They do not play
Present Simple INTERROGATIVE FORM � Inversion of the subject and the helping verb do (does) + base form of the main verb Do I play? Do you play? Does he, she, it play? Do we play? Do you play? Do they play?
Present Simple – USE 1 �For habits (repeated actions): I do not drink tea every day. Ted plays tennis every Saturday. Do you usually have brakfast? *every day, usually – frequency adverbs
Present Simple – USE 1 FREQUENCY ADVERBS (prilozi učestalosti) � answer the question How often? 0% 100% never, rarely, hardly ever, not often, sometimes, often, usually, always - They go before the main verb, but after the verb to be. Carl hardly ever relaxes. Marie is hardly ever late. - Sometimes and usually can also go at the beginning or end.
Present Simple – USE 1 �Make the sentences: 1 (not often) They visit me. 2 (rarely) I’m at home. 3 (sometimes) She drinks tea. 1 They don’t often visit me. 2 I’m rarely at home. 3 She sometimes drinks tea.
Present Simple – USE 2 �For facts that are always true: Irina comes from Moldova. The sun rises in the East.
Present Simple – USE 3 �For states (thoughts, feelings) I have a large garden. I don’t think you’re right. She wants an ice-cream. *STATE VERBS: have, belong, think, know, like. . .
Present Simple – USE 4 �For future scheduled actions: (radnje koje su dio rasporeda i ne možemo ih mijenjati ili utjecati na njih) The movie starts at 8. The train leaves at 5.
Present Simple �Make the sentences: 1 Greg/worry/about his future √ 2 You/enjoy/jogging ? 3 She/drive/very often X 4 Jill/buy/expensive clothes √ 5 He/fly a helicopter √
Present Simple 1 Greg worries about his future. 2 Do you enjoy jogging? 3 She doesn’t drive very often. 4 Jill buys expensive clothes. 5 He flies a helicopter.
Present Continuous POSITIVE FORM � Present Simple of the verb to be + Present Participle of the main verb (-ing form) I am (I’m) playing You are (you’re) playing He, she, it is (he’s, she’s, it’s) playing We are playing You are playing They are playing
Present Continuous NEGATIVE FORM � Present S. of the verb to be + NOT + Present Participle of the main verb I am not playing You are not playing He, she, it is not playing We are not playing You are not playing They are not playing
Present Continuous INTERROGATIVE FORM � Inversion of the subject and the helping verb to be + Present Participle of the main verb Am I playing? Are you playing? Is he, she, it playing? Are we playing? Are you playing? Are they playing?
Present Continous SPELLING CHANGES: � Most verbs add -ing to the verb. look - looking � Verbs that end in -e lose the -e. write - writing � Verbs that end in -ee don’t drop the -e. flee - fleeing � Verbs of one syllable, with one vowel and one consonant – double the consonant. hit - hitting � If the final consonant is -y or -w, it is not doubled. stay - staying
Present Continuous �Make the sentences: 1 I ___ (live) in Scotland this year. 2 We ___ (plan) a big party. 3 She’s ___ (try) to lose weight. 4 They ___ (see) Bill tonight
Present Continuous 1 I’m living in Scotland this year. 2 We’re planning a big party. 3 She’s trying to lose weight. 4 They are seeing Bill tonight.
Present Continuous – USES: � for an activity that’s happening now: SSSh! Jen’s sleeping. � for an activity that’s happening around now: I’m reading a fascinating book, but I’ve left it at home. � for a temporary activity (privremenu): I’m not eating chocolate this week. I want to lose weight. � for a planned future arrangement (buduću isplaniranu radnju): We’re leaving tomorrow.
STATE VERBS vs. ACTIVITY VERBS �STATE VERBS usually come in Simple tenses �If they are used in continuous, there has been a change in meaning. The soup tastes delicious. STATE V. I’m tasting the soup to see if it needs salt. ACTIVITY V.
Passive Voice In passive sentences the emphasis (naglasak) is on the OBJECT of the action, not the subject � We use passive when: - we don’t know who the doer (vršitelj radnje) of the action is - when it is not important to mention it - when it is obvious from the context * If the doer is important, we can add it at the end of the sentence after the preposition by
Passive forms �Passive forms are made by using: the corresponding form of the helping verb to be + Past Participle of the main verb Shoes are made of leather. Present Simple + Past Participle of to be of to make
How to make a passive sentence? �Find the object in the active sentence �The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence �Identify the tense used in the active sentence �Use the helping verb to be in the same tense in the passive sentence and the Past Participle of the main verb Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. PAST SIMPLE ACT. SUBJECT VERB (PAST S. ) OBJECT Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. PAST SIMPLE PASS.
Present Simple Passive Parents give children pocket money. SUBJECT VERB OBJECT INDIRECT Children are given pocket money by parents. PRES. S. OF TO BE + PAST PARTICIPLE OF TO GIVE Pocket money is given to children by parents. *two objects = two passive sentences
Present Continuous Passive They are redecorating the house. SUBJECT VERB OBJECT The house is being redecorated (by them). PRES. C. OF TO BE + PAST PARTICIPLE OF REDECORATE *we don’t know who ‘they’ are, so it’s not important to mention them as doers.
Present Simple and Continuous Passive �Make passive sentences: 1 Football _____ (play) around the world. 2 The rooms ______ (redecorate) now. 3 Women _____ (pay) less than men. 4 We _____ (invited) to the party.
Present Simple and Continuous Passive 1 Football is played around the world. 2 The rooms are being redecorated now. 3 Women are paid less than men. 4 We are invited to the party.
TEST 1 UNIT 2 �Auxiliary and full verbs �Present Simple �Short answers �Present Continuous �Worlds apart vocab �Active-passive �A world in one family �My favourite day of vocab �P 127 ex 1, 5 the week vocab �Charles, Prince of Wales vocab �P 129, ex 1, 2, 3, 4