- Slides: 43
Reconstruction 1865 -1877
Appomattox Court House
“Abandon your animosities, and make your sons Americans. ” -Robert E. Lee Think, pair, share-What does this mean?
Richmond, VA XIII. RECONSTRUCTION
After The War • Northern victory in the Civil War decided the fate of the Union, but posed numerous questions leading to disagreements among the nation’s people. • How should the Southern states be reintegrated into the Union? • What system of labor should replace slavery? • What would be the status of the former slaves? • What degree of federal control should be imposed on the South?
What is Reconstruction? The period after the American Civil War when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union; 1865 -1877 Involved a complex and rapidly changing series of federal and state policies.
Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address • On March 4, 1865, President Lincoln laid out his approach to Reconstruction in his second inaugural address. • He hoped to reunite the nation and it’s people.
• “With malice [hatred] toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow and for his orphans, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and a lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations. ” --Abraham Lincoln March 4, 1865 What is President Lincoln’s main goal post Civil War?
By far the most lenient of plans for Reconstruction, Abraham Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan would never be articulated in full – for he was assassinated. The principle points of the plan, however, were clear: q 10% of a state must declare loyalty q. Every state must ban slavery. q. Confederate government leaders or top military officials could NOT represent the state in government positions. Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan
Lincoln’s Assassination • Lincoln was assassinated before his plan could be put into place. • John Wilkes Booth. Ford Theater-April 14, 1865 • Vice President Andrew Johnson became president.
http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=6 q. Ae. Fj. Cs c. RY –Lincoln assassinated
Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan • Pardons would be granted to Southerners taking a loyalty oath • A state needed to abolish slavery before being readmitted (13 th amendment) • A state was required to repeal its secession ordinance before being readmitted.
Radical Republican plan • Creation of a Freedmen's Bureau-help newly freed slaves. • Passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1866 -help protect freedmen from laws discriminating against feed slaves that were being passed in many Southern states. • Passage of the 14 th Amendment-equal citizenship • Passage of Reconstruction Acts that made restoration to the Union more difficult. http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=pt. XRFHulc ZQ -plans
Reconstruction Act of 1867 • Put the South under military rule, dividing it into five districts, each governed by a northern general. • It ordered southern states to create new state constitutions. • Required states to allow all qualified male voters, including African Americans, to vote in the election. • Temporarily barred southerners who had supported the Confederacy from voting. • Required southern states to guarantee equal rights to all citizens. • Required the states to ratify the 14 th amendment *14 th amendment- state shall not deprive any person of life, liberty, and property, without due process of law, nor deny any person equal protection of the laws.
Impeaching President Johnson • Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act which stripped the President of the power to remove federal officials without the Senate's approval. • In direct opposition to the act, he fired Secretary of War Stanton. • Congress then voted to impeach(remove from office) Johnson by a vote of 126 to 47 in February 1868.
Impeach – put a government official on trial • Only 2 presidents have been impeached. . . • Andrew Johnson • Bill Clinton Charges brought in the House, trial held in the Senate • Both were found NOT GUILTY and allowed to finish their terms.
Effects of Reconstruction
13 th Amendment-1865 • Abolished slavery • All slaves were now FREE
14 th Amendment-1868 Guaranteed equal protection and due process for all CITIZENS Repealed the 3/5 Compromise This amendment was used frequently during the Civil Rights Movement.
15 th Amendment-1870 • Guaranteed that voting rights are not denied to people because of their race • Black males can now VOTE http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Cpi. H 2 b 92 3 pc&list=PLs 4 g 4 k. Eq. Ct. Rr 36 S 040 d. Z_IWHERyvn 2 a. L (amendments)
“FREE CITIZENS VOTE” • A phrase to help you remember these 3 important Constitutional Amendments
Freedmen’s Bureau • Gov’t agency set up to provide food, shelter, clothing, education, and jobs for newly freed slaves • Many settled on plantation lands
Freedmen’s Bureau • Task of feeding and clothing former slaves • Find work for them • Negotiate labor contracts • Education was a large focus!
Which way will the scale tip? Social equality vs. legal equality
The Cycle of poverty • Freedman had no money to buy land of their own • Many freed slaves resorted to Sharecropping • Sharecropping- freed blacks would rent small plots of land farm it. In return, they would give a portion of their crop to the landowner at the end of the year. • continues the cycle of poverty
Black Codes • White Southerners sought ways to control newly freed African Americans • They wrote Black Codes- laws to regulate civil and legal rights, from marriage to the right to hold and sell property African American men who were arrested for vagrancy due to unemployment http: //history. sandiego. edu/gen/civilwar/16/reconstructio n 1. html • In many ways, the Black Codes guaranteed African Americans would continue working as farm laborers
Segregation • After Reconstruction, there were several ways that Southern states kept Blacks from voting and segregated, or separating people by the color of their skin in public facilities. • Jim Crow laws, laws at the local and state level which segregated whites from blacks and kept African Americans as 2 nd class citizens and from voting.
Voting Restrictions vpoll taxes-require voters to pay a fee each time they vote. -Freed slaves rarely had the money to pay vliteracy tests-voters must read and explain a difficult part of the Constitution -Many were illiterate (could not read) vgrandfather clause-were exempt from the literacy test if your father or grandfather had voted -None of the fathers or grandfathers of freed slaves would have voted
social reality Plessy vs. Ferguson, 1896 Supreme Court case that legalized segregation throughout the nation. • “Separate but Equal”-public facilities could be separate as long as they were equal • Problem: Black facilities never equal to White facilities http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ua. SOHKBt ua. U
Plessy vs. Ferguson, 1896 -public facilities remain segregated until 1954 with the: Brown V. Board of Education decision -”Separate is inherently unequal”
Ku Klux Klan • Started in 1866 by Nathaniel Bedford Forrest • Secret society • Mostly former Confederate soldiers • Used terror as tactic
Which way will the scale tip? Social equality vs. legal equality
The End of Radical Reconstruction • Federal Reconstruction ended in 1876 with the election of Rutherford B. Hayes to the presidency • A few weeks after taking office Hayes issued an order for the removal of all federal soldiers stationed in the South • The end of Reconstruction led to a drastic reduction of rights for African Americans President Rutherford Hayes http: //www. loc. gov/rr/print/list/057_pra 3. htm l
Compromise of 1877 • Gov’t removal of federal troops to the south • Federal funds to rebuild South • Democrats promised to respect African Americans’ rights
RECONSTRUCTION 1865 -1877 SUCCESSES AND FAILURES
RECONSTRUCTION SUCCESSES FAILURES • Rebuilt the Union • A lot of blacks were still poor • 13 th, 14 th and 15 th Amendments • Ku Klux Klan • Blacks could testify in court • Limits on voting for blacks • Educated, housed, and gave jobs to blacks • Racist/prejudice views were still held by many whites • Increased access to education for all Southerners • Some Southerners were bitter towards the Federal Government • Reduction of rights for freed slaves