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Industrialization 1865 - 1901 Chapter 3, Lesson 1 ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did the United States become an industrialized society after the Civil War?
I. The Rise of Industry • American business and industry grew rapidly after the end of the Civil War. • Industrialization changed the way people lived and worked
The United States Industrializes • After the Civil War, industry expanded rapidly • Electrification advances in the 1890 • Early 1900 s United States world’s leading industrial nation • Gross National Product (GNP)- the total value of all goods and services a country produces during a year
Natural Resources • Abundance of raw materials include timber, coal, iron, copper • Could get resources cheaply (no importing) • Most resources were in the West • Settlement accelerated industrialization
Natural Resources • New resource called petroleum, used to make kerosene fluid used in lanterns and stoves • Began in western Pennsylvania • 1859 Frederick Drake drilled first oil well in Titusville, PA • 1900 oil fields from PA to Texas
A Large Workforce: Human Resources allowed rapid industrialization • Human resources allowed rapid industrialization • Between 1860 -1910 population tripled • Provided industry with an abundant workforce o Came from large families (better living conditions meant children survived) o Immigrants - between 1870 and 1910, 17 million immigrants arrived. Some came for religious freedom others from oppressive governments
The Rise of Industry • How did the United States become an industrialized society after the Civil War?
The United States Industrializes • Why was the United States successful at industrialization?
The United States Industrializes • What were the two significant growth factors of U. S. industry?
New Inventions • What invention from this period has had the most impact on your daily life? Pay attention to find out!
New Inventions • Technologies and inventions eased transportation and communications • Produced more goods at lower prices
Thomas Alva Edison • Menlo Park, New Jersey: forerunner of the modern laboratory • 1877 Phonograph • Two years later the electric generator and light bulb • Made batteries and motion pictures • Lewis Latimer made the carbon filament to make the incandescent bulb more durable
Communications • Cyrus Fields laid a telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean in 1866 o Provided faster communication between U. S. and Europe • 1876 Scottish immigrant Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone
New Inventions: George Westinghouse • George Westinghouse invented o air brakes for railroads –enabled longer and heavier trains to travel and increased safety • Westinghouse company the first to use hydroelectric power
New Inventions • Thaddeus Lowe invented the ice machine • 1877 Gustavus Swift shipped refrigerated meat • Josephine Cochrane developed the automatic dishwasher • 1882 Edison supplied New York City with electricity
New Inventions: Textile Industry • Northrop made an automatic loom to make cloth quickly • Power driven sewing machines and cloth cutters • Machines to produce shoes • Production moved from small shops to large factories
New Inventions • Which invention do you think has had the most lasting influence?
Free Enterprise • How did Laissez-faire economics promote industrialization?
Free Enterprise • Laissez-faire- government should not interfere in the economy • Government interference drives up costs • Economic system with little or no government interference is know as free enterprise system
Free Enterprise • Laissez-faire relies on supply and demand to regulate wages and prices (Free Market) • Competition promotes efficiency and wealth • Advocate low taxes and limited government debt • Government should protect property rights and maintain peace
Free Enterprise • Practice- to do something repeatedly so it becomes standard • U. S. practiced a mixture of laissez-faire by keeping taxes low while promoting private investment
Free Enterprise • Prospect of making a profit attracted entrepreneurs • Entrepreneurs – people who risk their capital to organize and run businesses • Northern entrepreneurs supported high tariffs to protect business from European manufacturers
Free Enterprise • Supported federal subsidies for building roads, canals, and railroads • Southern leaders were against subsidies and favored low tariffs to promote trade – keeps cost of imported goods low
Free Enterprise • During the Civil War Congress greatly increased tariffs on imports • Caused countries to raise tariffs on U. S. goods • Tariffs were lowered and American companies became more competitive • U. S. benefited from being the largest free trade zone in the world
Free Enterprise • How did laissez-faire economics encourage businesses to industrialize?
Free Enterprise • Laissez-faire ideas meant that business would be able to grow and adopt new technologies more freely and easily