Reconstruction 1865 1877 Reconstruction 1865 1877 Rebuilding after

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Reconstruction 1865 -1877

Reconstruction 1865 -1877

Reconstruction 1865 -1877 ► Rebuilding after the war ► Bringing the South back into

Reconstruction 1865 -1877 ► Rebuilding after the war ► Bringing the South back into Union ► Fixing the South’s economy ► Promoting African Americans rights

Lincoln’s Plan ► Reconcile with the South, not punish the South ► South had

Lincoln’s Plan ► Reconcile with the South, not punish the South ► South had to accept 13 th Amendment ► Amnesty: pardoned all who took an oath of loyalty to US, EXCEPT Confederate officers and leaders ► 10 Percent Plan: once 10% of voters took oath to the Union a state could be readmitted

Radical Republicans ► Opposed Lincoln’s moderate plan ► Wanted to punish the South ►

Radical Republicans ► Opposed Lincoln’s moderate plan ► Wanted to punish the South ► Led by Thaddeus Stevens (PA) and Charles Sumner (MA) ► Pass the Wade-Davis Bill but pocket vetoed by Lincoln: § Majority of state had to swear loyalty before readmittance § Prevent southern leaders from gaining power again § AA political equality, vote

► Similar Johnson’s Plan to Lincoln’s but didn’t require the 10% ► Had to

► Similar Johnson’s Plan to Lincoln’s but didn’t require the 10% ► Had to accept 13 th Amendment ► Disenfranchised former CSA leaders & office holders & those w/ 20 K+ in taxable property but… could be pardoned and take office ► Accepted by South… all “returned” to the Union by Dec. 1865 ► Congress disagreed

Resistance to Johnson’s Plan ► Radical Republicans in Congress led by Charles Sumner and

Resistance to Johnson’s Plan ► Radical Republicans in Congress led by Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens, wanted African Americans to have suffrage (the right to vote) ► Southern states pass black codes that severely limited the rights of African Americans and kept them as landless workers ► Congress passes the Civil Rights Act of 1866 to give civil liberties to African Americans, but Johnson vetoed it--Radical Republicans overrode his veto (14 th needed)

Congress Breaks with the President « Congress bars Southern Congressional delegates. « Joint Committee

Congress Breaks with the President « Congress bars Southern Congressional delegates. « Joint Committee on Reconstruction created. « February, 1866 President vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau bill. « March, 1866 Johnson vetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act. « Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes 1 st in U. S. history!!

Freedmen’s Bureau ► Provided food, clothing, healthcare, and education to black and white refugees

Freedmen’s Bureau ► Provided food, clothing, healthcare, and education to black and white refugees of the South ► Represented black citizens in court and in labor disputes ► Helped reunite families

Congressional Reconstruction ► 13 th Amendment abolished slavery ► Passed the 14 th Amendment

Congressional Reconstruction ► 13 th Amendment abolished slavery ► Passed the 14 th Amendment giving citizenship and equal protection under the law to all African Americans ► Passed the 15 th Amendment giving African American MEN the right to vote ► Military Reconstruction Act: set up five military districts in the South (also vetoed & overridden) § States had to accept 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th amendments to be readmitted to the Union

Military Reconstruction Act

Military Reconstruction Act

Johnson’s Impeachment ► Radicals worried Johnson would undermine their plan, so they pass the

Johnson’s Impeachment ► Radicals worried Johnson would undermine their plan, so they pass the Tenure of Office Act: Senate had to approve the removal of gov’t officials ► Johnson violated (Edwin Stanton) so the Senate impeached (accused him of wrongdoings) Johnson; is found “not guilty” by 1 vote; not removed from office § Afterwards, he promised to follow Congressional Reconstruction Plan § precedent

Grant in Office Grant won the Elections of 1868 & 1872 with the help

Grant in Office Grant won the Elections of 1868 & 1872 with the help of African American vote ► His entire time in office was plagued with corruption ► Used the spoils system, his friends were corrupt ► Scandals! Whiskey Ring & Credit Mobilier ►

Republicans in the South ► Southerners are ► Scalawags: white Democrats…always Republicans in the

Republicans in the South ► Southerners are ► Scalawags: white Democrats…always Republicans in the vote Democrat=Solid South…hated South ► Carpetbaggers: northern Republicans ► African Americans who move South for support Republicans ► Jim Crow Laws: laws economic created in the South to opportunities…hated segregate African Americans

The Southern Economy ► Sharecropping: § Landowner provides person with a place to live,

The Southern Economy ► Sharecropping: § Landowner provides person with a place to live, seeds and tools and when crops are harvested the renter must give a portion of his crop, but interest rates were high and sharecropper stayed in debt § Many former slaves became sharecroppers ► Tenant Farmers: tenant paid rent in cash to a landowner and was free to do whatever with his land

► The Ku Klux Klan more progress African Americans made, the more hostile white

► The Ku Klux Klan more progress African Americans made, the more hostile white southerners became ► Terrorized and intimidated African Americans and their supporters by burning homes, schools and churches or beating/killing ► Congress tried to stop them with Enforcement “Force” Acts, but being in the KKK is not illegal, but most of their activities are illegal

Northern Support Wanes « “Grantism” & corruption. « Panic of 1873 [6 -year depression].

Northern Support Wanes « “Grantism” & corruption. « Panic of 1873 [6 -year depression]. « Concern over westward expansion and Indian wars. « Key monetary issues: * should the government retire $432 m worth of “greenbacks” issued during the Civil War. * should war bonds be paid back in specie or greenbacks.

The Election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877 ► Republicans (Hayes-North) win electoral,

The Election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877 ► Republicans (Hayes-North) win electoral, but Democrats (Tilden-South) win popular vote ► Could have led to another rebellion ► In the end the Compromise of 1877 satisfies both the North and the South § North Happy: Republican Rutherford B. Hayes is elected § South Happy: troops are removed from the South § Significance: Reconstruction is over with the Compromise of 1877 and removal of troops

Successes of Reconstruction Failures of Reconstruction The Union is restored. ► Southern economic rebuilding

Successes of Reconstruction Failures of Reconstruction The Union is restored. ► Southern economic rebuilding begins. ► African Americans are granted citizenship and voting rights. ► Freedmen’s Bureau helps African Americans get education, jobs, and housing. ► Public school systems develops in the South ► Distribution of wealth and power in the South remains the same. ► Many Southerners are caught in a cycle of debt and poverty. ► Southern governments limit African American voting. ► Racism continues in the North and South. ► Southerners remain bitter toward federal government and Republican Party. ►