Rise to World Power 1865 1917 Expanding Horizons

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Rise to World Power 1865 -1917

Rise to World Power 1865 -1917

Expanding Horizons The prologue to US expansion

Expanding Horizons The prologue to US expansion

Essential Question: Why did the United State’s extend its influence to other regions in

Essential Question: Why did the United State’s extend its influence to other regions in the late 1800’s?

American Foreign Policy George Washington’s Farewell Address “Steer clear of permanent alliances with any

American Foreign Policy George Washington’s Farewell Address “Steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world. ” Isolationism= non-involvement in world affairs America continued to move west and south. “Closed Frontier” Began looking beyond their borders to other frontiers overseas

An Age of Imperialism Late 1800’s early 1900’s Imperialism= Creating large empires by gaining

An Age of Imperialism Late 1800’s early 1900’s Imperialism= Creating large empires by gaining economic and political control of weaker nations Driven by need for materials and new markets European examples: Africa, India, Australia “Wanted to “lift” uncivilized people by sharing Christian and Western values.

The Purchase of Alaska In 1867 Alaska was bought from Russia for $7. 2

The Purchase of Alaska In 1867 Alaska was bought from Russia for $7. 2 million Initially this purchase was ridiculed Once gold was discovered Americans were less critical of the purchase In 1912 Alaska became a territory of the United States

A Sense of Mission Some American’s believed they could “lift up” the world’s “uncivilized”

A Sense of Mission Some American’s believed they could “lift up” the world’s “uncivilized” by sharing Christianity and Western values Encouraged imperialism in Africa, Asia, and Latin America

American Interest in Latin America William H. Seward Abraham Lincoln's Secretary of State wanted

American Interest in Latin America William H. Seward Abraham Lincoln's Secretary of State wanted an American empire that would stretch into the Caribbean, Central America, and the Pacific. He expected the empire to be connected by a canal that would connect Pacific and Atlantic Oceans Foreshadowing? Growing with trade in Latin America post Civil War with help from the Monroe Doctrine=

Building Sea Power What needed to happen if the United States wanted to expand

Building Sea Power What needed to happen if the United States wanted to expand its influence into the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans? Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan; “Sea power is essential to the greatness of every splendid people” A new United States Navy with steam power and steal ships

Imperialism in the Pacific

Imperialism in the Pacific

Essential Question Why did the United States expand its role in the Pacific?

Essential Question Why did the United States expand its role in the Pacific?

Hawaii Pacific Ocean Eight larger islands Almost 100 small islands About 2000 miles west

Hawaii Pacific Ocean Eight larger islands Almost 100 small islands About 2000 miles west of California Only state that has a state song in a foreign language “ Hawaii Ponoi”

Hawaii in the 1800’s Hawaiian natives lived in small independent communities. Honolulu and Lahaina

Hawaii in the 1800’s Hawaiian natives lived in small independent communities. Honolulu and Lahaina grew in importance because they had good ports. The people of Hawaii depended on lush environment. Americans brought diseases with them to the islands. This devastated the local population Americans often stopped over for supplies while passing through to China.

 1820 Christian Hawaii Grows in Importance missionaries arrive in Hawaii. Whalers and Merchants

1820 Christian Hawaii Grows in Importance missionaries arrive in Hawaii. Whalers and Merchants also moved to the islands Sugarcane is introduced in 1830

Sugar Growers Missionaries and traders began buying land to grow and sell sugar Pidgin

Sugar Growers Missionaries and traders began buying land to grow and sell sugar Pidgin The United States agreed to not impose tariffs on Hawaiian sugar. Sugar industry in Hawaii grows quickly and Americans take control of most of the land Hawaiian independence is recognized but American influence stays strong

Sugar Plantation

Sugar Plantation

Trouble Begins for Hawaii In order to protect domestic industry the United States imposes

Trouble Begins for Hawaii In order to protect domestic industry the United States imposes a tax on all foreign goods. Trouble! Sugar exports dropped! But wait there is a naval base in Honolulu Naval base= territory?

More Trouble Hawaiians had begun to resist American influence New Queen Liliukalani in 1891

More Trouble Hawaiians had begun to resist American influence New Queen Liliukalani in 1891 Queen Liliukalani wanted Hawaii to regain economic independence and took away the powers of American planters White planters overthrew the new Queen and set up their own provisional government, or temporary government.

Annexation of Hawaii Annex= addition to Following the Planter’s Revolt a treaty was sent

Annexation of Hawaii Annex= addition to Following the Planter’s Revolt a treaty was sent to Washington D. C. to annex, or add, Hawaii to the United States. President Harrison ( #23) signed the treaty and sent it to the Senate to be ratified. Grover Cleveland ( #24) removed the treaty from the Senate. William Mc. Kinley (#25) approved of annexation and Hawaii became a territory in 1900.

China and the Open Door Pacific island territories were stepping stones to a larger

China and the Open Door Pacific island territories were stepping stones to a larger prize- China Rivalries in China Japan and European powers enjoyed special privileges in various parts of the county An open door to China U. S. government and business leaders worried about being left out of profitable Chinese Trade An “Open Door Policy” was adopted to allow nations in China to trade freely with one another

 The Boxer Rebellion In 1899 a secret Chinese society, the Boxers revolted against

The Boxer Rebellion In 1899 a secret Chinese society, the Boxers revolted against the “foreign devils” in China Boxers were eventually defeated by European powers

Japan Eager to expand its power in Asia, Japan began to ignore the Open

Japan Eager to expand its power in Asia, Japan began to ignore the Open Door Policy This led to war Between Russia and Japan over the Manchurian region The War quickly depleted both countries resources Treaty of Portsmouth President T. Roosevelt met with Russian and Japanese leaders in Portsmouth N. H. to broker peace Japan took control of Korea and agreed to halt expansion Japan became the strongest naval power in the Pacific and challenged the United States in the region

 Strained relations Many people in Japan immigrated to the U. S. during the

Strained relations Many people in Japan immigrated to the U. S. during the Russo-Japanese War and settled in California The San Francisco School Board ordered all students of Asian decent to attend separate schools The Japanese government protested President T. Roosevelt agreed to stop the segregation if Japan restricted emigration policies Japan resented the agreement and relations were strained

The Cuban war for independence

The Cuban war for independence

Resenting Spanish control • The Cubans had lived under Spanish rule for centuries •

Resenting Spanish control • The Cubans had lived under Spanish rule for centuries • Cubans resented Spanish Control of Cuba. • Spain looked to its own interests and paid no attention to Cuba’s needs or interests. • Example: Spain controlled all trade economy in Cub. • Spanish troops occupied the island. • Spanish judges ruled the courts and were harsh to any protesters, sending them to firing squads for execution.

Revolt in 1868 • Lead by Carlos Manuel de Cespedes a sugar planter. •

Revolt in 1868 • Lead by Carlos Manuel de Cespedes a sugar planter. • Lasted for ten years, almost to the day and became known as the Ten Years War. • Spain “won” the war by force and promised reforms. • Arrests and executions increased causing a deeper resentment of Spain by the Cubans.

Cuba Libre! • In April 1895, Leaders of The Years War Along with Jose

Cuba Libre! • In April 1895, Leaders of The Years War Along with Jose Marti returned to Cuba to lead another revolution. • “Cuba Libre!” became the war cry of the revolutionaries.

Cuban Revolution • The Cuban revolutionaries we heavily outnumbered and outgunned. • Maximo Gomez,

Cuban Revolution • The Cuban revolutionaries we heavily outnumbered and outgunned. • Maximo Gomez, the commander in chief, began leading his men in guerrilla warfare tactics. They would surprise the enemy and quickly retreat. • Gomez also began a scorched earthy policy, burning all valuable land crops. • He hoped that by destroying valuable land crops in Cuba Spain would deem the land too costly to maintain and give up the war.

Jose Marti (1853 -1895) • Jose Marti was born in Havana, Cuba to poor

Jose Marti (1853 -1895) • Jose Marti was born in Havana, Cuba to poor Spanish immigrants. • He soon became an avid supporter of Cuba independence. • He started a news paper to spread their ideas and was arrested by the Spanish. • The revolution became his life. • Marti died in a small skirmish with Spanish Troops. The insurgents circulated a false story that Marti had been executed ashore under a flag of Truce by the Spanish and executed.

The Cuban Revolution Ends Huge losses in human life and property Spanish troops herded

The Cuban Revolution Ends Huge losses in human life and property Spanish troops herded Cuban people into camps to separate them from the rebels and destroy their morale Thousands of Cubans died of disease and starvation throughout the conflict.

Spanish American War 1898

Spanish American War 1898

Essential Question How did the Spanish-American War help the United States become a world

Essential Question How did the Spanish-American War help the United States become a world power?

“A Splendid Little War” War Fever/Causes American sympathy Americans were horrified by the violence

“A Splendid Little War” War Fever/Causes American sympathy Americans were horrified by the violence against Cuban Monroe Doctrine Opportunity to get Spain (Europe out of Western Hemisphere) Economic Interests Sugar plantations Yellow Journalism Sensational biased and often false reporting American press reported the Cuban war for independence in graphic detail

 “Remember the Maine” The pressure to respond to the issues in Cuba seemed

“Remember the Maine” The pressure to respond to the issues in Cuba seemed to grow by the hour Rioting broke out in Havana President Mc. Kinley responded by sending the USS Maine to protect American citizens and proptery