Reconstruction 1865 1877 Reconstruction The period between the

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Reconstruction 1865 -1877

Reconstruction 1865 -1877

Reconstruction The period between the end of the Civil War (1865) until the election

Reconstruction The period between the end of the Civil War (1865) until the election of Rutherford B. Hayes (1877). This is the period of time in American history that the United States rebuilt itself from the massive destruction of the Civil War (economically, politically, ideologically, etc. )

Lincoln’s 10% Plan - Wanted the south to return quickly and easily. - Lincoln

Lincoln’s 10% Plan - Wanted the south to return quickly and easily. - Lincoln felt that individuals were responsible, not the state as a whole. - Lincoln would pardon all Confederates that took an oath of allegiance. - Once 10% of the states voters (in the 1860 election) took the oath, they could regain statehood and representation in the US government. - Would NOT pardon high ranking officials in the CSA or those accused of crimes against POWs.

Wade-Davis Bill Radical Republicans opposed Lincoln’s plan. They wanted the southern states to be

Wade-Davis Bill Radical Republicans opposed Lincoln’s plan. They wanted the southern states to be punished for secession. They also wanted full citizenship for all blacks, including suffrage (right to vote). Wade-Davis Bill - This bill put Congress in charge of reconstruction, taking the power away from the president (this was written by Congress) - Stated that a majority of the population would have to swear allegiance (in place of Lincoln’s 10% rule) - Lincoln used a “Pocket Veto” on this bill

Bell Ringer 11/18 A major result of the Civil War was that the 1)economic

Bell Ringer 11/18 A major result of the Civil War was that the 1)economic system of the South came to dominate the United States economy 2)Federal Government’s power over the States was strengthened 3)members of Congress from Southern States gained control of the legislative branch 4)nation’s industrial development came to a standstill

Johnson’s Plan In May of 1865, Johnson revealed his own plan for Reconstruction. Johnson

Johnson’s Plan In May of 1865, Johnson revealed his own plan for Reconstruction. Johnson was a supporter of state’s rights. - Rules for Re-Admittance Each state must formally withdraw their secession Swear allegiance to the Union Pay for their own (Confederate) war debts Ratify the 13 th Amendment High ranking Confederates could not vote Many ideas similar to Lincoln’s but was more generous.

Johnson’s Plan Reaction Many Radical Republicans were angry about the terms of Johnson’s Plan.

Johnson’s Plan Reaction Many Radical Republicans were angry about the terms of Johnson’s Plan. It did not address the following issues regarding newly freed slaves: 1) land ownership, 2) suffrage, 3) protection under the laws. • The Confederate states agreed to the terms… with a few exceptions. • Johnson did pardon many high ranking confederate officials, which angered Radical Republicans. • Due to Johnson’s actions, many blacks felt betrayed. • Johnson felt that “reconstruction” was finished!

Congressional Plan By mid-1866, the battle lines were set between Congress and President Johnson.

Congressional Plan By mid-1866, the battle lines were set between Congress and President Johnson. Congress overrode all the president’s vetoes and the president vetoed every bill Congress passed. Now they would start working towards the 14 th amendment… 14 th Amendment “All persons born or naturalized in the United States” were full citizens Details - All “citizens” are entitled to equal protection under the law - No state could deprive “citizen” of life, liberty, or property

Bell Ringer 11/19 A major feature of the Reconstruction period was that 1)new legislation

Bell Ringer 11/19 A major feature of the Reconstruction period was that 1)new legislation and constitutional amendments attempted to provide equal rights and opportunities for blacks 2)the South rapidly developed into the nation's major industrial center 3)a spirit of cooperation existed between the executive and legislative branches 4)new state governments in the South concentrated on ending corruption and enforcing Reconstruction plans

Congressional Plan Congressional Elections of 1866 Race riots broke out all over the south

Congressional Plan Congressional Elections of 1866 Race riots broke out all over the south and approx. 80 blacks were killed… The outcome of the election was that the Republican party won many of the Congressional seats and made up more than 2/3 of Congress.

Military Control Map of the South

Military Control Map of the South

Issuing Oath of Allegiance

Issuing Oath of Allegiance

Changes in farming • Many planters held onto their lands post-Civil War, Sharecropping/tenant farming

Changes in farming • Many planters held onto their lands post-Civil War, Sharecropping/tenant farming becomes the norm Pre-Civil War 90% of cotton picked by slaves Post-Civil War(1875) 40% picked by whites • Both freedmen and poor whites entered a cycle of poverty. • A new economy including industrial urbanization begins in the South.

Sharecropping -Farmers would farm a portion of owners land. -Payment would consist of 1/3

Sharecropping -Farmers would farm a portion of owners land. -Payment would consist of 1/3 to 1/2 of the total crop to the land owner. -Land owner usually provided housing for the farmers working the land. -Sharecroppers often were in debt because land owners would overcharge for supplies, equipment, housing ext. -Former slaves and poor white farmers, set up a virtual slavery.

Tenant Farming -This was a step up from sharecropping. -Tenant farmers did not own

Tenant Farming -This was a step up from sharecropping. -Tenant farmers did not own land but rented land from people similar to renting an apartment. -Tenants could grow whatever they wished and work whenever they wished. -had to supply themselves with own seeds, equipment, housing ext. Both forms of farming left people in a cycle of debt, many farmers continued to grow cash crops (tabacco, cotton, sugar)

Bell Ringer 11/20 After the Civil War, white Southern landowners used sharecropping to (1)

Bell Ringer 11/20 After the Civil War, white Southern landowners used sharecropping to (1) set up schools to educate formerly enslaved persons (2) encourage freedmen to migrate north (3) maintain a cheap labor supply (4) sell their plantations to formerly enslaved persons

Carpetbaggers & Scalawags Carpetbagger- Northern Republican who moved South after the war. Moved South

Carpetbaggers & Scalawags Carpetbagger- Northern Republican who moved South after the war. Moved South to try and profit off of Southern misery. Scalawags- White Southern who was Republican. Seen as traitors in the South.

Bell Ringer 11/23 The majority of immigrants who arrived in the United States between

Bell Ringer 11/23 The majority of immigrants who arrived in the United States between 1800 and 1860 came from 1. East Asia. 2. Latin America. 3. northern and western Europe. 4. southern and eastern Europe.

Transcontinental Railroad - A railway extending coast to coast was started in 1862, completed

Transcontinental Railroad - A railway extending coast to coast was started in 1862, completed 1869. -Huge government loans and land grants were given to the Central Pacific Railroad and Union Pacific Railroad companies. -Railroad stretched from Omaha, Nebraska to Sacramento, California. -Most of the workers building the railroads were immigrants, mainly Irish and Chinese. -Several thousands of miles of railroads were built throughout the Midwest and West Coast from 1870 -1890. -This helped populate the Great Plains region.

Terror in the South -Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is created in 1866, evolved into

Terror in the South -Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is created in 1866, evolved into a terrorist organization pledged to “defend the social and political superiority of whites”. -Klan consisted of ex-Confederate officers and plantation owners. -Protested Radical Republican Reconstruction policies and sought to eliminate Republican party in the South through intimidation. -Congress passed anti-Klan laws in 1870 and 1871, thousands were arrested and within a year the Klan was virtually wiped out.

Bell Ringer 11/24 In their plans for Reconstruction, both President Abraham Lincoln and President

Bell Ringer 11/24 In their plans for Reconstruction, both President Abraham Lincoln and President Andrew Johnson sought to 1)punish the South for starting the Civil War 2)force the Southern States to pay reparations to the Federal Government 3)allow the Southern States to reenter the nation as quickly as possible 4)establish the Republican Party as the only political party in the South

President Johnson Impeached -In 1868, President Johnson fires Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, this

President Johnson Impeached -In 1868, President Johnson fires Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, this outrages Radical Republicans in the House. -House Republicans say this was unconstitutional based on the Tenure of Office Act of 1867. -House members vote to impeach President Johnson in Feb. 1868, first President ever to be impeached. -In May, the Senate tries Johnson for “high crimes and misdemeanors”. -May 16 th, vote held in Senate to determine Johnson’s fate, Johnson escapes being removed from office by 1 vote!!! -Crisis would set a precedent that President would only be removed from office from the most serious of crimes.

Election of 1868 -Johnson chooses not to run and was rejected by the Republican

Election of 1868 -Johnson chooses not to run and was rejected by the Republican party -Party chooses War Hero Ulysses S. Grant as candidate to run against Democrat Horatio Seymour, former Governor of NY. -Very close race ends with Grant being elected. -Congress and the President now allies (Republican)

-Passed in Feb. 1869 th 15 Amendment -stated that: “No citizen may be denied

-Passed in Feb. 1869 th 15 Amendment -stated that: “No citizen may be denied the right to vote by the US or by any State based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude. ” -Last major piece of Reconstruction legislation. -Legislation did not extend to women of any race, this would lead to a resurgence in the women's suffrage movement.

Bell Ringer 11/30 The underlying reason for the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson was

Bell Ringer 11/30 The underlying reason for the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson was 1)the Credit Mobilier scandal 2)a power struggle with Congress over Reconstruction 3)his refusal to appoint new justices to the Supreme Court 4)his policies toward Native American Indians

1870 Election -With Federal troops overseeing polling stations, Southern Black males turned out to

1870 Election -With Federal troops overseeing polling stations, Southern Black males turned out to vote by the thousands. -Most would vote Republican, many whites stayed home and did not vote. -Republicans swept elections, more than 600 African Americans were voted into southern legislatures. -Louisiana voted in an African-American Governor and 16 African-Americans were voted into Congress.

Solid South -By 1872 last of ex-confederates had been pardoned. -They combined with other

Solid South -By 1872 last of ex-confederates had been pardoned. -They combined with other white southerners to form the Solid South. -Aimed to repeal many reforms created under Reconstruction legislatures. -Poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses are some examples of restrictions that would be put onto minorities in solid Democratic South.

Bell Ringer 12/1 What was a common purpose of the three amendments added to

Bell Ringer 12/1 What was a common purpose of the three amendments added to the United States Constitution between 1865 and 1870? 1. extending suffrage to Southern women 2. reforming the sharecropping system 3. granting rights to African Americans 4. protecting rights of Southerners accused of treason

The Indian Wars -reservations: Federal land set aside for Native Americans, often agreements fell

The Indian Wars -reservations: Federal land set aside for Native Americans, often agreements fell apart. -Battle of Little Bighorn: Colonel George Armstrong Custer leads 200 men into death a by the Sioux. -Massacre at Wounded Knee: members of Custer’s 7 th cavalry massacre 146 unarmed Sioux tribe members. Buffalo Soldiers -All African-American Calvary units serving in the west. -9 th and 10 th cavalry.

Compromise of 1877 - Election of 1876 Republican Rutherford B. Hayes vs. Democrat Samuel

Compromise of 1877 - Election of 1876 Republican Rutherford B. Hayes vs. Democrat Samuel Tilden. -Tilden wins the popular vote but the Electoral vote was disputed. -Compromise made in Congress gives Hayes the victory. -Hayes had to agree to remove all remaining federal troops in the South. -Also agreed to give large subsidies to railroad companies in the South. -This paves the way for Democrats to take control of Southern politics and marks the end of Reconstruction.

Jim Crow Laws Became firmly established in southern states after Reconstruction Required the separation

Jim Crow Laws Became firmly established in southern states after Reconstruction Required the separation of blacks and white in schools, parks, public buildings, and public transit Battle against by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Declared legal by supreme court in Plessy VS Ferguson decision

Jim Crow Laws: Court Cases CIVIL RIGHTS CASES (1883) Ruled that slavery was abolished

Jim Crow Laws: Court Cases CIVIL RIGHTS CASES (1883) Ruled that slavery was abolished but that discrimination by individuals was not prohibited by the Constitution PLESSY VS FERGUSON Established segregation to be legal as long as “equal but separate” facilities were available to blacks