- Slides: 21
Motivation and learning
Definition of motivation: • ‘Motivation is a force that energises, sustains and directs behaviour toward a goal’ (Eggen & Kauchak, 2001) • ‘An internal process that activates guides and maintains behaviour over time’ (Slavin, 2003)
Motivation and Achievement Research shows a strong correlation between motivation and achievement. This is not surprising because: • Motivation determines whether the pupils engage in the activity/task • Motivation determines how much pupils will learn from the activity/task
The Role of Motivation and Classroom Environment 1. Make students feel important. 2. Knight argues that instructors who value students avoid condescension, sarcasm, and impersonal behavior, and cultivate self-esteem through praising good performance and taking a personal interest in students.
2. Make students feel invited. In a number of studies of student retention, the presence or absence of a close relationship with an instructor is cited as a factor which influences retention. Instructors who make students feel invited, both in class and outside of class, have a strong impact on motivation.
3. Deal with needed changes from a positive point of view. Honest and frequent feedback is essential to good learning, but even very critical feedback can be offered in a constructive way. Instructors can usually find some good point to praise and can suggest specific ways in which unsatisfactory performance can be improved.
4. Learn to make nonverbal cues. Good eye contact, smiles, and active listening skills such as nodding, help motivate students.
5. Get to know students personally. Knight cites instructors who request that all students visit them personally outside of class to chat informally and instructors who have lunch or coffee with students as examples of those who understand that a personal acquaintance enhances the teaching-learning relationship.
6. Learn to empathize. Instructors who remember some of the hardships, uncertainties, and stress of their own student days are better able to help their students who are undergoing those difficulties.
7. Establish parameters. Knight feels that instructors who clearly define tasks and set high expectations for behavior and learning are better able to motivate students.
8. Use student-centered instruction. Student centered instruction involves planning learning activities that will actively engage students and will anticipate the kinds of opportunities and challenges that will be present in a specific area.
9. Be enthusiastic. Most instructors find their discipline compelling, but sometimes it is hard to recapture excitement about a familiar topic. Trying to look at the familiar in a new light or to present things in fresh ways are strategies instructors use to maintain their enthusiasm. It is said that enthusiasm shows— so does its absence.