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MOTIVATION �Define and explain motivation �Distinguish between motivation and satisfaction �Discuss the process of motivation �Types of motivation �Discuss some leading theories of motivation
MOTIVATION Some definitions 1. Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals- W. G. Scott. 2. Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do your will through the possibility of gain or reward. – Edwin B. Flippo. 3. Motivation is the need or drive within an individual that urges him towards goal-oriented action
MOTIVATION Motivation ≠ Satisfaction Motivation is Drive and Effort to satisfy a want or a goal Satisfaction is the Contentment experienced when a want is satisfied
MOTIVATION The Motivation Process 1. Awareness of Need 2. Search for Action 3. Fulfillment of Need 4. Discovery of New Need
MOTIVATION The Motivation Process
MOTIVATION Types of Motivation can be classified on the basis of: 1. Approach (Positive, Negative). 2. Incentives (Financial, Non-financial). 3. Nature (Extrinsic, Intrinsic).
MOTIVATION �Positive Motivation Rewards and incentive for employees Necessary facilities Awards for best performance
MOTIVATION �Negative Motivation Fear Punishment Demotion Layoff
MOTIVATION �Financial Motivation Monitory benefits ▪ Wages and salaries ▪ Bonus ▪ Fringe benefits ▪ Retirement benefits
MOTIVATION �Non Financial Motivation Recognition Greater involvement in decision-making Responsibility Challenging job Praise
MOTIVATION �Extrinsic Motivation Allowances Bonuses Fringe benefits Free housing Medical care
MOTIVATION �Intrinsic Motivation Status Authority Challenging job Participation in decision-making
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION 1. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory 2. Mc. Gregor’s X and. Y Theories 3. Ouchi’s Z theory 4. Herzberg’s Two-factor theory 5. Mc. Clelland’s Need theory 6. Vroom’s Expectancy theory. 7. Adelfer’s ERG theory
1. Douglas Mc. Gregor’s X and Y Theories THEORY X 1. People, in general, dislike work. They avoid their duties and are basically lazy. 2. Most people are un-ambitious. They do not voluntarily accept any responsibility. 3. Most people lack creativity. They show no preference for learning anything new factors. 4. Satisfaction of physiological and safety needs alone is important for most people. Workers in general are only bothered about their salary, job security and such other extrinsic factors. 5. While at work, an employee needs to be closely supervised and watched. THEORY Y 1. People are not averse to work. Given the proper working conditions the workers would do their work with the kind of enthusiasm. They show for their other activities like playing and eating. 2. Workers are ambitious and they do come forward to accept responsibility. 3. Workers do have the potentials to be creative. If the management has a positive outlook, it will certainly encourage the workers to display their creative ideas and skills. 4. It is not correct to assume that only satisfaction of physiological and safety needs are important for most workers. The workers do many things to have their ego satisfied. There are workers with tremendous potentials who want to work to their maximum capabilities. 5. Workers need not be directed and closely supervised. They are good in what is called ‘self- direction’.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THEORY X AND Y MANAGERS THEORY X MANAGERS THEORY Y MANAGERS � Have little regard for � Pay attention to individual people � Tend to be very authoritarian � Generally unlikely to motivate anyone to work willingly and well needs � Unlikely to be authoritarian � Boost morale of workers through incentives and rewards
2. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory Human behaviour is directed towards the satisfaction of certain needs. (i) Physiological Needs (ii) Safety Needs (iii) Social Needs (iv) Esteem Needs and (v) Self-actualization Needs
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY
Hierarchy of Needs �Physiological Needs Food Clothing Shelter
Hierarchy of Needs �Safety Needs Security of job / employment; resources; family; property; health Protection Law and order
Hierarchy of Needs �Social Needs Friendship Association Affection Love
Hierarchy of Needs �Esteem Needs Ego Status Recognition Self respect by others
Hierarchy of Needs �Self –Actualization Needs The need to achieve our full potential
3. HERZBERGS TWO FACTOR THEORY �Herzberg, a clinical psychologist and pioneer of “job enrichment, ” developed his motivation theory during his investigation of 200 accountants and engineers in the USA.
Two Factor Motivational Theory People are influenced by two factors: �Hygiene factors are needed to ensure an employee does not become dissatisfied. They do not lead to higher levels of motivation, but without them there is dissatisfaction. �Motivation factors are needed in order to motivate an employee into higher performance. These factors result from internal generators in employees.
Two-Factor Motivational Theory Examples of “Hygiene” Needs or Maintenance Factors ü The organization, its policies & administration ü Kind of supervision (leadership & management, including perceptions) ü Relationship with supervisor ü Work conditions (including ergonomics) ü Salary ü Status ü Job security ü Interpersonal relations
Two Factor Motivational Theory Hygiene Needs �People will strive to achieve “hygiene” needs because they are unhappy without them, but once satisfied, the effect soon wears off – satisfaction is temporary. (Chapman) �Parallels with Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Motivational Model
Two Factor Motivational Theory True Motivators �Achievement �Recognition for achievement �Work itself (interest in the task) �Responsibility �Growth and advancement