- Slides: 42
Cultural Geography of Latin America Chapter 9, Section 1: Mexico
Map of Mexico
The Tri-Color The First Flag of the Mexican Republic (1867 -1893) Current Flag (1968 -Present)
Important Vocabulary • Indigenous: people descended from an area’s first inhabitants. • Mestizo: people of Native American and European descent. • Urbanization: movement of people from rural areas to cities. • Megacity: a city with a population over 10 million. • Prime City: an urban area that dominates a country’s economic, political, and cultural affairs. • Glyph: picture writings carved in stone. • Chinampas: floating “islands” made from large rafts.
Vocabulary (Cont’d) • Conquistador: a (Spanish) conqueror. • Viceroy: a royally appointed official. • Caudillo: a dictator. • Syncretism: the blending of beliefs and practices. • Malnutrition: lack of proper food. • Mural: wall paintings. • Mosaic: pictures made with colored stone or tile. • Extended Family: a large family.
The Mexican Population • As of 2012, 109. 6 million people in Mexico. • First peoples likely came 40, 000 to 60, 000 years ago from Asia. • Mayan Civilization and Aztec Empire. • The population density is 146 people per square mile. • External migration.
Mayan & Aztec Empire • Mayan Civilization: 250 – 900 AD. • Agricultural and trade economy. • Aztec Empire: 1300 s – 1519. • Heavy agriculture.
Spanish Conquest • Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztecs in 1521. • Mexico was part of the Spanish Empire for 300 years. • In the late-1700 s, hostility towards Spanish rule.
Mexican Independence • Mexico was first Latin American country to gain independence. • Father Miguel Hidalgo led independence movement. • Power in the new Mexican Republic doesn’t change.
An Independent Nation • Public unrest, power struggles, and revolts. th • Late 19 century Mexico under dictatorships.
The th 20 Century • Mexico is a federal republic: executive, legislative, and judicial branches. • From 1929 to 2000: oneparty rule under PRI. • The PAN under Vicente Fox ends one-party rule.
Mexican Culture • Spanish is the official language. • Roughly 90% are Roman Catholic. • Lack of quality education. • Gov’t-run healthcare. • Revival in indigenous arts and music. • Mexicans value the family. • Bullfighting, soccer, and baseball.
Cultural Geography of Latin America Chapter 9, Section 2: Central America and the Caribbean
Map of Central American and the Caribbean
Important Vocabulary • Dialect: a form of a language unique to a particular place or group. • Patois: dialects that blend indigenous, European, African, and Asian languages. • Matriarchal: the family being ruled by the woman.
The Population • Great diversity of indigenous people and European settlers. • The first inhabitants were indigenous people. • At least 2/3 of Central Americans are mestizos. • Africans first arrived as slaves. • Caribbean nations are densely populated. • Mass emigration from Central America and the Caribbean. • Roughly 66% live in urban areas.
European Conquests • The Columbian Exchange led to Spanish colonization and global trade. • First European settlement was in Hispaniola in 1493. • Africans came as slaves.
Independence • Francois Toussaint. Louverture led a slave revolt in Haiti. • Central America gained its independence in the 1800 s. • Caribbean nations were the last to gain independence.
th 20 Century Changes • The Panama Canal brought new economic growth. • Cuban revolution under Fidel Castro in 1959. • The 1990 s witnessed democratic reforms. • Continued struggles.
Culture • Many languages and dialects spoken. • Catholic and Protestant nations. • Education varies greatly. • Healthcare based on living standards.
Culture (Cont’d) • Native American artworks. • Music and dances combine native and European styles. • Family is society’s basic unit. • Baseball, basketball, and volleyball.
Cultural Geography of Latin America Chapter 9, Section 3: South America
Map of South America
Important Vocabulary • Brain Drain: loss of highly educated citizens and skilled workers to other countries. • Quipu: a series of knotted cords of various colors and lengths. Inca recordkeeping.
The Population • World’s 4 th largest continent – 386 million people. • The indigenous groups live in the Andes region. • The Spanish and Portuguese were the first Europeans. • Millions of European immigrants. • High rate of population growth. • Low population densities. • Mass emigration for better living conditions. • Roughly 80% live in urban areas.
Early Cultures • Moche, Mapuche, and Aymara: agricultural societies (1 st century AD). • Inca Empire (1200 s-1572): highly-developed civilization. • Inca wealth attracted Spanish conquistadors.
European Conquests • Francisco Pizarro destroyed the Inca Empire. Spanish expansion. • The Portuguese settled in Brazil. • The English, French, and Dutch settled in the north. • Viceroyalties were established. • Africans came as slave labor.
Independence • Revolution leaders: Simon Bolivar in Venezuela and Jose de San Martin in Argentina. • Only Brazil peacefully gained its independence. • French Guiana is still part of France.
Struggles • Elites maintained power; caudillos. • Some countries underwent democratic reform. • Political corruption continues. • People desire economic liberties and basic rights.
Culture • Many languages spoken. • The majority are Roman Catholic. • Education varies. • Healthcare varies on economics. • Traditional arts and crafts continue. • Music and dance: Argentine tango and Brazilian samba. • Strong family households. • Soccer, basketball, auto racing, tennis, and boxing.
Latin America Today Chapter 10, Section 1: The Economy
Important Vocabulary • Export: selling goods to other countries. • Campesino: rural farmers and workers. • Latifundia: large agricultural estates owned by wealthy landowners or corporations. • Minifundia: small plots of farming land. • Cash Crop: crops produced in large amounts for selling and trading.
Vocabulary (Cont’d) • Developing Country: working towards greater manufacturing and technology use. • Gross Domestic Product (GDP): the value of goods and services a country produced in a year. • Service Industry: those that provide a service. • Maquiladora: a factory. • Free Trade Zone: areas of a country in which there are no trade restrictions.
Agriculture • Agriculture is main supply of income. Most is exported. • Uneven land distribution; inequality. • Farming is mechanized. • Physical geography: great cash crops. • Cattle-raising for export.
Industry • Efforts for more manufacturing and industry. • Rising service and telecom industries. • Tourism has been essential. • Foreign investments.
Transportation • Many issues with road and railroad construction. • Pan-American, Trans-Andean, and Trans-Amazonian Highway. • Well-developed railway systems. • Waterways and air travel are very important.
Communication & Trade • Variety of communications. • Gov’t censorship during political unrest. • Growing use of technology. • NAFTA (1994) and DR-CAFTA (2005). • Many Latin American nations have foreign debt.
Latin America Today Chapter 10, Section 2: People and Environment
Important Vocabulary • Deforestation: the clearing of forests. • Sustainable Development: technological and economic growth without depleting human and natural resources. • Slash-and-burn Farming: using ash from burnt plants and trees to soil the ground. • Reforestation: planting of young trees or tree seeds. • Shantytown: slums or makeshift communities.
Managing Resources • Reduced forests in the Amazon Basin. • Almost 20% of Amazon rainforest has been destroyed. • Serious threats to ecosystem. • Laws mandating reforestation and conservation.
Human Impacts • Rapid urbanization has strained natural resources. • The rise of shantytowns/slums. • Increase of smog and smokestack pollution.
Future Challenges • There have been territorial conflicts over past 150 years. • The region is vulnerable to natural disasters. • Gov’ts are working together for better forecasting.