Physical Geography of Latin America Latin America is
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Physical Geography of Latin America
Latin America is made up of 3 Parts: 1. Central America (Mexico & 7 countries of Central America 2. Caribbean (Bahamas, Greater Antilles & Lesser Antilles) 3. South America (13 countries)
Latin America Facts • The Region of Latin America is twice the size of the United States • Comprised of 37 Countries • The Region of Latin America stretches 6000 miles from Northern Mexico to Tierra del Fuego (“Land of Fire”) which is cold and rocky (southern most point of South America)
What is the southern most point of South America? 1. 2. 3. 4. Tierra del Fuego Andes Patagonia Pampas
• Located near the Equator in both Central and South America • Over 3, 000 + plant species per sq. mile
What vegetation is located along the equator (tropical wet climate)? 1. 2. 3. 4. Desert Llanos Tropical Rainforest Glaciers
Slash and Burn Agriculture • Constant rainfall washes away nutrients in soil unless held in place by tree roots. • When land is cleared, soil turns hard and little grows This NASA satellite image shows hundreds of fires (indicated by red dots) burning near the Yucatan peninsula on April 20, 2003. Credit: MODIS. This photo was taken in Petén, Guatemala.
Mountains • Mexico – Sierra Madre Occidental (west) and Oriental (east) Canon de Basaseachic in the Sierra Madre Occidental
Mountains • Andes – West Coast of South America – World’s longest mountain chain – 2 nd highest mountains in the World- use terrace farming – Home of the Inca in Peru – Barrier to movement into the interior, thus most settlement has occurred along the eastern and northern coasts.
• Andes Mountains – mountain range that runs through the western part of North, Central and South America. It is called the Rockies in North America, Sierra Madre in Mexico and the Andes in South America.
What type of farming takes along the Andes Mountains? 1. 2. 3. 4. Rotation farming Terrace Farming Deforestation Irrigation
Mountains • Guiana and Brazilian Highlands Angel Falls are located at Akuyantepui, the largest mountain plateau in the Guiana Highlands. • Many people live in the valleys, but mountains block communication, isolating regions and people Brazilian Southern Highlands and Canyons
Plateaus & Hills • Patagonia - Argentina Bariloche: NW Patagonia Steppe El Chaltén Períto Moreno glacier
Plains • LLANOS – Colombia and Venezuela – Plains area used for grazing and farming Upland llanos, Bolivar, Venezuela • In Brazil known as CERRADO
PAMPAS • Farming and grazing area of Argentina and Uruguay
What are three plain regions? 1. 2. 3. 4. Patagonia, Andes, Brazilian Highlands Atacama Desert, Amazon, Patagonia Llanos, Cerrado, Pampas Yucatan Peninsula, Pampas, Guiana Highlands
• Amazon River Basin – The CERRADO is a savanna with moderate rain that is suitable for farming – Currently underdeveloped – Brazilian government is encouraging settlers to move into the interior and develop the land
Rivers • Central America and the Caribbean do not have the extensive river systems that are found in South America. • Orinoco River – Northern South America: Venezuela and Colombia
Amazon River • Runs from the Andes through Brazil to the Atlantic Ocean for some 4, 000 miles. • Carries more water than any other river in the world • Fed by over 1, 000 tributaries- hydro electric power This image map made by the ASAR (radar) on Envisat shows the Amazon drainage basin to be generally low in elevation and flat.
Parana River • Starts in the Brazilian Highlands • Turns into the Rio de la Plata • Commercial “Highway”
What feature allows Brazil to have a large amount of hydro electric power? 1. 2. 3. 4. Mountains Plateaus Deltas Rivers
Orinoco River 1, 500 miles iver na R Para miles 0 3, 00
Why would Rainforest, mountains, and rivers hinder movement and communication?
Caribbean Islands (West Indies) • Greater Antilles – Larger islands of the Caribbean.
Lesser Antilles- smaller islands Soufriere Hills, Montserrat Antigua St. Lucia
Bahamas • Hundreds of islands off the coast of Florida
Energy Sources: • Oil & Natural Gas~ Mexico is the world’s 5 th largest producer; Venezuela member of OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) • Hydroelectric Power (rivers & waterfalls)~S. A. has abundance of rivers • Coal
What two countries have a large amount of oil reserves? 1. Argentina and Peru 2. Chile and Paraguay 3. Venezuela and Mexico 4. Columbia and Ecuador
Mineral Resources: • Abundant mineral supply throughout region • Latin America among the world’s leaders in mining of raw materials • Mines: gold, silver, iron, copper, bauxite (aluminum ore), tin, lead & nickel
Urbanization People are steadily moving towards the cities to improve their lives. Push factors – poor medical care, poor education, low-paying jobs, ownership of land by a few rich people Pull factors – higher-paying jobs, better schools, better medical care Several cities in South America rank among the world’s largest in population, and they are rapidly growing. (2) Mexico City – 18, 131, 000 (4) São Paulo - 17, 711, 000 (10) Buenos Aires – 12, 431, 000 (19) Rio de Janeiro – 10, 556, 000 (26) Lima – 7, 443, 000 (30) Bogotá - 6, 834, 000 (42) Santiago – 5, 261, 000
What is urbanization? What causes urbanization? 1. Push factors 2. Pull factors 3. both Negative effects of Urban Sprawl? 1. 2. 3. 4. Plenty of space Big Houses Water Shortage Private schools
LATIN AMERICA CITY GROWTH
Tourism- growing industry Millions of people each year visit Latin American resorts. Luxurious cruise ships anchor in the Caribbean. Resorts offer many activities for locals to have job opportunities. Gaps in rich tourists and local poor Countries incur debt by building resorts/airports/harbors