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What do you know already? ? Please sign in and pick up handouts. The test is: • Ungraded so answer honestly • Used to determine your prior knowledge • Used to inform instruction • Used to provide insight of course goals Begin Your Formative Assessment Now! – You have 15 minutes to complete. This test is your ticket out-the-door at the end of class today!
Introductions A little about me: Dr. Kathy Svoboda My expectation A little about you: – Your name? – Level and content area you would like to teach? – Why did you decide to become a teacher? – What would you like to get out of this course?
A Guiding Philosophy • Productive unbiased classroom assessment • Assessment is the process of gathering information to inform instructional decisions • Focus on learning • Begin with the end in mind
Syllabus Let’s Review Required Text: • Green, Susan K. and Johnson, Robert L. (2010). Assessment is Essential, 1 st ed. New York, New York: Mc. Graw-Hill: Higher Education. ISBN 978 -007 -337872 -5 • OR, Students may subscribe to e. Book 180 day subscription of Green, Susan; Johnson, Robert, ASSESSMENT IS ESSENTIAL First Edition • Information for e. Book is available at: http: //www. coursesmart. com/givecoursesmartatry ? xmlid=0077323866&__instructor=2752258
Live. Text and Web Access to standards This course will include assignments in EMU’s Live. Text system. An active subscription to Live. Text is required. Final grades CANNOT be submitted until CAP and SLA assignments are completed, scored, and successfully submitted through Live. Text. Information on Live. Text and directions for getting a subscription are available at: http: //www. emich. edu/coe/livetext/students/index. html
Web Access Required • Access to the Michigan Grade Level Content Expectations (GLCEs) or High School Course Expectations (HSCEs) or Common Core State Standards (CCSS). • Links to these are available at: • http: //www. michigan. gov/mde/0, 1607, 7 -140 -28753 ---, 00. html • Use to: – do research for projects, – submit projects, – receive evaluations, – research data analysis
Prerequisites Students will be able to (SWBAT): • Use Word to develop projects, submit revisions and create charts – NOT Open Office • Use Excel to create charts and graphs • Use Email to submit and receive corrected projects • Write in a grammatically acceptable manner • Analyze data
Essential Course Outcomes Students will be able to (SWBAT): • Find and use CCSS, GLCEs and HSCEs to determine essential standards of learning • Develop cognitively complex student outcomes that target essential learning goals • Explain basic principles of K-12 student evaluation and assessment • Meaningfully critique tests and/or other forms of assessment • Develop and use assessment techniques that promote student critical thinking skills • Construct quality tests, alternate assessments, rubrics • Analyze and use assessment data effectively • Determine appropriate adaptations for assessing students • Advance levels of professionalism
Course Expectations • Develop and submit “ 5” projects • Peer edit the work of other students in class • Use peer editing input to improve work before it is submitted for scoring
Learning expectations Course topics include: • Cognitive Learning Theories (ex. Bloom’s Taxonomy) • The Curriculum/Instruction/Assessment Triangle • Formative (for learning) and summative (of learning) Assessment • Standards for learning and assessment üGrade Level Content Expectations (GLCE) üHigh School Course Expectations (HSCE) üCommon Core State Standards (CCSS) • Evaluation basics, including, but not limited to: -Determining objectives / targets -Reliability -Observed and true scores -Sampling -Validity -Bias -Measurement error -Inference
More Learning expectations • Criterion and norm referenced test • interpretations Development of: • Essential learning goals • An assessment plan (formative and summative) • Assessments at multiple levels of cognitive complexity • Selected Response test items • Constructed Response test items • Rubrics (List, Holistic and Analytic) • Adaptations for special needs students • Performance (“alternative”) assessments • Introspective self analysis • Test data analysis • Critiquing assessment item development • Administration/scoring of assessments • Use Smarter Balance Assessment Consortium
More Learning Expectations • Using assessment data for • Understanding student progression (formative) • Planning instruction • Evaluation • Reporting • Purposes • Parent/teacher/student interaction • Grading issues (summative) • Standardized tests • Purposes/interpretation/use and misuse • Norm and criterion referenced • MEAP / MME • NCLB • Current Issues
Class Procedures • Regular attendance and punctuality – – – Attendance taken with a sign-in sheet Student’s responsibility to sign-in for each class Student unsigned, marked absent Notification to the instructor prior to missing class via email ([email protected] edu) or text everyone expected to attend every class Find a study buddy and agree to share notes, handouts, announcements, etc. (Talk to buddy before contacting instructor. ) • Attentiveness to lectures and discussions • Participation in class • Read (and discuss) chapters/projects as assigned
Assignment / Grade Summary* 55% - The Classroom Assessment Plan (CAP) – a “ 4” part project. • CAP 1 = 20% a of CAP Grade – Create a Blueprint (11%) • CAP 2 = 40% of CAP Grade – Develop an Assessment (22%) • CAP 3 = 30% of CAP Grade – Create a Performance Assessment (16. 5%) • CAP 4 = 10% of CAP Grade – Critique your experience (5. 5%) 20% - Student Learning Analysis assignment. Field placement required. 15% - One criterion-referenced content test – Midterm Exam • Traditional objective test with essays • Study guide provided in advance • Test is strongly based on class lectures and activities, and also on readings, spotlighting the importance of regular attendance and reading the text 10% - Active engagement by “Peer Editing each Project” *There may be various other non-graded assignments. These must all be done before a final grade is assigned. It is recommended that all old papers and tests are saved until final grades are submitted.
Calendar Fall 2012 (Full Term) In Class Topics/Due Day and Date Assignment 1 Dates Why is assessment essential? Learning Goals / Outcomes CAP 1 Defined GLCE/HSCE/CCSS/Smarter Balance Tuesday, January 08, 2013 Thursday, January 10, 2013 Read Chapters 1/2 Tuesday, January 15, 2013 Begin CAP 1 Tuesday, January 15, 2013 Thursday, January 17, 2013 Continue CAP 1 Writing Outcomes Tuesday, January 22, 2013 Read Chapter 3 Diagnostic Assessment Submit SLA Tuesday, January 22, 2013 target test date Thursday, January 24, 2013 Read Chapter 4 SLA Defined Formative Assessment Tuesday, January 29, 2013 Read Chapter 5 Progress Monitoring Tuesday, January 29, 2013 Thursday, January 31, 2013 Final Peer Edit CAP 1 Bloom's Taxonomy CAP 1 First Submission by Midnight
*All chapters are from the assigned textbook Assessment is Essential (2010) by Green and Johnson. Chapters are assigned in conjunction with project assignments and will provide you with needed background information to complete the projects successfully. All reading is to be completed for the day it is assigned. However, the instructor reserves the right to make adjustments as needed for instruction. MAKE SURE YOU BRING YOUR TEXTBOOK AND ANY ADDITIONAL HANDOUTS TO EACH CLASS. All future handouts will be emailed to you!
Chapter 1: Why Is Assessment Essential? “An informed citizenry is the bulwark of democracy. ” —Thomas Jefferson
Equal Access to Educational Opportunity “We strongly believe teachers’ assessment practices play a large role in their efforts to do their part to help all students have access to the education that is a basic right in this country. ” The key instructional question – Will this help my students learn? 19
Traditional Functions of Schools Sorting – In the past, education was often used to separate the ‘brighter’ learners from the ‘duller’ learners. Associated with performance goals: • Motivation to perform well in the eyes of others, assumed cognitive ability was fixed. © 2010, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20
Transforming Functions of Schools: Helping all children learn. Associated with mastery goals: • Motivation focusing on a desire to understand accomplish the task, assume ability can increase (neuroplasticity). 21
Target: . “All” students will demonstrate successful learning of standards. Is 99% good enough?
Is 99% an acceptable target? • Every day more than four million people fly on commercial airlines worldwide. 99% successful flights without a crash = 40, 000 people die each day in a plane crash • Each year 1. 7 billion people fly on 25 million flights. 99% successful flights = 250, 000 flights crash 99% successful flights = 1, 700, 000 people die each year
Assessment Tasks That Enhance Mastery Goals • Varied, meaningful, and challenging tasks • Student participation in decision making • Focus on personal goals and improvement 24
Promoting Mastery Goals Through Assessment: Examples • Use many different types of assessment • Have students engage in self-assessment and peer assessment • Focus on individual progress across time using benchmarks of standards 25
Importance of Critical Thinking • “Analyzing arguments, seeing both sides of an issue before choosing a position, and discerning what is left unsaid are key critical thinking skills related to democratic participation that must be taught. ” • “… providing opportunities to learn these skills is one of the essential functions of schools. ” 26
An Overview of Assessment • Assessment: the variety of methods used to determine what students know and are able to do before, during, and after instruction. • Three major purposes of assessment: –diagnostic –formative –summative. 27
Why? When? How? Diagnostic: Getting a Before School records, sense of strengths instruction observations, pre-tests and needs for planning instruction Formative: During Monitoring growth as instruction you teach (assessment for learning) Summative: Determining what students have learned after instruction (assessment of learning) Observations, quizzes, skill checklists, ticket out the door, student selfassessment, performance assessments, conference, homework After End of unit test for instruction assigning grades, performance assessments common assessments, statewide tests at the end of the year. 28
Diagnostic Assessment • At the beginning of the school year, to determine what - – will challenge but not overwhelm students. – differentiated instruction is needed. – types of assignments students prefer. • At the beginning of a new unit, to determine - – Prior learning foundation to connect new ideas – What content may already be mastered 29
Formative Assessment (FOR) Used during instruction to: • Provide students with feedback to improve • Provide opportunities for students to incorporate the feedback • Provide teachers with information to tailor instruction to student needs 30
Summative Assessment (OF) After instruction: • Classroom level: Determine what and how much students have learned in the classroom. • Large-scale level: To measure how groups of students perform in relation to different content standards across classrooms. 31
How is assessment used?
To Gather New Information • “…collecting data can be as simple as systematically noting which students visit a center, or asking students about their reading preferences. ” • “Data can help you identify the needs of your students and can uncover problems that might otherwise remain hidden. ”
Action Research • Can prepare teachers to work together in communities • Together they develop systematic inquiries about teaching and learning in their schools • Focus is on student learning.
Professional Learning Communities - PLC • • • Rick De. Four authored Believed ALL students could be successful Teachers worked together to ensure success for all 1. 2. 3. 4. What do you want students to know? How will you know when they know it? What will you do if they don’t know it? What will you do if they knew it before?
PLC’s Result in: • Acquiring assessment data to track • • • / verify learning Analyzing learning to modify instruction Meeting the needs of students Insuring successful learning for ALL Relevant, timely, and targeted action research Building a team focused on learning
Advantages of Action Research • Data gathered fairly and objectively • Helps you make decisions in your classroom that might allow you to get beyond your own: – Perspective – Biases • Points to use of some effective practices you never dreamed would work 37
Four Keys to Assessment Quality: 1. Why assess? What’s the purpose? Who will use the results? Use how? 2. Assess what? What are the learning targets? Are they clear? Appropriate? 3. Assess how? What method? Built of quality ingredients? 4. Communicate how? Reported to whom? In what form? How?
Guiding Principles of Assessment: • Classroom assessments can both promote and verify student learning. • Clear and appropriate achievement targets are essential. • Accurate classroom assessment is essential. • Sound assessments communicate results effectively.
Emily’s AND Kristen’s Stories • Compare and contrast Emily and Kristen’s learning experience. • What conditions needed to be in place in Ms. W’s classroom for Emily and her classmates to have had this experience? • What keys to success were applied by Emily’s teacher? • How could Kristen’s teacher create a more successful learning experience for her students? • What keys to success need to be added for Kristen?
Ethics and Assessment • “Because assessment plays such a significant role in the lives of students, teachers must use assessment practices that are ethical. ” • Two basic guidelines: – Do no harm. – Avoid score pollution – dilution? . 41
A teacher always knows the identity of the student whose essay test she is grading. A. ) Ethical B. ) Not Ethical
To enhance self-esteem, an elementary teacher addresses only students’ strengths when writing narrative report cards. A. ) Ethical B. ) Not Ethical
A physical education teacher gives a student a zero as a homework grade for not returning a form requiring a parent’s signature. A. ) Ethical B. ) Not Ethical
A teacher weights homework heavily in determining report card grades. A. ) Ethical B. ) Not Ethical
As a teacher finalizes grades, he changes a student’s course grade from a B+ to an A. The student’s tests and submitted papers showed that the student had mastered the course objectives, even though the student had not completed some of the homework assignments. A. ) Ethical B. ) Not Ethical
Making Ethical Judgments Scenario Ethical Unethical A teacher always knows the identity of the student whose essay test she is grading. 49% 51% To enhance self-esteem, an elementary teacher addresses only students’ strengths when writing narrative report cards. 41% 59% A physical education teacher gives a student a zero as a homework grade for not returning a form requiring a parent’s signature. 43% 57% A teacher weights homework heavily in determining report card grades. 57% 43% As a teacher finalizes grades, he changes a student’s course grade from a B+ to an A. The student’s tests and submitted papers showed that the student had mastered the course objectives, even though the student had not completed some of the homework assignments. 37% 63% 47
Judgment Calls • Not all situations resolve easily • Develop your professional judgment about ethics and assessment through– experiences in your classroom – discussions with peers and administrators – analysis of ongoing developments 48