- Slides: 73
英语句子的种类 简单句 (simple sentence) 并列句 (compound sentence) 复合句 (complex sentence)
简单句 (simple sentence) A. 只包含一个主谓结构 Mary opened the door. B. 两个主语和一个谓语 Steve and his friend are coming to dinner. C. 一个主语和两个谓语 Mary opened the door and greeted the guests.
(1) 主语+连系动词+表语(S+V+P ) The weather is very cold. (2) 主语+不及物动词(S+Vi ) He laughed. (3) 主语+及物动词+宾语(S+V+O ) I like Chinese food.
请说出下列句子类型。 1. Summer is coming. 2. They won’t let me go. 3. He showed me a new TV set. 4. She knows what to do. 5. The weather is very cold. S+Vi S+V+C S+V+IO+DO S+V+P
I turned on the TV. I watched it. Ø I turned on the TV and 并列句 watched it. I bought my sister a present. She didn’t like it. 并列句 ØI bought my sister a present, but she didn’t like it.
常用并列连词 coordinating conjunctions and, both…and, not only… • 平行并列连词: but also, neither…nor • 转折并列连词： but, however, while, yet • 因果并列连词: for, so • 选择并列连词: or, either…or
请用合适的并列连词把每组句子 合并为一个并列句。 1. He was tired. He went to bed. He was tired, so he went to bed. 2. The child hid behind his mother's skirt. He was afraid of the dog. The child hid behind his mother's skirt, for he was afraid of the dog.
He made a promise. He didn’t keep it. He made a promise, but He didn’t keep it. Mary is opening the door. John is greeting her guests. Mary is opening the door, and John is greeting her guests.
请指出该复合句的主句和从句部分。 从句 By the time he arrived, 1 主句 we had already left. 2
指出下列各从句的类型： v. I hope that everything is all right. v. She was reading the newspaper when I came in. v. She is the girl who sings best of all. 宾语从句 状语从句 定语从 句
请用括号中所给的词把每组 句子连接为一个复合句。 He has found out. She was late. (why) He has found out why she was late. I still remember the day. I first came to Beijing on that day. (when) I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing.
请把每组句子连接为一个含有状语从句复合句。 v. I’ll give the letter to him. I see him. (时间状语从句) v. He didn’t come yesterday. He was ill. (原因状语从句) v. It is such a big box. Nobody can move it. (结果状语从句) v. We’ll go to the great wall. It’s fine tomorrow. (条件状语从句) v. We should not go there all the time. The place is quite pleasant. (让步状语从句
有下划线的词叫从属连词 (subordinating conjunction) v. I’ll give the letter to him when I see him. v. He didn’t come yesterday because he was ill. v. It is such a big box that nobody can move it. v. We’ll go to the great wall if it’s fine tomorrow. v. Although the place is quite pleasant, we should not go there all the time.
请用所学知识改正下列病句 v My roommate was sleeping, we didn’t want to wake her up. v I went to bed. Because I was tired.
üMy roommate was sleeping. We didn’t want to wake her up. üMy roommate was sleeping, so we didn’t want to wake her up. üI went to bed because I was tired.
How to deal with the writing？ 1、Analyse the topic Information from words Information from pictures Style, person, tense, key points F iv e s te p s 2、words and phrases：Use one or two words to express the key points. 3、Make sentences：Use the words or phrases to make sentences. 4、Form the ①Agreement (Subject and predicate, tense) passage： ②Background situation（time, place, condition) Attentions： ③Logical relations ④Beginning & ending ⑤Discourse markers 5、Check again and make a clear copy
A Letter Jack Nov 5, 2001 Wuzheng Middle School Zhejiang P. R. C. Tongxiang High School Dear Mary, Body Yours, Jack
结束语Closing • • 亲人、家属：Yours lovingly ; Yours affectionately 朋友、平辈：Sincerely yours Yours sincerely 上级、长者：Yours respectfully Respectfully yours 单位、部门：Yours sincerely Yours faithfully
信封正面 Stamp Airmail
Dear Prof. Jackson, We are planning to give our students some elementary knowledge of psychology. As you area world well-known scholar and doctor in the psychological studies of teenagers. We, on the recommendation of Prof. Liu, head of your department, beg to take an opportunity to invite you to come to our school to give us some lectures. If you consider it convenient to do so, we shall appoint you as a visiting professor of psychology from September 1 st, 2003 to January the 31 st, 2004 for a period of one semester. We will pay you a monthly sum of ￥ 4, 000 and ￥ 20, 000 in all. We will also offer you, free of charge, a two-room furnished apartment on our campus for your rest and work. Hoping to get a favorable reply from you at your earliest convenience. Yours sincerely, Wu Jianping (Dean of Yuyao High School)
【要求】 假如你叫王平，你的一室友染上了烟瘾，请你给他写封信，劝说他戒烟。信 中要说明吸烟的危害，要求有说服力，使他树立起戒烟的信心和决心。字数 80 — 100字。 A Letter to Roommate My dearest friend, Recently I have noticed a habit of yours that is becoming a serious problem. It's your smoking. Whenever you are here, our bedroom is filled with a terrible smell. Smoking does harm to your health, especially it is often connected with cancer. Also smoking does harm to the health of others around you. Your roommates avoid being in the bedroom because it is being polluted. It is not difficult to give up smoking if you really decide to do so. Where there is a will, there is a way. I'll be ready to help you if you need it. Yours sincerely, Wang Ping
日记 Diary • Wednesday May 5 th Cloudy It is nearly a month since I began keeping diaries. I find it a very good exercise in English composition. I got back my essay on A Visit to the Park. It was marked with A. There were only three mistakes in it: one in grammar and two in idiom. I’m happy to see that I can now express myself in English more usually than ever before. ,
Not My Day Mon. , Sept. 26 Cloudy Today was simply not my day. Everything just went wrong. How unlucky I was today. In the morning, I soiled(弄脏)my dress while eating my breakfast. The hot-dog I was eating slipped from my plate and landed on my dress. It was really clumsy(笨手笨脚的)of me, but that was because I was in a real hurry to go to school. Had to go and get changed, of course, so I was late for school. In school, in my history class, we had an examination. Did badly in that examination because I couldn't remember what I studied last night. To make matters worse, I had a silly fight with my best friend over a certain topic. I said some stupid words too. Now, I have to say sorry to Carol. Oh, just couldn't wait to get back home today. Once home, relaxed myself by taking a hot shower. Now, I'm glad the day is over. Whew! What a day.
便 条（病/事假条） • June 5 th , 2000 • Dear Mr. Zhao, • I am sorry that I am unable to attend school during the following week because of the Sports Meet. The school expects me to play an important part in it. And I will be back to class in a week. • I hope you will excuse my absence. (in fact , I take a French leave) • Yours respectfully • Charles • Encl: the PE Teacher’s certificate (证明）
Dear Mr Li, I'm very sorry to tell you that I can't attend school today because of a bad cold. I enclose the doctor's certificate(证明) and ask you for three days sick leave. Your student, Li Ming Enclose(附)： the doctor's certificate for sick leave • 卢老师： • 因爷爷病重，我打算回家探望，要求请假一星期，从本月23日到 29日止。附上姐姐发来的电报，请批准为盼。 • 您的学生张三 • 2003．3．22
通知、通告 （NOTICE/ANNOUNCEMENT) • 口头通知： • Ladies and Gentlemen, • May I have you attention please? • 正 文 • 书面通知： • NOTICE • • In celebration of May Day , there will be --- 正 文 School Office April 25 th , 2000
Notice In order to develope the skill of the students in speaking and arouse the students' interest learning English, the Student Union has decided to set up an English Corner with the help of the teachers of English. Those in senior two or three who like English will be accepted as members of the English Corner. Those in senior one will be admitted to join the English Corner after filling in an application form. The opening is to held in the school hall at 9 a. m. on January 10 th, 1999. The head of the English teaching research group will make a speech of congratulations, and professor Tom from the Foreign Language and Literature Department of Beijing university will give us a one-hour talk on “How to Develope the Skill in Speaking. ” All the member are expected to be there on time with your note-books. Student union January lst, 1999
Some of the discourse markers • • • 并列 选择 原因 结果 时间 and; as well as ; also; or; either—or; or else; otherwise because ; owing to; due to ; on account of ; thanks to so ; therefore ; thus ; as a result when ; soon after ; before; later ; first ; and then ; next ; finally; afterwards. 比较 on the contrary ; on the other hand ; like 转折 but ; yet; however ; although; in spite of ; instead ; 递进 besides ; moreover ; even ; in addition 举例 for example/instance; such as ; that is ; namely ; 总结 after all ; in short ; in general ; generally speaking in all, in a word
词 句 文 ① to ride a bike 词： ② to hit his bike and fall off 句： ①Tom was riding a bike along the street. ②The car hit his bike and he fell off it. The other day, Tom was riding along the street. Suddenly, a car was running 文： towards him fast and hit his bike, then he fell off it.
参 考 答 案 The other day, Tom was riding along the street. Suddenly, a car was running towards him fast. He was so frightened that he quickly turned to the left side. But it was too late. The car hit his bike and he fell off it. When the driver realized that he had caused an accident, he got such a fright that he took flight with his car. He was soon out of sight, leaving Tom helpless on the spot. Fortunately a passerby happened to see what had happened and remembered the number of the car. He reported this to the police. Now the driver has been caught and will be punished for his wrong doing.
2000书面表达答案 on It was 7: 15 in the morning of February 8, 2000. 1_____ when I was walking along Park Road towards the east while 2______ √ an old man came out of the Park on the other side of the 3____ drive street. Then I saw a yellow car drove up Third Street and 4____ hit make a right turn into Park Road. The next moment the car hitted 5_____ the man while he was crossing the road. He fell with a cry. the A car didn’t stop and drove off at great speed heading west. 6___ and I noticed the driver was a young woman but 7____ about the plate number was AC 864. After 8____ passing two minutes later I stopped a passed car 9____ took and brought the old man to the nearest hospital. 10____ Lihua
Homework Write a composition within 100 words according to the instructions:
Thanks a lot! Any comment is welcome!
Write a concise passage use few words express clear meaning
Compare the two passages Tom is four years old and he is energetic. One day a bike was given to him. The bike is new and it is a light blue in color. Tom received the bike for his birthday. He struggled to ride his bike. He struggled for two hours. However, he was unsuccessful in riding the bike. Four-year-old Tom is energetic. One day, he got a light blue bike for his birthday. He struggled for two hours to ride it, but he was unsuccessful.
Outstanding Tom is four years old and he is energetic. One day a bike was given to him. The bike is new and it is a light blue in color. Tom received the bike for his birthday. Concise(best) He struggled to ride his bike. He struggled for two hours. better However, he was unsuccessful in riding the bike. wordy
Improve the wordy sentence(I) 1. There are many People hunting animals for living in the mountain (hunters) 2. A girl likes Chinese food better. (prefer) 3. The employee with anger quarreled with his boss. (angry) 4. In the not too far future, our dreams will come true. (near) 5. He gave up school on condition of the reason that it was necessary for him to support his family. (because)
Summary one : change phrases into single words
improve the wordy sentence(II) 1. His family live in a village which is near a river (His family live in a village near a river) 2. The house, which was newly built is very large. (The newly-built house is very large) 3. People who are interested in the job must send your resume to our company before Friday. (People interested in the job must send your resume to our company before Friday. ) 4. We will have the party in the garden which is on the top of the main building. (We will have the party in the garden on the top of the main building. ) 5. While he is waiting for the bus, he always recites texts. (While waiting for the bus or Waiting for…)
Summary two: Change unnecessary clauses into phrases
improve the wordy part(III) 1. A letter was sent by Mrs. Smith. (Mrs. Smith sent a letter) 2. Your luggage will be checked by a custom official and then a pass card will be given to you. (A custom official will check your luggage and give you a pass card) 3. The gifts should be wrapped up and written a few words of best wishes on by you. (You should wrap up the gifts and write a few words of best wishes on them. )
Summary Three: Change useless passive into active
Summaries: 1. change phrases into single words 2. Change unnecessary clauses into phrases 3. Change useless passive into active 4. 5.
Improve the following sentence(1) 1. Although Chinese is regularly used by students, a close and complete study of the subject is seldom taken by them. (Although students regularly use Chinese, they seldom take a close and complete study of the subject. )
Improve the sentence(2) 2. I am familiar with the farmers who are planning to attend the meeting which is fixed for next Friday. (I am familiar with the farmers planning to attend the meeting fixed for next Friday)
Improve the sentence(3) 3. The decision that was reached by the committee was to put off the vote. (The committee reached the decision to put off the vote. ) (The committee decided to put off the vote)
Make the passage short and clear We’re so glad you will join in our picnic which will be held in the People’s Park. Here is how we can be found: After you go into the park, walk on till you see a river. Cross it and make a turn towards the right. Then a hill will be seen by you. Walk around to the other side of the hill, and a lake will be found by you. We will have our picnic in the small wood which is by the lake. I am sure you will have no trouble in finding us.
Have you found it? We’re so glad you will join in our picnic which will be held in the People’s Park. Here is how we can be found: After you go into the park, walk on till you see a river. Cross it and make a turn towards the right, then a hill will be seen by you. Walk around to the other side of the hill, and a lake will be found by you. We will have our picnic in the small wood which is by the lake. I am sure you will find us without any difficulty.
Build up a concise passage Requirements : 1. Write a story about dog. 2. Use the first person: e. g. my parents, my sister… 3. Write concisely and clearly. 4. 100 words or so.
Homework 1. study and concise the passages on your sheet.