- Slides: 63
Personality A person’s pattern of thinking, feeling and acting. (An individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits. )
Personality Trait • A durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations.
4 Personality Theories • Trait • Psychoanalytic • Humanistic • Behaviorist
Types of Personalities Type A Type B • Feel time pressure. • Relaxed and easygoing. • Easily angered. • But some people fit in neither type. • Competitive and ambitious. • Work hard and play hard. • More prone to heart disease than rest of population.
Trait Theory Main Ideas • Describes people’s personalities by specifying their main characteristics (traits) • We have stable, long-lasting traits • The same traits appear in many different situations • The same traits can be used to describe all people’s personalities. • Personality Inventories (tests)
Trait Theory • Critics of Trait Theory say that personality comes from the situation we are in.
Trait Theory Introversion-Extroversion Scale • Hans Eysenck • Introverts tend to be more imaginative and look inward rather than to others for ideas and energy. • Extroverts tend to be active, outgoing and gain energy from interaction with other people.
Trait Theory NEO Five Factor Inventory Test Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Inventory BIG FIVE personality traits: 1. Extraversion 2. Agreeableness 3. Conscientiousness 4. Openness to experience 5. Neuroticism -Emotional stability • “OCEAN” Everyone’s personality is made up of these five basic factors.
Factor Trait Characteristics Inverse Trait Characteristics I Extraversion Talkative, extroverted Aggressive, verbal Sociable, bold Assertive, social Unrestrained, confident Shy, quiet Introverted, silent Untalkative, bashful Reserved, withdrawn Timid, unaggressive II Agreeableness Sympathetic, kind Warm, understanding Soft-hearted, helpful Considerate, cooperative Trustful, affectionate Cold, unsympathetic Unkind, rude Harsh, inconsiderate Insensitive, insincere Hard, uncharitable III Conscientiousness Organized, neat Orderly, systematic Efficient, responsible Precise, through Practical, dependable Disorganized, disorderly Careless, unsystematic Inefficient, sloppy Haphazard, inconsistent Impractical, negligent IV Emotional Stability Relaxed Unexcitable, patient Undemanding, imperturbable Unselfconscious, uncritical Masculine, optimistic Moody, temperamental Jealous, touchy Envious, irritable Fretful, emotional Self-pitying, nervous V Openness to Experience Creative, intellectual Imaginative, philosophical Artistic, complex Inventive, intelligent Innovative, deep Uncreative, unimaginative Unintellectual, unintelligent Simple, unreflective Shallow, imperceptive Unsophisticated, uniquisitive.
Trait Theory • I am interested in • I am not interested in people. other people’s problems. • I feel others’ emotions. • I am not really • I have a soft heart. interested in others. • I make people feel at • I feel little concern for ease. others. • I sympathize with • I insult people. others’ feelings. • I take time out for ***Sample Agreeableness Questions others.
Trait Theory • I am always prepared. • I leave my belongings around. • I am exacting in my work. • I make a mess of things. I often forget to put • I follow a schedule. things back in their • I get chores done right proper place. away. • I shirk my duties. • I like order. • I pay attention to details. ***Sample Conscientiousness Questions.
Trait Theory • I am the life of the party. • I am quiet around strangers. • I don't mind being the center of attention. • I don't like to draw attention to myself. • I feel comfortable around people. • I don't talk a lot. • I start conversations. • I have little to say. • I talk to a lot of different **Sample Extroversion Questions people at parties.
Trait Theory • I am relaxed most of the time. • I seldom feel blue. • I rarely feel nervous **Sample Neuroticism-Emotional Stability Questions I am easily disturbed. I change my mood a lot. I get irritated easily. I get stressed out easily. I get upset easily. I have frequent mood swings. • I often feel blue. • I worry about things. • • •
Trait Theory • I am full of ideas. • I am quick to understand things. • I have a rich vocabulary. • I have a vivid imagination. • I have excellent ideas. • I spend time reflecting on things. • I use difficult words. • I am not interested in abstract ideas. • I do not have a good imagination. • I have difficulty understanding abstract ideas. **Sample Openness Questions
Trait Theory • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) – Classroom activity
US Population Breakdown MBTI The table organizing the sixteen types was created by Isabel Myers (an INFP). ISTJ 11– 14% ISFJ 9– 14% INFJ 1– 3% INTJ 2– 4% ISTP 4– 6% ESTP 4– 5% ESTJ 8– 12% ISFP 5– 9% ESFP 4– 9% ESFJ 9– 13% INFP 4– 5% ENFP 6– 8% ENFJ 2– 5% INTP 3– 5% ENTP 2– 5% ENTJ 2– 5% Estimated percentages of the 16 types in the U. S. population. http: //www. capt. org/mbti-assessment/estimated-frequencies. htm
ISTJ - The Duty Fulfillers ESTJ - The Guardians ISFJ - The Nurturers ESFJ - The Caregivers ISTP - The Mechanics ESTP - The Doers ESFP - The Performers ISFP - The Artists ENTJ - The Executives INTJ - The Scientists ENTP - The Visionaries INTP - The Thinkers ENFJ - The Givers INFJ - The Protectors ENFP - The Inspirers INFP - The Idealists
Be careful of the Barnum Effect! • People have the tendency to see themselves in vague descriptions of personality. • Horoscopes, astrologers, and psychics all use this concept. • • “You have a need for other people to like and admire you, and yet you tend to be critical of yourself. While you have some personality weaknesses you are generally able to compensate for them. You have considerable unused capacity that you have not turned to your advantage. At times you have serious doubts whether you have made the right decision or done the right thing. ” “Take a step back and try to avoid risks for the day. Things aren't that bad, really, but you may find that it's easier to just play it safe and let others take the fall, if there…”
Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality • Fathered by Sigmund Freud. • We have inner struggles and urges! – Often sex & aggression – Biological drives vs. social norms Stages of Psycho-Sexual Development Libido (sex drive) moving through our bodies – – – Oral (0 -1 yr) Anal (2 -3) Phallic (4 -5) Latent (6 -12) Genital (12+) What’s on our minds!!!
Erotic Focus Key Tasks &Fixations • Oral-mouth (sucking, biting) • Weaning from breast or bottle. Excessive smoking, drinking, overeating, dependence on others • Anal-Anus (expelling or retaining feces) • Toilet training. Overly controlling (anal retentive) or easily angered (anal expulsive) • Phallic-genitals (masturbating) • Identifying with adult role models; coping with Oedipal Crisis. Guilt/anxiety about sex • Latency-none (sexually latent or dormant) • Expanding social contacts. No Fixation • Genital-genitals (being sexually • Establishing intimate) relationships. No fixation
Freud said what? ! • Oedipus Complex – A male child’s sexual desire for his mother and his hostility toward his father, whom he considers to be a rival for his mother’s love. – A son's unconscious unresolved sexual attraction to his mother. – Castration Anxiety-birth of superego (more later) • Electra Complex – A female child’s sexual desire for her father and her hostility toward her mother, whom she considers to be a rival for her father’s love. – A daughter's unconscious unresolved sexual attraction to her father. – Penis envy
Our Personality • Conscious- things we are aware of. • Preconscious- things we can be aware of if we think of them. • Unconscious- deep hidden reservoir that holds the true “us”. All of our desires and fears.
Freud’s Concept of Personality (Psyche) • Id • Ego • Superego
Id • Exists entirely in the unconscious (so we are never aware of it). • Our hidden true animalistic wants and desires. (survival, sex, aggression) • Works on the Pleasure Principle – Avoid Pain and receive instant gratification.
Ego If you want to be with someone. Your Id says just take them, but your Ego does not want to end up in jail. So you ask her out and buy her things!! • Develops after the Id • Works on the Reality Principle – Gratification must be delayed at times. • Negotiates between the Id and the real world.
Superego • Develops last at about the age of 5 • It is our conscience, parental and societal morals (what we think the difference is between right and wrong). • The Ego often mediates between the Superego and Id.
Freud’s Concept of Personality Quick Summary • Ego– Manages conflict between Id & constraints of the real world. – Reality principle • Superego – Moral component – Parents & society • Id – Instinctual energy/biological urges – Sex & aggression – Pleasure principle
Defense Mechanisms • The Ego has a pretty important job…and that is to protect you from threatening thoughts in your unconscious. • One way it protects us is through defense mechanisms. • You are usually unaware that they are even occurring-usually automatic & unconscious.
Scenario Quarterback of the high school football team, Brandon, is dating Jasmine dumps Brandon and starts dating Drew, president of the Chess Club. Drew Brandon Jasmine
Repression • Pushing unpleasant thoughts, feelings, & memories into our unconscious. • When asked about Jasmine, Brandon may say “Who? , I have not thought about her for awhile. ” • Why don’t we remember our Oedipus and Electra complexes?
Denial • Not accepting the egothreatening truth. • Refusing to acknowledge something that is obvious to others. • Brandon may act like he is still together with Jasmine. He may hang out by her locker and plan dates with her.
Stacy is in Denial!
Displacement • Transferring one’s feelings toward another person or object. • Often displaced on less threatening things. • Brandon may take his anger out on another kid by bullying.
Projection • Attributing one’s own unacceptable thoughts or feelings to someone else. • Projecting your feelings unto others. • Brandon insists that Jasmine still cares for him.
Reaction Formation • Expressing the opposite of how one truly feels. • Behaving in a way that is opposite to behavior, feelings, or thoughts that are considered unacceptable. • “Cootie stage” in Freud’s Latent Development. • “Closet cases” • Brandon claims he hates Jasmine.
Regression • Returning to an earlier, comforting, more immature form of behavior. – Thumb sucking • Brandon begins to sleep with his favorite childhood stuffed animal.
Rationalization • Coming up with a beneficial result of an undesirable outcome. • Brandon thinks he will find a better girlfriend. “Jasmine was not all that anyway!” • I really did not want to go to ……. . anyway, it was too ……
Intellectualization • Undertaking an academic, unemotional study of a topic. • Brandon starts doing a research paper on failed teenage romances.
Sublimation • Channeling one’s frustration toward a different goal. • Channeling thoughts and feelings into socially acceptable behavior. • Sometimes a healthy defense mechanism. • Brandon starts to learn to play the guitar and writes songs (or maybe starts to body build).
Criticisms of Freud • He really only studied wealthy woman in Austria. • His results are not empirically verifiable (really hard to test). • No predictive power. • Karen Horney (Horneye) said he was sexist with the “penis envy” and there is an actual “womb envy”.
Neo-Freudians • Psychologists that took some premises from Freud and built upon them. Alfred Adler Karen Horney Carl Jung
Alfred Adler • Childhood is important to personality. • But focus should be on social factors- not sexual ones. • Our behavior is driven by our efforts to conquer inferiority and feel superior. • Inferiority Complex
Karen Horney • Childhood anxiety is caused by a dependent child’s feelings of helplessness. • This triggers our desire for love and security. • Fought against Freud’s “penis envy” concept. – Womb envy
Carl Jung • Less emphasis on social factors. • Focused on the unconscious. • We all have a collective unconscious: a shared/inherited well of memory traces from our species’ history.
Psychoanalysis Today • Couch sitting • The idea is to delve into your unconscious. • Begin with your Manifest Content, then delve deeper into the Latent Content.
Getting into the Unconscious • Hypnosis • Dream Interpretation • Free Association - having the patient randomly talk to themselves…and then interpreting the conversation. • Projective Tests - tests that delve into the unconscious. – Examples are TAT and Inkblot Tests. – Class activity…get out a sheet of paper!
TAT Test Thematic Apperception Test • Giving the subject a picture that is ambiguous (can have several meanings) and ask them what is occurring. • Their answers reveal the Manifest Content. • They can then discover the Latent Content. • What does your answers say about you?
Rorschach Inkblot Test • The most widely used projective test • A set of ten inkblots designed to identify people’s feelings when they are asked to interpret what they see in the inkblots.
Usually interpreted according to factors such as: • Location-whole card or just a detail • Determinants-shading, texture, color • Content-precise object you see • Form level-answer is in keeping with actual shape of the blot
http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=QV 6 Dp. JKW 6 a 0&list=PLA 003 EA 812844 ADD 9 (3 m)
Behaviorist Theory of Personality • The way most people think of personality is meaningless. • Personality changes according to the environment (reinforcers and punishments). • If you change the environment, then you change the personality.
Humanistic Theory of Personality • Do not believe in Determinism (your actions are dictated by your past). • They believe that humans have free will (our ability to choose our own destiny). • We are innately good and as long as our self -esteem and selfconcept are positive, we will be happy.