Recombinant DNA and Genetic Engineering Chapter 15 Genetic

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Recombinant DNA and Genetic Engineering Chapter 15

Recombinant DNA and Genetic Engineering Chapter 15

Genetic Changes • Humans have been changing the genetics of other species for thousands

Genetic Changes • Humans have been changing the genetics of other species for thousands of years – Artificial selection of plants and animals • Natural processes also at work – Mutation, crossing over

Genetic Engineering • Genes are isolated, modified, and inserted into an organism • Made

Genetic Engineering • Genes are isolated, modified, and inserted into an organism • Made possible by recombinant technology – Cut DNA up and recombine pieces – Amplify modified pieces

Discovery of Restriction Enzymes • Hamilton Smith was studying how Haemophilus influenzae defend themselves

Discovery of Restriction Enzymes • Hamilton Smith was studying how Haemophilus influenzae defend themselves from bacteriophage attack • Discovered bacteria have an enzyme that chops up viral DNA

Specificity of Cuts • Restriction enzymes cut DNA at a specific sequence • Number

Specificity of Cuts • Restriction enzymes cut DNA at a specific sequence • Number of cuts made in DNA will depend on number of times the “target” sequence occurs

Making Recombinant DNA 5’ G A A T T C 3’ C T T

Making Recombinant DNA 5’ G A A T T C 3’ C T T A A G one DNA fragment another DNA fragment 5’ G A A T T C 3’ 3’ C T T A A 5’ G

Making Recombinant DNA nick 5’ G A A T T C 3’ 3’ C

Making Recombinant DNA nick 5’ G A A T T C 3’ 3’ C 5’ T T A A G DNA ligase action nick G A A T T C C T T A AG

Using Plasmids • Plasmid is small circle of bacterial DNA • Foreign DNA can

Using Plasmids • Plasmid is small circle of bacterial DNA • Foreign DNA can be inserted into plasmid – Forms recombinant plasmids – Plasmid is a cloning vector – Can be used to deliver DNA into another cell

Using Plasmids DNA fragments + enzymes recombinant plasmids host cells containing recombinant plasmids

Using Plasmids DNA fragments + enzymes recombinant plasmids host cells containing recombinant plasmids

Making c. DNA m. RNA transcript m. RNA–c. DNA hybrid single-stranded c. DNA double-stranded

Making c. DNA m. RNA transcript m. RNA–c. DNA hybrid single-stranded c. DNA double-stranded c. DNA

Amplifying DNA • Fragments can be inserted into fast-growing microorganisms • Polymerase chain reaction

Amplifying DNA • Fragments can be inserted into fast-growing microorganisms • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Polymerase Chain Reaction • Sequence to be copied is heated • Primers are added

Polymerase Chain Reaction • Sequence to be copied is heated • Primers are added and bind to ends of single strands • DNA polymerase uses free nucleotides to create complementary strands • Doubles number of copies of DNA

Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA to be amplified DNA is heated Primers are added

Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA to be amplified DNA is heated Primers are added

a PCR starts with a fragment of double-stranded DNA b The DNA is heated

a PCR starts with a fragment of double-stranded DNA b The DNA is heated to 90°– 94°C to unwind it. The single strands will be templates c Primers designed to base-pair with ends of the DNA strands will be mixed with the DNA d The mixture is cooled. The lower temperature promotes base-pairing between the primers and the ends of the DNA strands e DNA polymerases recognize the primers as START tags. They assemble complementary sequences on the strands. This doubles the number of identical DNA fragments Fig. 15. 6 a, p. 226

Polymerase Chain Reaction Mixture cools Base pairing occurs Complementary strand synthesized

Polymerase Chain Reaction Mixture cools Base pairing occurs Complementary strand synthesized

Primers • Short sequences that DNA polymerase recognizes as start tags • To carry

Primers • Short sequences that DNA polymerase recognizes as start tags • To carry out PCR, must first determine nucleotide sequences just before and after the gene to be copied • Complementary primers are then created

The DNA Polymerase • Most DNA polymerase is denatured at high temperature • Polymerase

The DNA Polymerase • Most DNA polymerase is denatured at high temperature • Polymerase used in PCR is from bacteria that live in hot springs

Temperature Cycles • DNA is heated to unwind strands • Cooled to allow base-pairing

Temperature Cycles • DNA is heated to unwind strands • Cooled to allow base-pairing with primers and complementary strand synthesis • DNA is heated again to unwind strands • Cycle is repeated over and over again

DNA Fingerprints • Unique array of DNA fragments • Inherited from parents in Mendelian

DNA Fingerprints • Unique array of DNA fragments • Inherited from parents in Mendelian fashion • Even full siblings can be distinguished from one another by this technique

Tandem Repeats • Short regions of DNA that differ substantially among people • Many

Tandem Repeats • Short regions of DNA that differ substantially among people • Many sites in genome where tandem repeats occur • Each person carries a unique combination of repeat numbers

RFLPs • Restriction fragment length polymorphisms • DNA from areas with tandem repeats is

RFLPs • Restriction fragment length polymorphisms • DNA from areas with tandem repeats is cut with restriction enzymes • Because of the variation in the amount of repeated DNA, the restriction fragments vary in size • Variation is detected by gel electrophoresis

Gel Electrophoresis • DNA is placed at one end of a gel • A

Gel Electrophoresis • DNA is placed at one end of a gel • A current is applied to the gel • DNA molecules are negatively charged and move toward positive end of gel • Smaller molecules move faster than larger ones

Analyzing DNA Fingerprints • DNA is stained or made visible by use of a

Analyzing DNA Fingerprints • DNA is stained or made visible by use of a radioactive probe • Pattern of bands is used to: – Identify or rule out criminal suspects – Determine paternity

Genome Sequencing • 1995 - Sequence of bacterium Haemophilus influenzae determined • Automated DNA

Genome Sequencing • 1995 - Sequence of bacterium Haemophilus influenzae determined • Automated DNA sequencing now main method • 3. 2 billion nucleotides in human genome determined in this way

Nucleotides for Sequencing • Standard nucleotides (A, T, C, G) • Modified versions of

Nucleotides for Sequencing • Standard nucleotides (A, T, C, G) • Modified versions of these nucleotides – Labeled so they fluoresce – Structurally different so that they stop DNA synthesis when they are added to a strand

Reaction Mixture • Copies of DNA to be sequenced • Primer • DNA polymerase

Reaction Mixture • Copies of DNA to be sequenced • Primer • DNA polymerase • Standard nucleotides • Modified nucleotides

Reactions Proceed • Nucleotides are assembled to create complementary strands • When a modified

Reactions Proceed • Nucleotides are assembled to create complementary strands • When a modified nucleotide is included, synthesis stops • Result is millions of tagged copies of varying length

Recording the Sequence TCCATGGACC TCCATGGA TCCATGG TCCAT TCCA TCC • DNA is placed on

Recording the Sequence TCCATGGACC TCCATGGA TCCATGG TCCAT TCCA TCC • DNA is placed on gel • Fragments move off TC T electrophoresis gel one of the many fragments of DNA migrating through the gel in size order; pass through laser beam • Color each fragment fluoresces is recorded one of the DNA fragments passing through a laser beam after moving through the gel on printout T C C A T G G A C C A

Gene Libraries • Bacteria that contain different cloned DNA fragments – Genomic library –

Gene Libraries • Bacteria that contain different cloned DNA fragments – Genomic library – c. DNA library

Using a Probe to Find a Gene • You want to find which bacteria

Using a Probe to Find a Gene • You want to find which bacteria in a library contain a specific gene • Need a probe for that gene – A radioisotope-labeled piece of DNA – It will base-pair with the gene of interest

Colonies on plate Use of a Probe Cells adhere to filter Cells are lysed;

Colonies on plate Use of a Probe Cells adhere to filter Cells are lysed; DNA sticks to filter Probe is added Location where probe binds forms dark spot on film, indicates colony with gene

Applications • What can genetic engineering be used for?

Applications • What can genetic engineering be used for?

Engineered Proteins • Bacteria can be used to grow medically valuable proteins – Insulin,

Engineered Proteins • Bacteria can be used to grow medically valuable proteins – Insulin, interferon, blood-clotting factors – Vaccines • Human gene is inserted into bacteria, which are then grown in huge vats

Cleaning Up the Environment • Microorganisms normally break down organic wastes and cycle materials

Cleaning Up the Environment • Microorganisms normally break down organic wastes and cycle materials • Some can be engineered to break down pollutants or to take up larger amounts of harmful materials – Break down oil, sponge up heavy metals

Basic Research Recombinant DNA technology allows researchers to: – Investigate basic genetic processes –

Basic Research Recombinant DNA technology allows researchers to: – Investigate basic genetic processes – Reconstruct life’s evolutionary history – Devise counterattacks against rapidly mutating pathogens

Engineered Plants • Cotton plants that display resistance to herbicide • Aspen plants that

Engineered Plants • Cotton plants that display resistance to herbicide • Aspen plants that produce less lignin and more cellulose • Tobacco plants that produce human proteins • Mustard plant cells that produce biodegradable plastic

First Engineered Mammals • Experimenters used mice with hormone deficiency that leads to dwarfism

First Engineered Mammals • Experimenters used mice with hormone deficiency that leads to dwarfism • Fertilized mouse eggs were injected with gene for rat growth hormone • Gene was integrated into mouse DNA • Engineered mice were 1 -1/2 times larger than unmodified littermates

More Mouse Modifications • Experiments showed that human growth hormone genes can be expressed

More Mouse Modifications • Experiments showed that human growth hormone genes can be expressed in mice • Human genes are inserted into mice to study molecular basis of genetic disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease • Variety of methods used to introduce genes

Cloning Dolly 1997 - A sheep cloned from an adult cell – Nucleus from

Cloning Dolly 1997 - A sheep cloned from an adult cell – Nucleus from mammary gland cell was inserted into enucleated egg from another sheep – Embryo implanted into surrogate mother – Sheep is genetic replica of animal from which mammary cell was taken

Designer Cattle • Genetically identical cattle embryos can be grown in culture • Embryos

Designer Cattle • Genetically identical cattle embryos can be grown in culture • Embryos can be genetically modified – Experimenters are attempting to create resistance to mad cow disease – Others are attempting to engineer cattle to produce human serum albumin for medical use

The Human Genome Initiative Goal - Map the entire human genome • Initially thought

The Human Genome Initiative Goal - Map the entire human genome • Initially thought by many to be a waste of resources • Process accelerated when Craig Ventner used bits of c. DNAs as hooks to find genes • Sequencing was completed ahead of schedule in early 2001

Using Human Genes • Even with gene in hand it is difficult to manipulate

Using Human Genes • Even with gene in hand it is difficult to manipulate it to advantage • Viruses usually used to insert genes into cultured human cells but procedure has problems • Very difficult to get modified genes to work where they should

Eugenic Engineering • Selecting “desirable” human traits • Who decides what is desirable? •

Eugenic Engineering • Selecting “desirable” human traits • Who decides what is desirable? • 40 percent of Americans say gene therapy to make a child smarter or better looking would be OK

Where Do We Go Now? • Can we bring about beneficial changes without harming

Where Do We Go Now? • Can we bring about beneficial changes without harming ourselves or the environment? • Gene therapy is not harmless – A young man died after gene therapy that used an adenovirus • Gene therapy can save lives – Infants with disabled immune systems are now healthy

Can Genetically Engineered Bacteria “Escape”? • Genetically engineered bacteria are designed so that they

Can Genetically Engineered Bacteria “Escape”? • Genetically engineered bacteria are designed so that they cannot survive outside lab • Genes are included that will be turned on in outside environment, triggering death

Effects of Engineered Organisms • Opposition to any modified organisms • What if engineered

Effects of Engineered Organisms • Opposition to any modified organisms • What if engineered genes escape into other species?