Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Recombinant DNA and DNA

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Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Recombinant DNA and DNA Science

Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Recombinant DNA and DNA Science

Genetic Engineering l. Making changes in the DNA code of a living organism

Genetic Engineering l. Making changes in the DNA code of a living organism

DNA extraction l Biologists can use chemicals to get DNA out of cells l

DNA extraction l Biologists can use chemicals to get DNA out of cells l You did this in the Strawberry/DNA extraction lab

Tools of Molecular Biology l Restriction enzymes – cut DNA

Tools of Molecular Biology l Restriction enzymes – cut DNA

Separating DNA l Gel electrophoresis - DNA fragments (negatively charged) move toward positive end

Separating DNA l Gel electrophoresis - DNA fragments (negatively charged) move toward positive end of gel -smaller fragments move faster, farther -compare gene composition (genomes) of different individuals

To study genes… biologists need MANY copies of a gene

To study genes… biologists need MANY copies of a gene

Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR l Copier stuck on “print”

Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR l Copier stuck on “print”

Cell Transformation

Cell Transformation

Recombinant DNA l DNA synthesizers – put short pieces of DNA together

Recombinant DNA l DNA synthesizers – put short pieces of DNA together

Recombinant DNA l The manipulation and combination of DNA from two sources l Bacterial

Recombinant DNA l The manipulation and combination of DNA from two sources l Bacterial DNA + human gene for insulin l Plant DNA + bacterial DNA l Mouse DNA + human DNA

Recombination Insert a foreign gene into a host Plasmid, then into the bacterial cell

Recombination Insert a foreign gene into a host Plasmid, then into the bacterial cell – transformation Transgenic organisms Recombinant DNA l Goal – To produce many copies ( clones) of a particular gene (PCR) l Genetic marker – tags gene of interest – to identify the presence of a gene l

Restriction Enzymes l. Cut Plasmid with restriction enzyme l. Cut gene of interest with

Restriction Enzymes l. Cut Plasmid with restriction enzyme l. Cut gene of interest with restriction enzyme

Biotechnology l The use of living cells to make products such as pharmaceuticals, foods,

Biotechnology l The use of living cells to make products such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and beverages l The use of organisms such as bacteria to protect the environment l The use of DNA science for the production of products, diagnostics, and research

Pharmaceuticals l l l l insulin for diabetics factor VIII for males suffering from

Pharmaceuticals l l l l insulin for diabetics factor VIII for males suffering from hemophilia A factor IX for hemophilia B human growth hormone (GH) erythropoietin (EPO) for treating anemia three types of interferons several interleukins granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for stimulating the bone marrow after a bone marrow transplant tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) for dissolving blood clots adenosine deaminase (ADA) for treating some forms of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) angiostatin and endostatin for trials as anti-cancer drugs parathyroid hormone leptin hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs. Ag) to vaccinate against the hepatitis B virus

Golden Rice- Agrobiotech l Golden rice is the result of an effort to develop

Golden Rice- Agrobiotech l Golden rice is the result of an effort to develop rice varieties that produce provitamin-A Because traditional rice varieties do not produce provitamin-A, transgenic technologies were required.

Transgenic Mice – Manipulation of embryo( blastocyst)

Transgenic Mice – Manipulation of embryo( blastocyst)

Transgenic mice l Two baby mice same age l Human Growth hormone inserted into

Transgenic mice l Two baby mice same age l Human Growth hormone inserted into the embryo of one of these mice…

Insect Resistance l l B. thuringiensis (commonly known as 'Bt') is an insecticidal bacterium,

Insect Resistance l l B. thuringiensis (commonly known as 'Bt') is an insecticidal bacterium, marketed worldwide for control of many important plant pests Bt products represent about 1% of the total ‘agrochemical’ market (fungicides, herbicides and insecticides)

Vaccines l Bananas and tomatoes as edible vaccines l Benefits of an edible vaccine?

Vaccines l Bananas and tomatoes as edible vaccines l Benefits of an edible vaccine?

Glo fish l Fluorescent zebra fish were specially bred to help detect environmental pollutants.

Glo fish l Fluorescent zebra fish were specially bred to help detect environmental pollutants. By adding a natural fluorescence gene to the fish, scientists are able to quickly and easily determine when our waterways are contaminated