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Other Schedules of Reinforcement and Punishment
Differential Schedules �Also called Differentiation or IRT schedules. �Usually used with reinforcement �Used where the reinforcer depends BOTH on time and the number of reinforcers. � Provides an intervention for behavior problems associated with rate of response. �Can be very effective in producing or reducing behavior.
Interresponse Time ( IRT) �Is the time that occurs between two responses �IRT and rate of responding are functionally related Long IRT schedules produce low rates of responding Short IRT schedules produce high rates of responding
Differentiation Rate of High Responding (DRH) � Have to respond at a high rate within a certain amount of time. � Examples 1. Need to complete 25 math problems within 30 minutes You work your tail off to get them done and receive recess for 15 minutes 2. Must sell 15 car in the next 10 days Work hard, get them sold and receive a $15, 000 bonus � Is very effective - Get very high rates of responding.
Variations of DRH �Full Session DRH Provides reinforcement if the total number of responses during the session meets or exceeds a number criterion across the entire session �Interval Session DRH Reinforcement is available only for responses that over during short periods of time during the session. (Get additional bonuses during the 10 day session)
Issues � Cannot make the level to high If the organism does not respond enough, it will receive less reward and ultimately decrease their response rate. Sell 25 cars in 10 days � Responding looks like an FI schedule. � Work hard, get cars sold, then you take a break.
Differentiation Rate of Low Responding DRL � Sometimes referred to as Spaced-Responding DRH or Spaceresponding DRL � Is designed to create low levels of responding during a particular time period. � A period of time must elapse with few or responses of the undesired behavior. (Number of responses is defined by the schedule) � E. g. , Don’t want a child to act out in class. Give the kid a reinforcer when acting out responses are low during a particular time period. Will give low rates of responding.
Variations �Full Session DRL Provides reinforcement if the total number of responses during the entire session is at or below some level �Interval Session DRL Reinforcement is available only for lack of responding during short intervals of time during the entire session
Attributes �Works well in applied settings. Schools Group homes Other
Differentiation Rates of Responding for Other Behaviors (DRO) �Provide reinforcement only in the absence of a response in a specified period of time �No acting out for the next hour and you get 15 minutes of recess.
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA) �Is similar to DRO �Inappropriate behavior is replaced by reinforcing alternative behaviors Decreases inappropriate behavior
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI) �Also similar to DRO �Reinforce a behavior that is incompatile with the targeted behavior Reduce out of seat behavior by reinforcing in seat behavior
Points to Note for Differentiation Schedules �Cannot make the schedule to thin initially �If the organism cannot get reinforced, may not get the desired response May get alternative reinforcement for others
Progressive Schedules of Reinforcement �Systematically thins each successive reinforcement opportunity independent of the participant’s behavior. ▪ Progressive Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement (PR) ▪ Progressive Interval Schedules of Reinforcement (PI) � Systematically increase the ratio or interval requirements for reinforcement
Differential Reinforcement of Diminishing Rates �Similar to a DRL schedule �Get reinforced for the lack of responding over a period of time Reinforced for only 5 outbursts in 30 minutes Then reinforced for only 4 outbursts in 30 minutes Etc.
Compound Schedules of Reinforcement �Combine elements of continuous, intermittent, or differential reinforcement � Requires the participant to choose between two or more stimuli � Arranging two or more reinforcers for the participant to choose from contingent upon the occurrence of a target behavior.
The Matching Law �Rate of responding typically is proportional to the rate of reinforcement received from each choice alternative.
Subject Performance �Concurrent interval schedules – participants typically do not allocate all of their responses exclusively to the richer schedule. �Concurrent ratio schedules – participants are sensitive to the ratio schedules an tend to maximize reinforcement by responding primarily to the ratio that produces the higher rate of reinforcement.
Discriminative Schedules of Reinforcement �Presents two or more basic schedules of reinforcement in an alternating, usually random, sequence. �Basic schedules occur successively and independently. �A discriminative stimulus is correlated with each basic schedule and is present as long as the schedule is in effect
Non-discriminative Schedules of Reinforcement �Mixed Schedules (mix) Identical to multiple schedules, except the mixed schedule has no discriminative stimuli correlated with the independent schedules Example: mix FR 10 FI 1 schedule
Things to note �Need to monitor the behavior and develop a baseline �Implement the intervention based on some particular schedule �Monitor the outcome and determine if the behavior has changed. If not, examine the behavior �If the behavior changes, after the behavior is stable, change the schedule �Do not change until the behavior is stable
Conclusions �Lots of schedules �Make sure you understand them �Consider the schedule BEFORE you begin planning your intervention When will you change it, how will you thin it, etc.