Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Learning Objectives Students

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+ Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning

+ Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning

+ Learning Objectives Students should be able to: n Define Learning n Explain classical

+ Learning Objectives Students should be able to: n Define Learning n Explain classical conditioning and operant conditioning as learning theories n Explain characteristics/features of classical conditioning n Explain the difference between positive and negative reinforcement n Explain the difference between positive and negative punishment. n Explain the schedules of reinforcement

+ What is Learning? n Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior or

+ What is Learning? n Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior or thought that results from practice or experience. n There are different types of Learning theories, but focus here will be on classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social cognitive learning

+ Classical Conditioning n Several years ago, some thinkers believed that we learned by

+ Classical Conditioning n Several years ago, some thinkers believed that we learned by connecting one stimulus to another. n E. g. the sound of our mother’s voice to her face. n Once we form these associations, we only need one element to retrieve the other. n Classical Conditioning is a form of associative learning that enables us to anticipate events. n Ivan Pavlov: discovered classical conditioning by accident while studying digestion in dogs. n In classical conditioning, one stimulus comes to evoke the response usually caused by another stimulus because both stimuli are paired repeatedly.

+ Terms used in Classical Conditioning n US- a stimulus that elicits a response

+ Terms used in Classical Conditioning n US- a stimulus that elicits a response prior to conditioning n UR- a response to an US (a reflex reaction) n CS- previously neutral stimulus that elicits a response because it had been paired with a stimulus that already elicits that response n CRn The a learned response to a CS. closer in time the pairing of the US and the CS are presented together , the quicker learning occurs.

+ Classical Conditioning

+ Classical Conditioning

+ Features of Classical Conditioning n Extinction: n weakening process by which the CS

+ Features of Classical Conditioning n Extinction: n weakening process by which the CS no longer evokes the CR because it is not followed by a US. The CR decreases in magnitude if it is repeatedly presented alone without the US n Spontaneous n Recovery: Reappearance of a weakened CR to a CS after an interval of time following extinction.

+ Taste Aversion n Taste aversions are examples of classical conditioning. n n Taste

+ Taste Aversion n Taste aversions are examples of classical conditioning. n n Taste aversions are adaptive to the organism as they motivate them to avoid potentially harmful food. Only one association may be required

+ Features of Classical Conditioning n Stimulus Generalization: the tendency for a stimulus similar

+ Features of Classical Conditioning n Stimulus Generalization: the tendency for a stimulus similar to a CS to evoke a CR. n Pavlov found that after classical conditioning occurred when his dogs salivate not only to the original bell, but sounds similar to it. n The more similar the sound the more likely the CR will be stronger. n n Stimulus Discrimination: process by which organisms learn to respond to certain stimuli but not to others. n Flip side to stimulus generalization. n When we produce a much less pronounced CR to a CS that differ from the original CS. n

+ Features of Classical Conditioning n Higher Order Conditioning: n When a neutral stimilus

+ Features of Classical Conditioning n Higher Order Conditioning: n When a neutral stimilus becomes a CS through an already established CS n The new CR however tends to be weaker than the original. n Counter-conditioning: n A technique in which a pleasant stimulus is associated with a fear-evoking stimulus so that the fear evoking stimulus loses its aversive qualities.

+ Classical Conditioning in Therapy n Flooding: n A behavioral technique where a fear

+ Classical Conditioning in Therapy n Flooding: n A behavioral technique where a fear evoking stimulus is presented continuously in the absence of actual harm so the fear is extinguished. n Systematic Desensitization: n A technique where a hierarchy of fear-evoking stimuli is presented while the person remains relaxed.

+ Operant Conditioning n Thorndike’s experiment with cats n Thorndike’s research resulted in a

+ Operant Conditioning n Thorndike’s experiment with cats n Thorndike’s research resulted in a form of learning called operant or instrumental learning. n Law of Effect: n Behavior that brings about a satisfying effect is likely to be performed again, whereas behavior that brings about a negative effect is likely to be suppressed n Operant Conditioning: A form of learning in which a response becomes likely to occur or not occur based on its consequences.

Operant Conditioning n Four psychology concepts under operant conditioning. n Reinforcement: n any outcome

Operant Conditioning n Four psychology concepts under operant conditioning. n Reinforcement: n any outcome that strengthens the probability of a response re-occurring. n Positive n Reinforcement: increases the probability of a behavior reoccurring when administered something pleasant. n E. g. giving a child chocolate or ice cream after seeing their positive grade report.

+ Types of Reinforcers n Negative n Increases the probability of a behavior reoccurring

+ Types of Reinforcers n Negative n Increases the probability of a behavior reoccurring when an unpleasant stimulus is removed. When we take away something unpleasant. n E. g. watching the dishes instead of letting your husband doing it because he remembered your birthday. n Primary n Reinforcement: Reinforcers: An unlearned reinforcer, such as food, water, warmth. n Secondary n Reinforcer: a stimulus that has acquired reinforcing values through association with other reinforcers, e. g. money, praise, awards.

+ Types of Punishment n Punishment: n An stimulus that decreases/weakens the probability of

+ Types of Punishment n Punishment: n An stimulus that decreases/weakens the probability of a behavior reoccurring. n Positive n punishment: Use of an unpleasant stimulus to weaken responses or probability of a behavior reoccurring n e. g. getting a speeding ticket, spanking, or being laughed at. n Negative n punishment: Loss of a desirable or positive stimulus that weakens responses. n E. g. taking away of privileges, or favorite toy.

+ Reinforcement vs. Punishment

+ Reinforcement vs. Punishment

+ Schedule of Reinforcement n In training a dog to perform a trick, do

+ Schedule of Reinforcement n In training a dog to perform a trick, do we reinforce each time it is successful or some of the time when it is successful? n Skinner says not every time but partial reinforcement is more effective. n Partial Reinforcement n occurs when not every correct response/behavior is reinforced. n E. g. partial reinforcement may explain why some women remain in abusive relationships n Continuous n Reinforcement occurs when every correct response or behavior is reinforced

+ Schedule of Reinforcement n Schedules of reinforcement: pattern of reinforcing behavior n n

+ Schedule of Reinforcement n Schedules of reinforcement: pattern of reinforcing behavior n n determines when and how behavior will be reinforced The principle of reinforcement vary along two dimensions: n Consistency of reinforcement, whether fixed – given on a predetermined regular basis, or variable – given on an irregular basis. n Basis of administering reinforcement, whether ratio – reinforced based on the number of responses emitted, or interval – based on the amount of time since the last reinforcement.

+ Schedules of reinforcement Four basic reinforcement schedules: n Interval schedules n Fixed interval

+ Schedules of reinforcement Four basic reinforcement schedules: n Interval schedules n Fixed interval schedules: n n a fixed amount of time must elapse between reinforcements. n For e. g. getting paid every month or fortnight Variable interval schedule: n reinforcement is provided for the first response after a random length of time passes since the last reinforcement. n E. g. a parent attending to a child crying, or supervisor who check your work at irregular intervals n E. g. surprise quizzes in psychology – never know when they will occur

+ Schedules of Reinforcement n n Ratio Schedules n Fixed-ratio schedule: n reinforcement is

+ Schedules of Reinforcement n n Ratio Schedules n Fixed-ratio schedule: n reinforcement is provided after a fixed number of correct response. n E. g. giving yourself a treat after getting 4 A’s on psychology tests. n E. g. Being paid a fee for every 100 candies you make Variable-ratio schedule: n reinforcement is provided after a random number of correct responses has been performed. Reinforcement can come at any time. n E. g. gambling with slot machines, or working on commission. n Highly resistant to extinction

+ Schedules of Reinforcement Type Meaning Outcome Fixed Ratio Reinforcement depends on a definite

+ Schedules of Reinforcement Type Meaning Outcome Fixed Ratio Reinforcement depends on a definite number of response Activity slows after reinforcement and then picks up Variable Ratio Number of responses needed for reinforcement varies Greatest activity of all schedules Fixed Interval Reinforcement depends on a fixed time Activity increases as deadline nears Variable Interval Time between reinforcement varies Steady activity results

+ Operant Conditioning in Therapy n Shaping: n Reinforcement of successive approximations towards a

+ Operant Conditioning in Therapy n Shaping: n Reinforcement of successive approximations towards a target behavior.

+ Reference n Morris, C. G. & Maistro, A. A. (2010). Understanding Psychology (9

+ Reference n Morris, C. G. & Maistro, A. A. (2010). Understanding Psychology (9 th Ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. n Rathus, S. A. (2007) Psychology: Concepts and Connections (8 th Ed. ). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.