Behavioral Views of Learning Cluster 6 We are

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Behavioral Views of Learning Cluster 6 “We are by nature observers and thereby learners.

Behavioral Views of Learning Cluster 6 “We are by nature observers and thereby learners. That is our permanent state. ” Ralph Waldo Emerson l l l l Understanding Learning Early Explanations of Learning Contiguity Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Reinforcement Schedules Behavioral Approaches to Teaching and Management Problems and Issues

What is Learning? l l Learning is a process through which experiences causes permanent

What is Learning? l l Learning is a process through which experiences causes permanent changes in knowledge or behavior – Permanent change – Change in behavior or knowledge – Learning is the result of experience – Learning is not the result of maturation or temporary conditions (illness) Behavioral Learning Theories are explanations of learning that focus on external events as the cause of changes in observable behaviors Behaviorists believe that learning is evidenced by change in behavior and that learning is observable. Cognitivists learning as an internal process, cannot be observed directly…. changes in behavior are a reflection of internal change

Early Explanations of Learning l Simplest form of learning occurs through association, repeated pairing

Early Explanations of Learning l Simplest form of learning occurs through association, repeated pairing of two events—called contiguity. When a STIMULUS RESPONSE – Knock -Who’s there – Golden Arches -Mc. Donalds – 7 x 8 -56 – Contiguity is the basic component of learning from a behavioral perspective l Three Forms of Learning from a Behavioral Perspective that we will focus on: – 1. Classical Conditioning – 2. Operant Conditioning – 3. Reinforcement Schedules

Classical Conditioning Mr. Ivan Pavlov, 1920’s l l What is classical conditioning? – Association

Classical Conditioning Mr. Ivan Pavlov, 1920’s l l What is classical conditioning? – Association of automatic or involuntary responses with new stimuli. We cannot control the response(respondents) – The respondents are generally uncontrollable or involuntary and elicited by specific stimuli See GUIDELINES: Applying Classical Conditioning, p. 194 Terms to understand: – Neutral Stimulus-does not automatically trigger a response – Unconditioned Response does not automatically produce an emotional or physiological response – Conditioned Stimulus-previously neutral stimulus that evokes an emotional or physiological response after conditioning – Conditioned Response- learned response to a previously neutral stimulus

Three other process involved in classical conditioning: l l l Generalization-responding to new stimuli

Three other process involved in classical conditioning: l l l Generalization-responding to new stimuli as though they were the original stimulus (all sounds made by tuner fork) Discrimination-responding differently to two similar but not identical stimuli (only salivating to a certain tone) Extinction-gradual disappearance of the conditioned response when conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly, but not followed by conditioned response (no longer salivating at tuner fork sound since food did not follow repeatedly) Classical Classroom Examples: • A first grader feels ill when recess time approaches because he was beat up on the playground the last 3 days in a row. • Certain smells that can elicit nauseous sensations • Speech phobia: cold sweat, shaking knees and hands • Phobias in general

Operant Conditioning B. F. Skinner, 1953 (Edward Thorndike, 1913) Skinner a. k. a. Father

Operant Conditioning B. F. Skinner, 1953 (Edward Thorndike, 1913) Skinner a. k. a. Father of Behavioral Psychology) Operant Conditioning is learning in which voluntary behavior/deliberate action (operants) is strengthened or weakened by events that follow an action (consequences) or events that precede an action (antecedents) l Reinforcement is the use of consequences to strengthen a behavior. l Reinforcer is any event that follows a behavior and increases the chances that the behavior will occur again. l Punishment is a process that weakens or suppresses behavior. A-B-C’s of Operant Conditioning A B C antecedents behaviors consequences (stimulus) (response) (pun. /rein. ) Door bell rings answer the door friends at door-increase likelihood that you’ll answer again Door bell rings answer the door it’s the police, salesperson —if this continues you may never answer the door again! l

SKINNER BOXES: l Skinner and Thorndike placed cats, rats and pigeons in Skinner Boxes

SKINNER BOXES: l Skinner and Thorndike placed cats, rats and pigeons in Skinner Boxes and showed how animals’ behaviors could be shaped by the chance reinforcements they encountered when acting on their environment. l A Skinner Box is an experimental chamber designed to isolate stimulusresponse connections. l Types of Consequences: – Positive or negative – Something can be given or taken away – Good consequences: l Something positive given, something negative taken away – Bad consequences l Something negative given, something positive taken away l Types of Reinforcements: – Positive reinforcement Teacher attention Praise Rewards – Negative reinforcement Avoid the loss of privileges Take away an aversive stimulus

Types of Punishment • Presentation Punishment n. Detention n. Extra work • Removal Punishment

Types of Punishment • Presentation Punishment n. Detention n. Extra work • Removal Punishment n. Loss of recess n. Loss of privileges

Reinforcement Schedules : See Table 15. 1, p. 198 Continuous Reinforcement Schedule Presenting a

Reinforcement Schedules : See Table 15. 1, p. 198 Continuous Reinforcement Schedule Presenting a reinforcer for every appropriate response Fixed Interval ( predictable) Reinforcement after a set period of time. Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule Presenting a reinforcer after some but not all responses Variable Interval (unpredictable) Reinforcement after varying lengths of time Interval Schedule One type of intermittent reinforcement schedule Based on the amount of time between reinforcers Fixed Ratio( predictable) Reinforcement after a set number of responses. Ratio Schedule One type of intermittent reinforcement schedule. Based on the number of responses between reinforcers Variable Ratio(unpredictable) Reinforcement after a varying number of responses

Controlling Antecedents l Stimulus Control- Capacity for the presence or absence of antecedents to

Controlling Antecedents l Stimulus Control- Capacity for the presence or absence of antecedents to cause behaviors. l Example: Teacher sets a timer (cue) and if the students get lined up quietly and orderly before the buzzer goes off, they can have an extra 10 minutes of recess. l Cueing: Timer set and Go means line up orderly and quietly Prompting: A reminder that follows a cue. What are you supposed to do when I set the time and say go? Question becomes a prompt Providing previous information about expected behaviors-reminder about the appropriate way to line up and possible mention of previous rewards. Signaling when a behavior should be emitted l l l

Applied Behavior Analysis (equated with Behavior Modification) Primary responsibility of a teacher is to

Applied Behavior Analysis (equated with Behavior Modification) Primary responsibility of a teacher is to maintain classroom order and discipline. Applied Behavior Analysis is the application of behavioral learning principles to understand change behavior l l l Baseline behavior Target behavior Classroom application: 1 2 3 - Specify the desired behavior - Plan a specific intervention - Keep track of the results

l Interventions: Encouraging Positive Behavior Teacher attention l l l Praise students following rules,

l Interventions: Encouraging Positive Behavior Teacher attention l l l Praise students following rules, ignore those breaking rules. Will not work in ALL situations and some behaviors cannot be ignored. Effective Praise: contingent on the behavior to be reinforced clearly specify behavior reinforcing praise must be believable Premack principle: More preferred activity can serve as a reinforcer for a less preferred activity. l Shaping: Reinforcing each small step of progress toward a desired goal or behavior. l Task Analysis: System for breaking down a task hierarchically into basic skills and sub skills l Positive practice: Practicing correct responses immediately after errors. See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 207 -Encouraging Positive Behaviors

Coping with Undesirable Behaviors l l l Negative reinforcement: “No recess until…” Satiation: “I

Coping with Undesirable Behaviors l l l Negative reinforcement: “No recess until…” Satiation: “I would like 1000 of those perfect spit wads, please!” Reprimands: soft & private Response cost-punishment by loss of reinforcers Social isolation-Removal of a disruptive student for a certain amount of time l Punishment/Time-Out-Removal of all reinforcement See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 209 -Using Punishment

Behavioral Approaches to Teaching and Management Teaching: Mastery Learning Students must demonstrate competence before

Behavioral Approaches to Teaching and Management Teaching: Mastery Learning Students must demonstrate competence before moving to next unit Mastery means 80– 90% correct Focuses on basic skills Provide appropriate extra help for students who don’t attain mastery l l Behavioral Management l l l Group consequences Token reinforcement Contingency contracts/ Individualized Behavior Management Plan

Recent Approaches: Self-Regulated Learning l Self-management-helping students gain control of their own behavior and

Recent Approaches: Self-Regulated Learning l Self-management-helping students gain control of their own behavior and learning l Goal Setting – Set goals and make the goals public Higher Standards tend to lead to higher performance Evaluate & record performance-students can make checklists Promote self-reinforcement – – – See page 224, Figure 17. 2 -Examples of 4 Self-Instruction Posters See Family & Community Partnerships, Woolfolk, p. 218

Recent Approaches: Cognitive Behavior Modification & Self-Instruction l l Similar to self-regulated learning Adds

Recent Approaches: Cognitive Behavior Modification & Self-Instruction l l Similar to self-regulated learning Adds thinking and self-talk l l Often repeating words of parents/teachers 5 Steps: l l l Adult models a task while talking to self aloud Child/student performs same task under direction of model’s instructions Child performs task while instructing self aloud Child whispers instructions to self as they go through the steps of the task Using private speech, child guides self through task processes

Problems & Issues l l l Extrinsic rewards may lead to loss of interest

Problems & Issues l l l Extrinsic rewards may lead to loss of interest in learning for learning’s sake Decrease in motivation Motives for influencing student behaviors: control? See Point/Counterpoint, Woolfolk p. 221