Geol 351 Environmental Geology of Developing Nations Introduction

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Geol 351 Environmental Geology of Developing Nations Introduction

Geol 351 Environmental Geology of Developing Nations Introduction

The Beginning Of Cities

The Beginning Of Cities

Civilization • “any distinct society, whether complex and city-dwelling, or simple and tribal. ”

Civilization • “any distinct society, whether complex and city-dwelling, or simple and tribal. ” – This definition is often perceived as less exclusive and ethnocentric than others – nearly synonymous with culture From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Earliest Areas to have Cities Yellow River Valley (Shang) Mesopotamia (Sumerian Culture) Nile Valley

Earliest Areas to have Cities Yellow River Valley (Shang) Mesopotamia (Sumerian Culture) Nile Valley (Egyptian) Indus River Valley (Harappan)

Earliest Areas to have Cities • Mesoamerica – Mexico (Aztec and Maya) Mesoamerica (Aztec

Earliest Areas to have Cities • Mesoamerica – Mexico (Aztec and Maya) Mesoamerica (Aztec and Maya) http: //www. britannica. com

Earliest Areas to have Cities • Mesoamerica – Peru (Inca) http: //www. britannica. com

Earliest Areas to have Cities • Mesoamerica – Peru (Inca) http: //www. britannica. com

Earliest Areas to have Cities • Natural Determinants for these Cities – Topography –

Earliest Areas to have Cities • Natural Determinants for these Cities – Topography – Climate - 5 of 6 are between 20 & 40 o N. Lat – Construction Materials – Resources

Earliest Areas to have Cities • Human Determinants – Religion, – Ethnic Grouping, –

Earliest Areas to have Cities • Human Determinants – Religion, – Ethnic Grouping, – Defense, – Economics

Growth of Modern Cities • The Same Determinants Exist • Cities have grown huge

Growth of Modern Cities • The Same Determinants Exist • Cities have grown huge – Area of impact extends far beyond the city – Geologic hazards are completely ignored.

Population

Population

Distribution Of Population Source: UN Population Division

Distribution Of Population Source: UN Population Division

Distribution Of Population People per Square Mile in 1998 1999 World Almanac

Distribution Of Population People per Square Mile in 1998 1999 World Almanac

Distribution Of Population • Two different types of societies – Developed nations – Undeveloped

Distribution Of Population • Two different types of societies – Developed nations – Undeveloped nations

Developing & Undeveloping Nations

Developing & Undeveloping Nations

Developed vs. Undeveloped • Technology • The right tool for using the Mineral Resources

Developed vs. Undeveloped • Technology • The right tool for using the Mineral Resources • Money • Science • Insurance • • Overpopulation Misuse of land Poor planning "outside influences" Poor economic status Lack of technology Geographic Location

There at least four types of nations: 1. Developed nations • • • Canada,

There at least four types of nations: 1. Developed nations • • • Canada, United States, European Union, Japan, Etc. Source: world. IQ. com

There at least four types of nations: 1. Developed nations 2. Nations with a

There at least four types of nations: 1. Developed nations 2. Nations with a developing economy – – – China, India, Brazil, South Africa, Mexico, etc. Source: world. IQ. com

There at least four types of nations: 1. Developed nations 2. Nations with a

There at least four types of nations: 1. Developed nations 2. Nations with a developing economy 3. Developing nations – most countries in • • • Asia, Africa, South America, Central America, and the Caribbean Source: world. IQ. com

There at least four types of nations: 1. 2. 3. 4. Developed nations Nations

There at least four types of nations: 1. 2. 3. 4. Developed nations Nations with a developing economy Developing nations Underdeveloped or ‘mal-developed’ nations – other countries in • Asia, • Africa, • and South America Source: world. IQ. com

Terms to Know • Population growth rate is a term used in demographics and

Terms to Know • Population growth rate is a term used in demographics and ecology which refers to the rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases. • In demography, the crude birth rate of a population is the number of childbirths per 1000 persons per year. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Terms to Know • Mortality rate is the annual number of deaths (from a

Terms to Know • Mortality rate is the annual number of deaths (from a disease or at general) per 1000 people. 1. The crude death rate, the total annual number of deaths per 1000 people. 2. The fetal mortality rate, the number of fetal deaths per all the births in a given year (both the live births and the dead births). 3. The maternal mortality rate, the relationship between the number of maternal deaths due to childbearing and the number of live births or by the sum of live births and fetal deaths in a given year. 4. The infant mortality rate, the annual number of deaths of children less than 1 year old per thousand live births. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Population Pyramid • Shown as two back-to-back bar graphs in a particular population in

Population Pyramid • Shown as two back-to-back bar graphs in a particular population in five-year age groups – one showing the number of males (left side) – one showing the number of females (right side) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Triangular population distribution • Typical pattern for a less economically developed country Indicates a

Triangular population distribution • Typical pattern for a less economically developed country Indicates a population in which there is a high birth rate, a high death rate and a short life expectancy. Note that there tend to be more females than males in each age group. (females tend to have a longer life expectancy. ) – little access to or incentive to use birth control, – poor hygiene (often due to a lack of clean water) – and little access to health services. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rectangular population distribution • Typical pattern for a economically developed country Indicates a population

Rectangular population distribution • Typical pattern for a economically developed country Indicates a population in which there few children and young people, and the lack of change in size between consecutive age groups that very few people die until they reach old age. – low birth and death rates – long life expectancy, – contraception is widely used – good public hygiene and health care. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

North America - US & Canada • Canada – 2004 population 32. 5 million

North America - US & Canada • Canada – 2004 population 32. 5 million • Growth Rate 0. 92%/yr • Doubling Rate 87 years • 2025 population 373 million • USA – 2004 population 293 million • Growth Rate 0. 92%/yr • Doubling Rate 78 years • 2025 population 335 million

Latin America • 1999 population 507 million – Growth Rate 2. 3%/yr – Doubling

Latin America • 1999 population 507 million – Growth Rate 2. 3%/yr – Doubling Rate 38 years – 2025 population 695 million • Individual countries

Europe & Africa • Europe – 1999 population 508 million • Growth Rate 0.

Europe & Africa • Europe – 1999 population 508 million • Growth Rate 0. 3% • Doubling Rate 233 years • 2025 population 491 million • Africa – 1999 population 761 million • Growth Rate 2. 9% • Doubling Rate 24 years • 2025 population 1, 323 million

Asia Excluding Russia • 1999 population 3, 528 million – Growth Rate 1. 9%

Asia Excluding Russia • 1999 population 3, 528 million – Growth Rate 1. 9% – Doubling Rate 37 years – 2025 population 4. 7 billion • Individual countries

Three things hinder the growth of developing countries today: 1. Their growing population absorbs

Three things hinder the growth of developing countries today: 1. Their growing population absorbs much of the economic growth from their resources. 2. Global economics and finance are already dominated by the developed nations. 3. They face issues of environmental awareness that were absent when today’s industrialized countries were growing economically.

The Focus of This Class

The Focus of This Class

Focus of this class • Learn about natural disasters, and the geologic processes that

Focus of this class • Learn about natural disasters, and the geologic processes that are responsible • Examine how natural disasters affect undeveloped nations

What is Environmental Geology? • environmental – concerned with the ecological effects of altering

What is Environmental Geology? • environmental – concerned with the ecological effects of altering the environment; “environmental pollution” • geology – The science which treats: (a) Of the structure and mineral constitution of the globe; structural geology. (b) Of its history as regards rocks, minerals, rivers, valleys, mountains, climates, life, etc. ; historical geology. (c) Of the causes and methods by which its structure, features, changes, and conditions have been produced; dynamical geology. Source: Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.

What is a Natural Disaster? • An event of nature that releases energy upon

What is a Natural Disaster? • An event of nature that releases energy upon an area, causing destruction of property and loss of human life. • A subdiscipline of Environmental Geology

What is a Natural Hazard? • A hazard that arises from geological or weather-related

What is a Natural Hazard? • A hazard that arises from geological or weather-related occurrences. • Includes: – Earthquakes – Volcanoes – Floods – Storms / Hurricanes / Tornadoes

Natural Hazard Definitions • Magnitude – The size of the event • Frequency –

Natural Hazard Definitions • Magnitude – The size of the event • Frequency – How often the event happens • Return Period – The time between two events of the same size

Losses from Natural Disasters

Losses from Natural Disasters

Losses from Natural Disasters Human Fatalities • Worst Disasters: – – Floods Hurricanes Earthquakes

Losses from Natural Disasters Human Fatalities • Worst Disasters: – – Floods Hurricanes Earthquakes Severe Weather • Least: – Tsunami and Volcanic eruptions

Losses from Natural Disasters Human Fatalities • Amount varies from year to year •

Losses from Natural Disasters Human Fatalities • Amount varies from year to year • The population density of a region affects number of fatalities

Losses from Natural Disasters Economic • Sources – Buildings and other structures – Industry

Losses from Natural Disasters Economic • Sources – Buildings and other structures – Industry and businesses

Losses from Natural Disasters Economic • Insured Portion of Economic Losses – Amount covered

Losses from Natural Disasters Economic • Insured Portion of Economic Losses – Amount covered by insurance – Dollar amount lost is different than lives lost • US, Europe and Japan have fewer lives lost but higher damage costs

Energy Sources of Disasters

Energy Sources of Disasters

Energy Sources of Disasters • Primary Sources – Impacts with Asteroids and Comets –

Energy Sources of Disasters • Primary Sources – Impacts with Asteroids and Comets – Gravity – Internal Heat – The Sun

Energy Sources of Disasters • Impacts with Asteroids and Comets – Origin of the

Energy Sources of Disasters • Impacts with Asteroids and Comets – Origin of the Sun & Planets

Energy Sources of Disasters • Gravity – Attraction between two or more objects –

Energy Sources of Disasters • Gravity – Attraction between two or more objects – Interaction between the sun, moon and Earth produces tidal energy

Energy Sources of Disasters • Spring Tides – During the period of a new

Energy Sources of Disasters • Spring Tides – During the period of a new moon, the moon and sun are lined up on the same side of the Earth – Produces the greatest range between high water and low water • Neap Tides – Produced when the moon is at a right angle to the line of centers of the Earth and the sun – The range between high and low water is small

Energy Sources of Disasters • Internal Sources of Energy – Impact energy from the

Energy Sources of Disasters • Internal Sources of Energy – Impact energy from the formation of the planet – Gravitational energy – Radioactive Elements

Energy Sources of Disasters • External Sources of Energy – The Sun • Small

Energy Sources of Disasters • External Sources of Energy – The Sun • Small percentage of total solar energy reaches the Earth • More than 3500 times greater than Earth’s interior heat flow

Energy Sources of Disasters • External Sources of Energy – The Sun • Where

Energy Sources of Disasters • External Sources of Energy – The Sun • Where does the energy go? – 30% Albedo (reflection) – 47 % Absorbed by air, sea and land – 23 % Evaporation / begin hydrologic cycle

Energy Sources of Disasters • External Sources of Energy – The Hydrologic Cycle

Energy Sources of Disasters • External Sources of Energy – The Hydrologic Cycle

Energy Sources of Disasters • External Sources of Energy – Energy Transfer • The

Energy Sources of Disasters • External Sources of Energy – Energy Transfer • The transfer of energy from one substance to another – Heat Capacity • the amount of heat required to raise one gram of a substance 1°C

For those of you who don’t think they can do geology. . .

For those of you who don’t think they can do geology. . .

Questions • In what ways might an environmental geology course benefit the liberal arts

Questions • In what ways might an environmental geology course benefit the liberal arts or business and/or generally your major? • List 10 natural disaster or geologic hazard problems in order to priority and indicate which one among them you would list as the most important one and why?

Questions • In many African nations, civil war and ethnic “cleansing” kills millions of

Questions • In many African nations, civil war and ethnic “cleansing” kills millions of innocent people each year. – Why are we more likely to donate money to victims of natural disasters than to victims of war?

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