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Cultural Patterns and Processes Unit 3 Essential Question: How do cultural patterns and processes vary across the planet?
The Meaning of Culture • Culture-the way of life of a particular people. – Language, religion, food, and music • Culture and ethnicity are often intertwined – What is ethnicity? – What is the difference between race and ethnicity? • It is important to remember that geographers look at trends over time and analyze the patterns of cultures.
Material Culture • Anything that can be seen on the landscape • Built environment-how people impact the landscape (seen)
Nonmaterial Culture • Anything that makes up culture that can’t be touched – Language, religion, myths, superstitions
Folk Culture • Practice of a particular custom by a relatively small group of people in a specific area – Makes a place unique – Passed from generation to generation, usually through oral histories • Folklore-stories passed from generation to generation – Values and legends
Folklore Good vs. Evil
Popular Culture • Opposite of folk culture, this is the practice of customs that span several different cultures • Folk culture could potentially become part of popular culture, if its popularity grows. Folk Culture Popular Culture
The Cultural Landscape • Interactions of a group in relation to their own cultural practices as well as to the values of a society as reflected through artifacts and architecture. • Natural Landscapephysical Earth (field of physical geography)
Adaptive Strategy • How a person adapts to a new culture
Music and Culture • Musical styles and lyrics can tell a geographer a lot about the culture in an area. • Religion also plays a key role in musical expression. • Radio stations give information about the listening habits of people. • Folk songs- describe a group of people
Food and Culture • Favorite and least favorite foods describe people and their culture. • Where a restaurant is located relative to a food source can determine the menu. • Our diet depends on the agriculture around us.
Sports and Culture • Baseball and basketball have spread worldwide from the US – Hierarchical diffusion • World’s most popular sport? • Hooligans- fans who incite violence at football (soccer) matches. – Racial, religious epithets
Architecture and Culture • Societies are based on family structures, which are typically some time of house. – Home can be the foundation for culture • Folk housing is constructed with materials that are nearby – Usually depends on climate
Architecture and Culture • Indigenous architecture-any structure on the landscape that is not built by a professional craftsperson or artist. • Different regions focus on different parts of the house. – Muslims have a special wall that faces Mecca
Architecture and Culture • 3 Styles in the US – New England • Saltbox, 2 Chimney, Cape Cod, and front gable and wing styles. – Middle Atlantic • “I” house- 2 stories with gables on either end – Lower Chesapeake • 2 stories with chimneys located on both sides.
Architecture and Culture • Anglo-American landscape – Township and Range System • Folk landscape-what people perceive the landscape to be based on their cultural notions of an area. • Traditional architecture-structures built as area was being established – Ex: traditional architecture of a city would be the original industrial plants established as the city was founded.
Language and Culture • Ability to communicate with others orally and/or in writing. – Unites and divides • Language in school: US vs. European countries • Monolingual country-has only one official language in which all gov. business is conducted. • Multilingual country-has more than one official language. • Linguistic diversity-learning of more languages • Language extinction-As young ppl move out of a local area, the elderly are the only ones to continue to use their language. After they die, the language disappears.
Lingua Francas • A language used as a common tongue among people who speak diverse languages, often to conduct business – What is the current lingua franca? – What was the last lingua franca? – What do you think the next lingua franca will be?
Learning Languages • First skill: – Ability to speak and sound out the words • Second skill: – Ability to write the symbols that are connected w/ each sound or meaning • Third skill: – Comprehension
• A form of a language that is unique in sound, speed, syntax, and vocabulary • Isoglossboundary of a dialect – “You guys” vs. “You’uns” vs. “Y’all” Dialects
Pidgin, Trade, and Creole Languages • Pidgin- Mixture of language – Very simple grammar and vocab. – Allow trade and interactions to occur – Can become an entirely new language • Trade-made-up language that is used by ppl who want to trade. – Each party learns the modified language to communicate • Creole-stable language resulting from the blend of two or more languages that often does not include features of either. – Broad choice of vocab
Language Families • Groups of languages organized by common heritage • Language subfamilies- smaller groups of languages within a language family • Language groups- ppl. Whose languages are descended from a common tongue – French and Spanish (Romance languages)
Languages and the Landscape • Toponyms-different place names – Tells us a lot about the culture of a place and people
Religion and Culture • Value system that people place on themselves and others based on a spiritual or divine aspect of the world. • Religion can impact the world’s landscape and the cultures of billions. • Faith-belief in things that you cannot see or prove.
Religion and Culture • Monotheistic-One god • Polytheistic-Many gods • Ethnic religions-person is born into the faith, little to no effort is put forth to convert others. • Universalizing religionsmembers actively try to covert others
Religion and Culture • Atheists-do not believe in any god • Secularist-person who wants to separate religion from all aspects of society One thought on religion vs. atheism by British celebrity Ricky Gervais
Major Religions of the World • Buddhism • Hinduism • Christianity • Islam • Judaism
Christianity • World’s largest religion • Monotheistic, universalizing. • 3 Branches: Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox • Symbols: – Cross located within the church – Steeple of the church points upward towards Heaven. Cross usually on top of steeple
Christian Beliefs • Jesus Christ: – – Born on Earth Died on Cross Resurrected Showed that all Christians can be saved • The Bible – Old and New Testament • Old: Israelites, Moses, Abraham, David. Before the coming of the Savior • New: life of Jesus and foundation of the new faith • Holy Trinity: God, Son, Holy Spirit
Structure of Christianity • Catholic Church – Pope – Cardinals – Bishops – Priests • Protestant Church – Pastor, Minister • Orthodox Church – Patriarch
Denominations • Branches of a religion that differ on specific aspects of the principles of the religion – Catholicism is the oldest and largest branch – Martin Luther created the Protestant Reformation which broke away from Roman Catholicism • Lutheran, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, etc.
Islam • Second largest religion. Starting to gain on Christianity • Muslims – Mostly live in the Middle East, Northern Africa, Southeast Asia • Universalizing, monotheistic • Shares some of the major people with Christianity and Judaism
Islam • Islam believes that Jesus was a prophet, but not the main prophet. For Muslims, this person is Muhammad. • Muhammad was spoken to by Allah (God) and wrote down Allah’s word in the Koran. • Koran is the Islamic holy text.
Islam • Muslims worship inside of a mosque – Minarets-towers that extend upward toward Allah • The leader of a mosque is an imam. – They lead prayers at different times of the day
Beliefs of Islam • Five Pillars of Islam: 1. Shahadah: There is only one God, Allah • When you accept the creed of Allah, you officially become a Muslim 2. Salah: Prayer must be done five times daily facing the city of Mecca 3. Zakat: Taxes must be paid directly to the poor and needy or the mosque 4. Sawm: One must fast during Ramadan 5. Hahjj: One must make a pilgrimage to Mecca once during one’s life
Salah and Sawm
Denominations • Shiites, Shiahs, Shi’a – 15 -20% of Muslim population – Conservative – Interpret the Koran literally • Sunnis make up the largest percentage of Muslims – Liberal – Looser interpretation of the Koran
Denominations • Shiite Muslims live mainly in Iraq and Iran • Sunni Muslims live in the rest of the Middle East, Northern Africa, and Southeast Asia • Theocracy-state ruled by religious leaders – Religion plays a key role in the administration of the country – Koran plays an important role in the institutional laws of society • Islamic theocracies are ruled by Sharia Law – Do not separate church and state – Based on Koran and teachings of Muhammad. • Fundamentalism-literal interpretation of a holy book, urges strict behavioral guidelines to comply with basic principles of religion – See this in Christianity.
Judaism • One of the oldest religions • Not just a religion, but an ethnicity
Judaism • Worship inside of a synagogue • The Star of David is a major symbol in the religion. • David was one of the major leaders in the faith
Beliefs of Judaism • Ethnic, monotheistic religion • God figure is Yahweh • Jewish bible is the Tanahk, based on the Torah and the Talmud • Rabbi leads the service on Saturday
Distribution • Majority of population lives in the US along the East Coast • Israel was founded in 1948 as a homeland for the Jewish after WWII – 14 Million Jews live there today
Denominations of Judaism • Ultra-Orthodox/ Haredi – Isolated – Avoid modern society (sin) • Orthodox – Can live within society – Believe that the Torah’s message can change with the times • Reform – Believe Torah is open to continuous interpretation • Reconstructionist – Personal autonomy over customs • Humanistic – Belief in Jewish roots, not Yahweh as a supernatural figure • Flexidox – Very liberal, but still keeps some practices (kosher, Saturday as holy day)
Jewish Holidays • Passover – Biblical Story • Rosh Hashanah – Reflect on sins • Yom Kippur – Fast – Atonement
Monotheistic vs. Polytheistic • Monotheistic – Belief in one god figure – Believers will go to heaven, nonbelievers to hell • Zoroastrianism – Belief in Zarathustra as father of religion and in the concept of both good and evil. • Core of Western religions – Mostly in Iran and India • Polytheistic – Many gods
Hinduism • Oldest religion on Earth • Ethnic religion – You can practice, but you are only Hindu if you’re born into a Hindu family • Majority in India • 3 rd largest religion
Beliefs of Hinduism • 3 primary deities – Brahma – Shiva – Vishnu • Practice faith in a temple • Vedas-holy texts • Reincarnation
Deities Triumvirate: • Brahma – Created the universe • Shiva – Destroys the universe • Vishnu – Preserver of Earth and universe
Buddhism • Focus on elimination of desires through meditation • No focus on a specific god – Instead: personal devotion of the individual follower. • Located in East Asia, Northeast, Southeast Asia • Universalizing but… – Syncretic religion: combining 2+ faiths into one belief system
Buddhism • Pagodas – Individual rather than congregational – Not social – Burn incense to release spirits/meditate
Beliefs of Buddhism • Siddhartha Gautama – Prince who lived in Nepal – He left his palace and observed the poverty in the region and was disgusted. – He lived a life without material possessions • Nirvana: enlightenment
Beliefs of Buddhism • 4 Universal Truths – All living beings should experience and endure suffering – Suffering leads to the desire to live, which leads to reincarnation – The goal is to leave the suffering of this Earth perpetuated by reincarnation – Nirvana can be achieved through practicing the following eight steps: • Rightness of belief, resolve, speech, action, livelihood, effort, thought, meditation.
Other Universalizing Religions • Sikism – One god formed as a rejection of India’s caste system. – India • Bahai – No class distinctions, equality – Africa
Mormonism • Christian religion, but distinct differences between Mormonism and other sects of Christianity • Founded by Joseph Smith, prophet of God • Continued by Brigham Young • Mostly in Utah
Mormonism • Book of Mormon: used in addition to Old and New Testaments • Polygamy-marriage of one man to more than one wife – Outlawed the practice, excommunicates anyone who practices this – Some groups still do this and call themselves Mormons.
Other Ethnic Religions • Animism – Luck and spirits – Shaman is a leader who intermediates between the supernatural and real world • Can remove evil spirits – Southeast Asia, Africa
Confucianism • Based on teachings of Confucius • China • Focus on relationships, makes up the major societal rules of China • Feng Shui/Geomancykeeping flow of energy in harmony
Daoism Release of personal desires Lao Tzu China Things happen that cannot be explained by rational thought • Mystical understanding of the harmony of life • •
Shintoism • Japan • Polytheistic and Monotheistic • Nature is divine or holy – Rivers, mountains, etc have spirits • Ancestors play an important role • Official religion in Japan in 1900 s
Sacred Places & Spaces • Sacred spaces-locations with significant meaning – Taj Mahal: built by Muslim prince as a mausoleum for wife – Ganges River: Hindu holy river; bodies are burned and scattered over river – Death and how to care for the dead
Conflict • Battles fought in the name of religion happen frequently – Why is this ironic? • Interfaith boundaries-fighting over the boundaries of people of different faiths – – Christians vs. Muslims Iran vs. Israel Christians vs. Christians Muslim Pakistan vs. Hindu India • Nuclear Weapons… – 9/11 and other terrorist attacks (worldwide) – Northern Ireland: Protestant vs. Catholic