an upward trend a rising trend a downward

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an upward trend (a rising trend)

an upward trend (a rising trend)

a downward trend (a falling trend)

a downward trend (a falling trend)

to skyrocket

to skyrocket

to surge

to surge

to soar

to soar

to jump

to jump

to peak/reach a peak

to peak/reach a peak

to drop

to drop

to plummet

to plummet

to crash

to crash

to tumble

to tumble

CHANGING DIRECTION to bottom out

CHANGING DIRECTION to bottom out

to recover

to recover

to rebound

to rebound

Change of direction to bottom out to recover to rebound to revive

Change of direction to bottom out to recover to rebound to revive

to hit a record low

to hit a record low

to hit a record high

to hit a record high

to remain stable

to remain stable

to remain constant

to remain constant

NO CHANGE • to remain stable • to level off/out • to stay at

NO CHANGE • to remain stable • to level off/out • to stay at the same level • to remain constant • to stagnate • to stabilize

to stabilise

to stabilise

a dramatic fall

a dramatic fall

a substantial increase

a substantial increase

The amount of INCREASE can also be indicated using these verbs: • • •

The amount of INCREASE can also be indicated using these verbs: • • • to halve (1/2) – a decrease to double (x 2) to triple/to treble (x 3) quadruple (x 4) to increase tenfold (x 10) to increase twelve times (x 12)

Peaks and troughs • If a figure rises to a level and then stops

Peaks and troughs • If a figure rises to a level and then stops rising, remaining at that level, it levels off/out and remains steady or off/out steady stable • If a figure reaches its highest level – a peak – and then goes down, it peaks at peaks that level. • If it reaches its lowest level – a trough – trough and then bottoms out, it falls to that level out and then starts rising again.

Boom and bust • A boom is when there is rising demand, and other

Boom and bust • A boom is when there is rising demand, and other boom indicators are strong. • Stagnation is when the economy is growing Stagnation slowly, or not at all. • Stagflation is when slow growth is combined with Stagflation prices that are increasing fast. • Recession is a period when there is negative Recession growth, a period when the economy is producing growth less. A slump is a very bad recession. A slump depression is a very bad slump. depression

Adjectives can be used to describe the degree or speed of change. Do you

Adjectives can be used to describe the degree or speed of change. Do you know the corresponding adverbs ? A dramatic fall An abrupt rise A sudden decline A moderate grow to fall ………………… to rise ………………. . to decline ……………… to grow ……………… A slight increase A rapid drop A gradual decline A steady recover Erratic sales A constant levelling off to increase ……………. . to drop ………………… to decline …………… to recover …………… to sell …………………. . to level off ………………

Complete the paragraph with these prepositions: OF, TO, BY, AT, UNDER, FROM AT At

Complete the paragraph with these prepositions: OF, TO, BY, AT, UNDER, FROM AT At the end of April, sales stood ____ FROM $150 m, having risen ____ a previous OF UNDER low point ____ just ____ $100 m. Over the next couple of months they rose OF steadily to reach a peak ____ $190 m. BY They then fell sharply ____ $35 m towards the end of July, but crept up TO again in August ____ $160 m.

No change in Eurozone rates Read the newspaper extract. Fill in the blanks with

No change in Eurozone rates Read the newspaper extract. Fill in the blanks with IN or OF. The European Central Bank has left interest rates unchanged despite worries over the German IN economy. The last time there was a fall ___ interest rates was on 10 May, when the bank OF announced a cut ___ 0. 25%, bringing the key interest rate for the Eurozone countries to 4. 5%. The decision came hours after official figures IN showed a surprising increase ___ employment in Germany. Analysts had been forecasting a rise OF ___ 55, 000 but the official figures reported an OF increase ___ 18, 000, taking the total to just under four million. The ECB is also facing the problem of IN a sharp increase ___ Eurozone inflation. The OF increase ___ 0. 3% has pushed the annual rate to OF 2. 9%, compared with a target ___ 2%.

Choose the correct words. 1. There was a slightly/slight rise in profits last month.

Choose the correct words. 1. There was a slightly/slight rise in profits last month. 2. We rose/increased our profits slightly/slight last month. 3. There was a sharp fall in/of our sales last quarter. 4. Our sales fell by/of 6% last quarter. 5. We fell/recovered our market share last quarter. 6. Our share price hit/beat a low/down last month, but it has since recuperated/recovered and now stands at/in $3. 89.

1. Our share price reached/met a top/peak in May, but it’s fallen back since

1. Our share price reached/met a top/peak in May, but it’s fallen back since then. 2. Inflation is increasing slow/slowly at the moment, in/by about 1% a year. 3. There is a slow/slowly increase in/of the rate of inflation, of/by about 1% a year. 4. Operating profits went from $2. 5 m to/until $3. 1 m. 5. Dividends paid to shareholders raised/rose by 6%. Last year they fell/cut. 6. This year we raised/rose dividends to shareholders. Last year we fell/cut them.

Decide whether the underlined words indicate an upward movement ( ), a downward movement

Decide whether the underlined words indicate an upward movement ( ), a downward movement ( ), or no movement at all ( ): 1. Shares have been stagnant recently. 2. There has been a collapse in the number of orders. 3. Imports have plunged recently. 4. Home sales have skyrocketed. 5. Imports have slipped again. 6. Prices soared in the previous quarter.

UK SALES graph no. 3 When demand decreased at the start of the year,

UK SALES graph no. 3 When demand decreased at the start of the year, UK sales fell sharply. They remained steady until April, then rose again dramatically in the second quarter when the market improved. OUTPUT graph no. 5 The decrease in overseas sales caused a dramatic drop in output at the Birmingham plant in the first quarter. There was a steady increase in the second when domestic sales improved. STOCK LEVELS graph no. 1 There was a steady decrease in stock levels at the Headingley plant in the first quarter due to the introduction of a new inventory control system. The slight increase in the second quarter was due to the rise in output. graph no. 4 PROFITS The profits of the plastics division have fallen steadily over the last five months due to the fall in demand increases in production costs. The slight rise in profits last month was due to the recent price increases. graph no. 2 PROFIT MARGIN A sudden jump in the production costs of the Sarander caused a drop in the profit margin in the first quarter. The margin remained the same in the second, due to a sharp fall in the costs of components.

Put the following words in the correct place below: a. spiral c. stabilise e.

Put the following words in the correct place below: a. spiral c. stabilise e. back on course b. plummeted d. crash f. regain control Financial institutions around the world are panicking crash after yesterday’s _____ on Wall Street. Share prices ______ as banks and lending plummeted regain control institutions struggled to _________ of the downward _______. At the close of spiral trading, the President announced that measures stabilise were being taken to _______ the situation and get the economy ________. back on course

Choose the best way to complete these sentences: 1. Good news for investors. Interest

Choose the best way to complete these sentences: 1. Good news for investors. Interest rates are stabilising / going through the roof. 2. Bad news for borrowers. Interest rates are plunging / going through the roof. 3. Good news for industry. Interest rates are plummeting / soaring. 4. The rescue plan never really soared / got off the ground. 5. We are trying to get the economy on collision course / back on course. 6. Industry is finally climbing into / out of recession.

DRAW GRAPHS USING THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION: • • • After a sharp rise, sales

DRAW GRAPHS USING THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION: • • • After a sharp rise, sales levelled off during the period September-November, when they plunged again at the end of the year. Despite a rise in May the situation worsened again in June and prices slumped once more to another all-time low at the end of July. Prices went up steadily during the period September. November, before plunging yet again at the end of the year. After a three-year period of stability, the level of investment rose suddenly. Since the late 1990 s, immigration has been rising in most OECD countries. This followed a sharp downturn from the start of the decade. In 2001 sales in our region reached a peak of 24, 000 units after which they slumped suddenly to 9, 000 in the following year.

DRAW GRAPHS USING THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION: • At the end of June, sales stood

DRAW GRAPHS USING THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION: • At the end of June, sales stood at $ 76 m, having fallen from a previous all-time high of $136 m in May. • After a sharp drop in 2000, orders recovered for twelve months and then plummeted again in 2002. • Prices started to bottom out in March and crept up until the end of April when they plummeted again. • Prices remained stable in July and August and even went up steadily during the period September. November before plunging yet again at the end of the year. • The share price reached a peak before falling a little and then maintaining the same level. • Euro-Disney shares have slipped back to 113 p.

 • Sales crashed last week following a slight rise. • After being stagnant

• Sales crashed last week following a slight rise. • After being stagnant for two years, share prices reached a peak in 2003 after which they plummeted quite unexpectedly.