- Slides: 12
What is Psychology?
Psychology defined �Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental process �Behavior: any action an organism does (observable) �Mental process: internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior (perceptions, thoughts, dreams, beliefs, feelings)
Psychology: Social Science & Natural Science �Social Sciences: Structure of the human within societies and the interactions with others �Examples: history, anthropology, economics, political science, sociology �Natural Sciences: Nature of the physical world. Seek to find answers through the scientific method (surveys & experiments and analyzing data, then drawing conclusions) �Examples: Biology, chemistry, physics
Theories & Principles Theory: Helps answer WHY? Statements about behavior Help predict behaviors As research continues, they are changed or disregarded Principles: Rules or laws
Psychology beginnings… �Confucius: Power of ideas and educated mind �Socrates (philosopher) & Plato: The mind is in control and knowledge is innate (born with us) �Aristotle (Student of Plato): Used careful observations and believed knowledge is not preexisting and instead it grows from experiences. �Descartes: Through dissection of animals, discovered that nerves (he thought was hollow) control our reflexes (animal spirits flowed through nerves)
�Francis Bacon: �Founder of modern science �Researched the human mind and its failings �Noticing and remembering to confirm our beliefs �John Locke: Mind at birth is a blank slate (tablua rasa) �Empiricism: knowledge originates in experience and that science should rely on observation and experimentation.
First Psychological laboratory �Wundt: “Atoms of the mind” �First PSYCHOLOGICAL Experiment involving reaction time �. 1 hearing �. 2 seeing • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Zr 7 O 41 r 8 u. EI
Structuralism & Functionalism �Structuralism (Wilhelm. Wundt): Using introspection (looking inward) to explore the elemental structure of the mind (describe a rose) �Objective Sensations: sight, smell…observable/measureable �Subjective Feelings: emotional responses to the stimuli �Wasn’t extremely successful, “Often we don’t know why we feel the way we feel. ” �Functionalism (William James): How mental and behavioral process function—how we adapt, survive, and flourish �Senses and feelings, emotions, willpower, habits, memories
Women Make History �Mary Calkins: First woman president for the APA (1905). She was denied her Ph. D from Harvard. �Margaret Floy Washburn: First woman to officially receive a Ph. D in psychology. � 2 nd female APA president (1921) �The Animal Mind �Experimental psychologist (explore behavior and thinking with experiments)
Psychology’s Approaches/Perspectives �Biological �Evolutionary �Psychodynamic �Behavioral �Cognitive �Humanistic �Social-cultural *Complete chart using page 20
Nature vs. Nurture �Biology vs. experience �http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Wd 5 Y 3 - F 79 LY&feature=related
Psychology’s Subfields �Psychometrics �Developmental Psychology �Educational Psychology �Personality Psychology �Social Psychology �Industrial-organizational Psychology �Human Factors Psychology �Counseling Psychology �Clinical Psychology �Psychiatry