Root Crops Commonly grown root vegetables Scientific name
Commonly grown root vegetables Scientific name Chromosome no Origin Raphanus sativus L. 2 n = 18 European type: Eastern Mediterranean to Caspian sea Japanese type: Coastal region of Japan Daucus carota L. 2 n = 18 European type: Eastern Mediterranean to Caspian sea Asiatic type: South-western Asia Brassica rapa L. 2 n = 20 European type: Eastern Mediterranean to Caspian sea Asiatic type: South-western Asia Beta vulgaris L. 2 n = 18 Mediterranean region
Area and production statistics of root vegetables Crop Area Production Carrot 87, 000 Ha 13, 81, 000 MT Radish 2, 08, 000 Ha 29, 68, 000 MT Radish 1, 916 Ha 38, 988 MT Turnip 633 Ha 15, 428 MT Carrot 368 Ha 7, 238 MT India H. P.
Importance of root vegetables Root vegetables include carrots, radish, turnip, beets, parsnips, rutabagas, horse radish and Jerusalem artichoke Widely used as fresh for salad, cooking and pickles etc. Nutritional and medicinal properties Radish roots are good appetizer, effective in curing liver, gall bladder, urinary disorders and gastrodynia. Red carrots contain lycopene which prevents heart ailments and some cancers Yellow carrots contain xanthophylls, pigment like beta carotene which helps in development of healthy eyes and prevents muscular degeneration and lung cancer Purple carrots are rich in anthocyanins which act as antioxidant to hold free radicals in the body and also slow down blood clotting
Ø Root crops are short duration vegetable crops and have high productivity and thus are ideal for sequential cropping, intercropping and relay cropping which enables maximum use of arable land Ø Botanically root crops belong to different families but their cultural practices are almost similar.
Daucus Carota L. Good quality roots have a maximum of cortex and a minimum of core
Climatic Requirements • Carrot is a cool season crop though few tropical types tolerate quite high temperatures • Colour development and the growth of the root are affected by temperature • Carrots grown at 10 -15°C and 20 -25 °C do not develop colour while those grown at 15 -20°C develop good colour • In general at high temperatures short roots are formed while long roots are produced at low temperatures
Asiatic type They are also called as tropical or subtropical type European type They are also called as temperate type They are comparatively big in size , They are small in size, mild in taste and pungent in taste and generally red in colour orange in colour( carotene rich) (lycopene / anthocyanin rich). They are more juicy and have bigger core, a heavier top and can be grown much earlier than temperate type Less juicy, small core, less foliage and are late. They are annual type. Seed production is possible in plains as they do not require chilling/ vernalization. They are biennial type. Seed production can be done only in hills as they require chilling/ vernalization. e. g. Pusa Kesar, Pusa Meghali, Pusa Rudhira(self core red), Pusa Asita(black colour, late bolter), Pusa Vrishti(heat tolerant) and Pusa Vasuda(1 st public sector hybrid developed through CMS system), Pusa kulfi (mustard colored rich in carotene, lutein, thiamine and Half Long Nantes, Pusa Yamdagni, Chantaney, Solan Rachna, Pusa Nayan Jyoti (hybrid rich in Vitamin A, β-carotene )
PUSA RUDHIRA PUSA ASITA PUSA KESAR SOLAN RACHNA
PUSA NAYAN JYOTI
Sowing time and Seed rate Region Sowing time South and central India (largely on the hills) Jan-Feb, June-July and Oct- Nov Incase of favourable climatic conditions carrots can be grown through out the year North Indian Plains Aug- Dec Southern Bengal Last week of Oct Himachal Pradesh Low hills Aug-Sep Mid hills July- Sep High hills March-July Seed Rate: 8 to 10 kg/ha ( Seed contain germination inhibitor, CARROTAL, the seed may be soaked for 12 -24 hrs before sowing to hasten germination. Seed may be mixed with sand to facilitate even distribution of seed) Spacing: 30 cm x 8 -10 cm(the seed should be sown 1 -1. 5 cm deep ) • Flat bed planting method (25 cm between rows) with planting on one side of a ridge (50 cm between ridges) encourages forking • While planting on both sides of ridges gave higher yield in comparison to flat bed planting at equivalent density
Manures, fertilizers and Irrigation Manure/fertilizer Rate FYM 100 q/ha N 50 kg/ha P 40 kg/ha K 50 kg/ha • Full dose of FYM +Half of the amount of N + P + K before sowing and the rest half with second irrigation • Undecomposed FYM favors root forking and insect pest attack Irrigation: Pre-sowing irrigation is essential for proper seed germination Irrigation at frequent intervals for proper growth of roots is essential. Weed Management Critical stage for weeding is initial stage of growth as carrot seed takes 10 -12 days for germination Pre-emergence application of [email protected]. 12 kg/ ha)
Harvesting: Carrots should be harvested at proper stage, otherwise it become fluffy and unfit for consumption. In general, root splitting, firmness, dry matter, carotene and sucrose increase with the age of roots, whereas the contents of glucose and fructose. Common cultivars attain the marketable stage when their diameter is 2 -4 cm at the upper end. In India harvesting is done manually, while mechanical harvesting is done in developed countries It is advisable to give a light irrigation before harvesting, to ensure easy pulling of roots from the soil without any damage Roots harvested with top are called bunch carrot( have more shelf life due to less water loss) while without the tops are called bulk carrots Yield: Asiatic types: 250 -350 q/ha European types: 100 -150 q/ha Post harvest handling and storage: After harvesting roots are washed, graded and tied in bunches of 6/12 roots. Fresh carrots can be stored for more 3 -4 days under ordinary condition Long term storage at 0 -4 C with 93 -98% RH for six months.
Physiological Disorders 1. • • Carrot Splitting: Wider the spacing greater the roots tend to split Early cultivars split more readily than late ones Splitting tend to be reduced by low N and to be increased by chlorides Irrigation after long dry spell also increases the chances of root splitting 2. Cavity spot: • • Disorder appears as cavity in the cortex; in most cases the subtending epidermis collapses to form a pitted lesion. This lesion may be infected if secondary organism are present It occurs due to deficiency of Calcium(Ca) with an increased accumulation of potassium(K) 3. Forking: • Enlargement of secondary roots occurs which render them unmarketable • Its due to excess of moisture during root development and also due to hard soil strata
Radish Raphanus sativus • Radish is a popular vegetable in both tropical and temperature regions but predominantly its cool season crop. • Radish is a good source of vitamin C (pink skinned) contains 15 – 40 mg per 100 g of edible portion and supplies varieties of mineral. • The leaves of radish are a good source of extraction of proteins on a commercial scale. The juice of fresh leaves is used as diuretic and laxative. • Tender pods are also consumed as a vegetable
Depending upon temperature requirement for seed setting they are also of two types Asiatic/ tropical/subtropical European/ Temperate Early and require warm temperature Require low temperature for bolting and seed setting Pungent Less pungent Produce seed in plains Seed production is possible only in hills e. g. Pusa Desi, Pusa Reshmi, Pusa Chetki, Punjab Safed, Japanese White, Chinese Pink, Early Mino White, Jaunpuri Mooli, Hisar Mooli No. 1, Arka Nishant, Pusa Sweta, Pusa Gulabi, Pusa Jamuni, Pusa Mridula Pusa Himani, White Icicle, Rapid Red White Tipped, Scarlet Globe, Scarlet long, Silver Queen, Palam Hriday, Kvatra(for polyhouse cultivation; short duration) Varieties recommended for H. P. European Asiatic Palam Hriday, White Icicle and Pusa Himani Japanese White, Chineses Pink and Pusa Chetki
Soil and climate • Radishes can be grown on nearly all types of soils, but best results are obtained on light, friable loam soil that contains good amount of organic matter. • Being a short duration crop, it can be grown on soils that are not considered satisfactory for other root crops. • For early crop sandy loam soils with high organic matter content are highly suited for radish cultivation. • For summer crop a cool and moist soils gives best result. • Heavy soils or soils with rocky strata produce rough, misshapen (forked) roots. • The highest yield can be obtained at a soil p. H in the range of 5. 5 to 7. 0. • Radishes are best adapted to a cool or moderate climate. • Asiatic types have greater temperature adaptation and thus can resist heat more than the European types. • 20 -25°C temperature is ideal for radish crop. Water requirement
RADISH PALAM HRIDAY
White Icicle Scarlet Globe China white Chinese Pink White Globe Japanese White
Sowing Time and Seed Rate North Indian plains European type Asiatic type Sep-March August- January In areas with mild climate radish crop can be taken throughout the year Himachal Pradesh Low hill Mid hill High hill August-Sep July-Oct March- Aug Seed rate kg/Ha & spacing Asiatic European 10 kg, 30 cm x 5 -10 cm 12 -14 kg, 45 cm x 6 -8 cm 1 g seed contain 80 -125 seeds
Year round schedule for raising of radish
Manures and fertilizers FYM 100 q/Ha N 90 P 50 K 40 Full dose of FYM, P, K and half N at the time of sowing. Remaining half of N should be top dressed in two equal instalments at an interval of a month Weeding and Intercultural operations Incase of Asiatic type(mid maturity) weeding and hoeing should be done 2035 days after In temperate and early Asiatic types weeding and hoeing may be done 15 -20 days Pre-emergence application of Stomp @1. 2 kg a. i. /Ha or [email protected]. 9 kg a. i. /Ha or [email protected]. 0 kg a. i. /Ha or [email protected]. 0 l a. i. /Ha may be used to control weeds. Irrigation Pre-sowing irrigation may be given preferably. Depending up on the season and soil irrigation should be done as hard soil result in poor quality roots and roots grown under suboptimal water conditions bear strong flavor/pungency Frequent irrigation is required in summer season
• • • Harvesting Harvest the crop when roots are tender(non pithy) Light irrigation may be given before uprooting the roots to ensure proper harvesting of roots i. e. without any damage to roots Roots are uprooted along with leaves. After uprooting they are washed , tied in bundles and then sold in the market European type are ready to harvest in 25 -30 days while Asiatic types may take 40 -60 days. Yield European type 50 -60 q/Ha. Asiatic type 150 -200 q/Ha.
Storage Radish can not be stored for more than 2 -3 days under room temperature without impairing its quality. They can be stored for about 2 months in cold storage at 0 C and 90 -95 per cent relative humidity. In general late cultivars bear good storage potential with greater dry matter, sugars, crude fiber, P, Ca and Mg.
Physiological Disorders 1. Pithiness: a. Commercial value is affected as the parenchymatous cells collapse resulting in development of pores. b. Delay in harvesting also causes pithiness in the roots. 2. Forking: Secondary growth occurs in roots due to: a. Excess of moisture b. heavy soil c. hard or stony strata of the soil
Turnip- Brassica rapa L. • The fleshy thickened underground portion of turnip is actually the hypocotyl, the colour and shape may vary according to the variety/cultivar • The fresh roots are consumed in salads or cooked as a vegetable or used in pickles. • Young leaves contain high amount of ascorbic acid and iron and rank second in Vitamin A, are eaten cooked as greens • Cultivars depending upon climatic requirement for seed setting/production are of two types: 1. Asiatic/ tropical/sub-tropical: Heat tolerant can be grown for seed both in plains and hills. Pungent in taste so are suitable for pickling. e. g Pusa Kanchan, Pusa Sweti, Punjab Safed-4, 2. European/ Temperate: Produce seed only in hills/ under temperate conditions. They are sweet in taste and are not heat tolerant e. g. Purple Top White Globe, Golden Ball, Snow Ball, Pusa Chandrima, Pusa Swarnima, Early Milan Red Top
SNOWBALL PURPLE TOP WHITE GLOBE
Classification on the basis of morphological characteristics of the root and top 1. White Fleshed: a. PURPLE TOPPED i. Flat type: Purple Top Milan ii. Globe type: Purple Top White Globe b. GREEN TOPPED i. Globe type: Green Top White, Green White ii. Long type: Cowhorn c. WHITE TOPPED i. Flat type: White Milan, White Flat Dutch, Norfolk ii. Globe type: White stone, Quick Silver iii. Half-long type: White Egg, White Gem iv. Long type: Lily White 2. Yellow Fleshed: a. PURPLE TOPPED, GLOBE TYPE: Aberdeen Purple Top b. BRONZE or GREEN TOPPED, GLOBE TYPE: Aberdeen Green Top, Amber Globe 3. FOLIAGE CULTIVARS: Flat Japan, Shogoin, Seven Top
Sowing Time: North Indian Plains: Sep- Dec For H. P. : Low hills- Sep-Nov Mid Hills- Aug-Oct High hills- April-July Seed Rate: 4 -4. 5 kg/ha Spacing: 30 -45 cm x 7. 5 -15 cm (30 x 10 cm) Manures & fertilizers: SAME AS THAT OF CARROT Soil, soil preparation, climate and weed control, irrigation and intercultural operations: SAME AS THAT OF RADISH Harvesting: Should be harvested after reaching appropriate size as old turnips become fibrous and off flavoured. Harvested and sold along with tops Yield: 250 -300 q/ha
Beet root ü Swollen roots are eaten boiled or as a salad or pickled or canned (large –sized roots). The tender leaves and the young beet plants are used as greens(pot herbs). ü In Germany, it was first described in 1557 and was referred to as ROMAN BEET. The crop was introduced in USA in 1800 and was known as GARDEN BEET. ü Beet root is rich source of Fe, folic acid, Ca, P, Vit A, protein and carbohydrates ü Red pigment in beet root is betanin, the contents of which may range from 426 -691 mg/kg fresh weight.
Beet cultivars are classified on the basis of shape of roots as: 1. FLAT: Flat Egyptian 2. SHORT- TOP SHAPED: Flattened at top and bottom with rounded sides and conical 3. ROUND OR GLOBULAR: round or globular shaped roots e. g. Detroit Dark Red, Crimson Globe 4. HALF-LONG: Length is shorter than long types e. g. Half. Long Blood, Winter Keeper 5. LONG: roots are long(up tp 40 cm) e. g Long Dark Blood
Climate: Beets are hardy and can tolerate some freezing. • Colour texture and quality is affected by the temperature. • Excessive hot weather causes zoning- the appearance of alternating light and dark red concentric circles in the root. • Beet is very sensitive to low temperature. It bolts if exposed to 4. 510°C for 15 or more days Sowing Time: Hills: March- July North Indian Plains: September- November Southern Plains: July-November Seed Rate: Beet seeds are seed balls that contain one or more seeds(2 -6). Seed balls are planted @7 -9 kg/ha Spacing: 45 -60 x 8 -10 cm (Thinning is v important in garden beet) Manures & fertilizers: [email protected] -200 q/ha N: P: K- 60 -70: 100 -120: 6070)
Irrigation: Optimum moisture is desired for seed germination Deficiency of water affects seed germination and also the size of roots get reduced. 5 -6 irrigations are (300 mm) sufficient. When winter rains are sufficient then tree irrigations may be sufficient. Harvesting: Harvested when roots attain 3 -5 cm dia. Generally pulled with tops. Beet stores well at a temperature 0ºC along with 90% relative humidity. . Yield: 25 -300 q/ha
Physiological Disorder Internal Black Spot or Brown Heart: Caused due Boron deficiency. ü Bo deficient plant usually remain dwarf or stunted; leaves are smaller than normal. Young unfolding leaves fail to develop normally and eventually turn brown or black and die. ü Leaves get mottled and stalks split longitudinally. ü Roots do not grow to full size remain distorted, rough. Surfaces are often wrinkled and cracked. ü Within the fleshy roots hard or corky spots are found scattered throughout the roots, light coloured zones or cambium layers are present.
Internal Black Spot or Brown Heart
Diseases and pests Disease and causal organism Symptoms Control/ management Alternaria blight (Alternaria raphani) Small yellowish slightly raised lesions appear on leaves, stem and seed pods 1. Use disease free seed 2. Seed treatment with [email protected] g/kg seed 3. Spray Blitox [email protected]% or spray Indofil M-45 @ 0. 25% White rust (Albugo candida) White powdery substance appear in patches on the under-surface of the leaves. Irregular spots appear on all parts of the plants 1. Use disease free seed 2. Use resistant variety 3. Seed treatment with [email protected] g/kg seed 4. Spray Blitox [email protected]% or spray Indofil M-45 @ 0. 25% Radish mosaic virus Small, circular to irregular, chlorotic lesion appear in between and adjacent to the veins. No leaf distortion occur Stunting or abnormal formation rarely occur 1. Grow resistant variety 2. Aphids may be controlled with [email protected] ml/l 3. Weed hosts should be eliminated.
Insect Symptoms Management Aphids( Myzus persicae, Brevicoryne brassicae, Lipaphis erysimi) Leaves and plants get 1. Spray acetamiprid devitalized, leaves and @1 ml/l shoots curl up, become yellowish and finally wither Mustard saw fly(Athalia lugens proxima) Damages radish and turnip severely. Grubs feed on leaves and fruits. 1. Incorporate Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @80 g/kg sand for 400 m 2 area