VEGETABLES Chapter 19 3 ways to classify vegetables

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VEGETABLES Chapter 19

VEGETABLES Chapter 19

3 ways to classify vegetables. . . • 1. How do they grow? •

3 ways to classify vegetables. . . • 1. How do they grow? • 2. What’s their flavor? • 3. What color are they?

Botanical Names for Vegetables - Parts of plant from which they come. • Tubers

Botanical Names for Vegetables - Parts of plant from which they come. • Tubers – – potatoes

Botanical Names for Vegetables - Parts of plant from which they come. • Bulbs

Botanical Names for Vegetables - Parts of plant from which they come. • Bulbs – – chives, onions, garlic

 • Roots – – beets, turnips, carrot, radish • Stem – – asparagus,

• Roots – – beets, turnips, carrot, radish • Stem – – asparagus, celery, mushroom

 • Leaves – – brussel sprouts, cabbage, greens, lettuce, spinach. • Seeds –

• Leaves – – brussel sprouts, cabbage, greens, lettuce, spinach. • Seeds – – beans, peas, corn

 • Flowers – – artichoke, cauliflower, broccoli • Fruit – – cucumber, eggplant,

• Flowers – – artichoke, cauliflower, broccoli • Fruit – – cucumber, eggplant, tomato, peppers, squash

What’s their flavor? • Very Strong-flavored – Onions – Leeks – Garlic

What’s their flavor? • Very Strong-flavored – Onions – Leeks – Garlic

Strong-flavored – Brussels Sprouts

Strong-flavored – Brussels Sprouts

Broccoli

Broccoli

Turnips

Turnips

Cauliflower

Cauliflower

Cabbage

Cabbage

Mild-flavored – Spinach

Mild-flavored – Spinach

Celery

Celery

Beets

Beets

Peas

Peas

Corn

Corn

Squash

Squash

Green beans

Green beans

Potatoes

Potatoes

Carrots

Carrots

Types of vegetables. . . • Starchy – Includes: • • Potatoes Sweet potatoes

Types of vegetables. . . • Starchy – Includes: • • Potatoes Sweet potatoes Corn Legumes (dry beans)

Veggies with a high water content • Includes: • Tomatoes • Lettuce • Celery

Veggies with a high water content • Includes: • Tomatoes • Lettuce • Celery

VEGGIES CAN ALSO BE CATEGORIZED BY NUTRIENTS

VEGGIES CAN ALSO BE CATEGORIZED BY NUTRIENTS

Carbohydrates • Sugar, starch, & cellulose • Supplies the body with energy • Potatoes

Carbohydrates • Sugar, starch, & cellulose • Supplies the body with energy • Potatoes are high in carbohydrates Protein • Dried beans, lentils and legumes are great sources of protein • Protein builds, maintains and repairs tissue.

Nutrients in vegetables. . . • Vitamin A – Function: • Promotes normal growth

Nutrients in vegetables. . . • Vitamin A – Function: • Promotes normal growth of bones & teeth • Helps maintain healthy skin tissue & night vision – Vegetable sources: • Leafy green & deep-yellow vegetables • Broccoli, spinach, carrots, & squash

Vitamin C • Function: • Helps body form & maintain collagen • Helps body

Vitamin C • Function: • Helps body form & maintain collagen • Helps body repair itself & fight infections – Vegetable sources: • Leafy greens • Broccoli, green peppers, tomatoes, & cabbage

Nutrients in vegetables. . . • B Vitamins – Functions: • Prevents beri •

Nutrients in vegetables. . . • B Vitamins – Functions: • Prevents beri • Helps body use carbohydrates • Helps body break down proteins – Vegetable Sources: • Seed vegetables (dry beans) • Lima beans & peas

Minerals – Functions: • Body needs 21 minerals to maintain good health • Needed

Minerals – Functions: • Body needs 21 minerals to maintain good health • Needed to build bones, soft tissue, & other compounds – Vegetable sources: • Spinach (high in iron) • Kale (high in calcium)

Color determines a plant’s antioxidants • Green – Chloryphyll • Purple – Anthocyanins •

Color determines a plant’s antioxidants • Green – Chloryphyll • Purple – Anthocyanins • Red – Red lycopene • Yellow/Orange – Carotenoids – beta-carotene – Yellow lutein • White – Diallyl sulfide – Allyl methyl trisulfide

Antioxidants • Antioxidant molecules stave off damage to the body by removing unstable chemical

Antioxidants • Antioxidant molecules stave off damage to the body by removing unstable chemical byproducts (free radicals) before they have a chance to interact with and do damage to our cells’ mechanisms.

Antioxidant Example • When we rub lemon juice on an apple to keep it

Antioxidant Example • When we rub lemon juice on an apple to keep it from browning, we are protecting it from exposure to oxygen, thus producing antioxidation. • Oxygen causes our body to “rust” (wear out early). Antioxidants can help prevent this damage.

Phyto. Nutrients in vegetables. . . • Chlorophyll (green) – Substance found in plants

Phyto. Nutrients in vegetables. . . • Chlorophyll (green) – Substance found in plants that makes them green – Reduces DNA damage – Food Sources – Dark green leafy veggies

Phyto. Nutrients in vegetables. . . • Anthocyanins (purple) – Bolsters cellular antioxidant defenses;

Phyto. Nutrients in vegetables. . . • Anthocyanins (purple) – Bolsters cellular antioxidant defenses; – May contribute to maintenance of brain function – Food sources: eggplant

Phyto. Nutrients in vegetables. . . Red Lycopene (red) * May contribute to maintenance

Phyto. Nutrients in vegetables. . . Red Lycopene (red) * May contribute to maintenance of prostate health * Tomatoes and processed tomato products

Phyto. Nutrients in vegetables. . . Beta-Carotene (orange) • neutralizes free radicals which may

Phyto. Nutrients in vegetables. . . Beta-Carotene (orange) • neutralizes free radicals which may damage cells; • bolsters cellular antioxidant defenses • Food Sources: Carrots and various fruits

Forms of Vegetables: Selection & Storage. . . • Fresh – Desirable qualities •

Forms of Vegetables: Selection & Storage. . . • Fresh – Desirable qualities • • Crisp Bright Color Firm Absence of decay – Storage • Store in fridge • Eat in 2 -3 days

Canned • Advantages • Precooked • Convenient – Disadvantages • Higher in sodium •

Canned • Advantages • Precooked • Convenient – Disadvantages • Higher in sodium • Possibly mushy texture – Storage • Store at room temperature • Use by expiration date, if given

Frozen – Benefits • Partially prepared • No need to thaw before cooking •

Frozen – Benefits • Partially prepared • No need to thaw before cooking • No sodium added • Retain the appearance & flavor fresh-picked veggies • Usually cost less than fresh • Available “out of season” – Storage • Keep frozen • Do not refreeze if thawed

Dried – Most common dried veggies are legumes • (dry beans) – Benefit •

Dried – Most common dried veggies are legumes • (dry beans) – Benefit • Long shelf life – Disadvantage • Must soak dry beans before cooking – Storage • Store in a cool dry place

Prepare vegetables with care. . . • Cook for the shortest time possible –

Prepare vegetables with care. . . • Cook for the shortest time possible – Heat destroys some vitamins • Use as little water as possible – Some vitamins dissolve in the cooking water • Pare or cut just before cooking – Air and light destroy some vitamins

 • Prepare the largest pieces possible – To expose the smallest surface area

• Prepare the largest pieces possible – To expose the smallest surface area to all of the above • Serve or save cooking liquid – Use it in soups, sauces, gravies, & stews – Don’t throw away the nutrients in the cooking water

Changes in veggies during cooking. . . • The cellulose (fiber) becomes softened by

Changes in veggies during cooking. . . • The cellulose (fiber) becomes softened by the heat & moisture of cooking • The starch absorbs water, swells, and becomes easier to digest • Flavors & colors undergo changes • Some of the nutrients may be lost

Methods of vegetable cookery. . . • Boiling – In a small amount of

Methods of vegetable cookery. . . • Boiling – In a small amount of water in a covered pan

Baking • Bake veggies in their own skins after washing them thoroughly

Baking • Bake veggies in their own skins after washing them thoroughly

French frying – Fry veggies after dipping in batter or crumbs – Fry them

French frying – Fry veggies after dipping in batter or crumbs – Fry them in hot oil deep enough to cover the veggies

Stir frying Stir fry veggies in 1 -2 Tbsp. of fat in a skillet,

Stir frying Stir fry veggies in 1 -2 Tbsp. of fat in a skillet, pan, or wok

Broiling or Grilling – Brush veggies with fat or oil –Broil over or under

Broiling or Grilling – Brush veggies with fat or oil –Broil over or under direct heat

Steaming – Steam mild-flavored veggies in a steamer over rapidly boiling water – Microwave

Steaming – Steam mild-flavored veggies in a steamer over rapidly boiling water – Microwave can also be used to steam veggies

Veggies cooked in the microwave. . . • Benefits: – Little or no nutrient

Veggies cooked in the microwave. . . • Benefits: – Little or no nutrient loss – Good flavor and texture • Note: – Remember to pierce vegetables cooked in their skins – Ex. piercing a potato with a fork

Qualities of cooked vegetables. . . • Properly cooked veggies – Colorful – Flavorful

Qualities of cooked vegetables. . . • Properly cooked veggies – Colorful – Flavorful – Tender-crisp texture • Overcooked or improperly cooked veggies – May suffer undesirable changes in color, texture, & flavor – They may lose many of their nutrients

Principles of vegetable cookery. . . • Goal is to protect the vegetable’s: –

Principles of vegetable cookery. . . • Goal is to protect the vegetable’s: – – Color Texture Flavor Nutrition • Length of cooking time – Cook veggies ONLY until fork tender – OVER COOKING • Dulls the color • Gives an unpleasant flavor • Causes the veggies to become mushy

Pop Quiz: • Question: – What is the main nutrient missing in vegetables? •

Pop Quiz: • Question: – What is the main nutrient missing in vegetables? • Answer: – FAT • Which is easier for the body to digest? – a. Raw vegetables – b. Cooked vegetables • Answer: – b. Cooked vegetables