- Slides: 13
Classification of vegetable crops § Vegetable crops consists of 1200 species from which 78 are familiar. § More than 860 species belong to 59 families of dicotyledoneae and 801 to the monocotyledoneae. § 90 species of vegetables are cultivated in the tropical and subtropical parts of the world but hardly 15 species are of commercial importance. Different methods of classification of vegetables: o Botanical classification. o Classification based on hardiness. o Classification based on parts used o Classification based on essential methods of culture. o Classification based on tolerance to soil reaction. o Classification based on salt tolerance. o Classification based on photo-period requirement. o Classification based on rooting depth.
Why do we need to classify vegetable crops? - To show the relationship between the individual vegetable crop - To avoid repetition while describing their cultural operation.
Botanical Classification: Plants are divided into four sub-communities enlisted as underØ Thallophyta: Thallophytes Ø Bryophyta: mosses Ø Pteridophyta: ferns Ø Spermatophyta: seed plants Spermatophyta Gymnospermae Angiospermae Monocotyledonae Dicotyledonae Ø No vegetable belongs to the division Gymnospermae Ø Most of the vegetables belong to class, Dicotyledonae Ø The classes, Monocotyledoneae and Dicotyledoneae are further divided into families, genus, species, sub-species and botanical varieties.
Classification based on hardiness • Also known as ‘Thermo classification’ • Vegetables are grouped according to their ability to withstand frost. • This classification helps us to know the season of cultivation of a particular vegetable crop i. e. the right time of sowing & their temperature requirement but the cultural requirement of vegetables grouped as winter season vegetables are not the same, so is the case with the summer season crops. Vegetables are classified into three groups: Broccoli, cabbage, pea, Brussel’s sprout, (can withstand frost garlic, onion, leek, radish, spinach, turnip, parsley etc. without any injury ) Semi-hardy vegetables Carrot, cauliflower, potato, celery, (Generally they are not lettuce, beet, palak etc. injured by light frost ) Tomato, chilli, brinjal, cucumber, okra Tender vegetables (can not withstand frost and all cucurbits, french bean, sweet and are even killed by potato, cassava, yam drumstick, elephant foot yam etc. Hardy vegetables
Classification based on growing season Summer or spring summer vegetables § Opt. monthly Avg. temp =20 -27°C § Tolerate min. temp. =15°C Tomato, brinjal, cucumber, okra, french bean, cowpea, most of the cucurbits, amaranthus, cluster bean etc. Rainy/kharif season vegetables Okra, cucumber, brinjal, chilli, tomato, gourds , ginger, turmeric, cowpea, hyacinth bean, amaranthus and cluster. bean etc Winter or autumn winter season vegetables § Opt. monthly Avg. Temp. =12 - 17°C § Tolerate min. temp. of 5°C. § Tolerate temp 1°C- Asparagus and Rhubarb Cauliflower, cabbage, broccoli, radish, carrot, turnip, spinach, onion, garlic, pea, fenugreek, potato etc. Cool season vegetables are those vegetables of which the vegetative parts- roots, stems, leaves and buds or immature flowers are eaten; exceptions are sweet potato & New Zealand spinach. The vegetables of which the immature fruits are eaten are warm season crops, pea and
Classification based on tolerance to soil reaction Vegetables are classified in 3 groups according to their tolerance to soil acidity Slightly tolerant (p. H 6. 8 -6. 0) Moderately tolerant (p. H 6. 8 -5. 5) Very/ highly tolerant (p. H 6. 8 -5. 0) Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, okra, spinach, leek, chinese cabbage, lettuce, beet, asparagus, muskmelon, onion etc. Beans, carrot, cucumber, brinjal, garlic, garden pea, tomato, radish, turnip, Brussels’s sprouts, knolkhol, parsley, pumpkin etc. Potato, sweet potato, watermelon, chicory, rhubarb etc.
Classification based on salt tolerance Sensitive Moderately resistant Pea, beans, potato, Onion, carrot, cabbage, radish cauliflower, broccoli, brinjal, sweet potato tomato, melons, chilli etc. Resistant/ tolerant Asparagus, beet, lettuce, bitter gourd ash gourd etc.
Classification based on photo period requirement Vegetables are grouped according to the period for which the light is available The response of plants to light for induction of flowering is called photo periodism. Long day vegetables (8 -10 hours of dark) Onion, cabbage cauliflower, potato radish, lettuce knolkhol, turnip, carrot etc. Short day vegetables (10 -14 hours dark) Day neutral vegetables (Photo insensitive ) Sweet potato, lablab bean, Tomato, brinjal, chilli, winged bean, okra, french bean, cluster bean etc. cucumber, cowpea etc.
Classification based on rooting depth There are five groups of vegetables in this classification Very shallow rooted (15 -30 cm) Onion, lettuce Shallow rooted (30 -60 cm) Cabbage, cauliflower, garlic, celery palak, potato, spinach, cowpea, radish, broccoli, Brussels’s sprout Moderately deep rooted (60 -90 cm) Brinjal, cucumber, muskmelon, frenchbean, carrot, beet Deep rooted (90 -120 cm) Chilli, turnip, summer squash, garden pea, rutabaga Very deep rooted (120 -180 cm) Asparagus, artichoke, lima bean, pumpkin, sweet potato, tomato, watermelon The knowledge of rooting depth is essential for scheduling the time and quantity of irrigation water. § § Shallow rooted crops require frequent and light irrigation. Deep rooted crops require less but heavy irrigation.
Classification based on parts used as food Leaves/ stems Flower Fruits Cabbage, palak, Broccoli, fenugreek, globe amaranthus, artichoke salad crops, lettuce, celery, parsley all the pot herbs & greens Tomato brinjal chilli beans okra, cucurbits Modified stem Knolkhol cauliflower asparagus Under ground Carrot turnip beet radish potato sweet potato, taro ginger garlic onion elephant foot yam cassava
Ø Most convenient method. based on methods of culture Classification Ø Vegetables crops having same cultural requirements are placed together i. e. under one/same group. Ø This makes it possible to give the general cultural practices for the group without the necessity of repetition while describing the individual crop. Ø Some groups like cucurbits, cole crops, solanaceous and bulb crops not only have similar cultural requirements for the group but the crops in each group also belong to the same family. Ø Most of the crops belonging to the bulb or salad group, also have similar temperature requirements. Ø This method of classification even though not in all but in the majority of cases fulfill the basic requirements of classification of
Group 1: Potato Group 2: Solanaceous fruits e. g. tomato, brinjal, capsicum, chilli Group 3: Cole crops e. g. cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, knolkhol, kale. Group gourd, cucumber, Cucurbits ridge gourd, 4: bitter gourd, e. g. bottle snake gourd, water melon, pumpkin, summer squash, winter squash etc. Group 5: Root crops e. g. radish, carrot, turnip, beet. Group 6: Bulb crops e. g. onion, garlic, leek. Group 7: Salad crops e. g. lettuce, celery, parsley. Group 8: Greensandpotherbse. g. spinach, coriander, fenugreek, palak, beet leaf, amaranthus. Group 9: Peas and beans e. g. garden pea, french bean, asparagus bean, lima beans, cluster bean, cowpea etc. Group 10: Tuber crops other than potato e. g. taro, yam, elephant foot yam. Group 11: Sweet potato. Group 12: Okra. Group 13: Pointed gourd. Group 14: Temperate perennials e. g. globe artichoke, rhubarb. Group 15: Tropical perennials vegetables e. g. Curry leaves, drum stick. Group 16: Chow-chow (Chayote).