Traffic Grooming in Optical WDM Networks Presented by

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Traffic Grooming in Optical WDM Networks Presented by : Shamsul Wazed Md. University of

Traffic Grooming in Optical WDM Networks Presented by : Shamsul Wazed Md. University of Windsor November 18, 2005 1

Abstract November 18, 2005 2

Abstract November 18, 2005 2

Abstract ¥ Requested bandwidth of a traffic stream can be lower than the wavelength

Abstract ¥ Requested bandwidth of a traffic stream can be lower than the wavelength capacity ¥ Grooming the low-speed traffic streams onto high capacity optical channels ¥ Objective : Ø Improve network throughput Ø Minimizing network cost November 18, 2005 3

Abstract ¥ Most previous work on traffic grooming in the ring network topology ¥

Abstract ¥ Most previous work on traffic grooming in the ring network topology ¥ Traffic grooming is an important problem for Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) network ¥ Recent research works with a mathematical formulation will be discussed here November 18, 2005 4

Outline Ø Introduction Ø Multiplexing Techniques Ø Minimizing Network Resources Ø Grooming Switch Architecture

Outline Ø Introduction Ø Multiplexing Techniques Ø Minimizing Network Resources Ø Grooming Switch Architecture Ø Grooming with Protection Ø Mathematical (ILP) Formulation Ø Conclusion November 18, 2005 5

Introduction November 18, 2005 6

Introduction November 18, 2005 6

Introduction ¥ 3 generation of networks : Ø 1 st generation network – copper

Introduction ¥ 3 generation of networks : Ø 1 st generation network – copper wire based Ø 2 nd generation network – mix of copper wire and optical fiber (SONET, WDM, SDH etc) Ø 3 rd generation network – all-optical based ¥ Choice of optical fiber : High bandwidth, low error rate, reliability November 18, 2005 7

Introduction Objective of Traffic Grooming : ¥ To combine low-speed traffic streams onto high-capacity

Introduction Objective of Traffic Grooming : ¥ To combine low-speed traffic streams onto high-capacity wavelengths ¥ Improve bandwidth utilization ¥ Optimize network throughput ¥ Minimize the network cost (transmitter, receiver, fiber link, OXC, ADM, amplifier, wavelength converter etc) November 18, 2005 8

Multiplexing Techniques November 18, 2005 9

Multiplexing Techniques November 18, 2005 9

Multiplexing Techniques ¥ Different multiplexing techniques used in traffic grooming : Ø Space-division multiplexing

Multiplexing Techniques ¥ Different multiplexing techniques used in traffic grooming : Ø Space-division multiplexing (SDM) - bundling a set of fibers into a single cable, or using several cables within a network link Ø Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) – a given fiber to carry traffic on many distinct wavelengths. Ø Time-division multiplexing (TDM) – multiple signals can share a given wavelength if they are non-overlapping in time. November 18, 2005 10

Multiplexing Techniques § § 1 6 node network Wavelength Capacity OC 48 3 connection

Multiplexing Techniques § § 1 6 node network Wavelength Capacity OC 48 3 connection requests OC-12 at (0, 2) OC-12 at (2, 4) OC-3 at (0, 4) 2 lightpaths 1 carrying Connection 3 logical communication route between two nodes established if wavelength is available November 18, 2005 11

Minimizing Network Resources November 18, 2005 12

Minimizing Network Resources November 18, 2005 12

Minimizing Network Resources ¥ Network resources must be used efficiently ¥ Electronic ADMs can

Minimizing Network Resources ¥ Network resources must be used efficiently ¥ Electronic ADMs can be saved and network cost will be reduced ¥ WDM add/drop multiplexers (WADMs) is capable to drop or add wavelength ¥ Depends upon designing of Network topology November 18, 2005 13

Minimizing Network Resources SONET/WDM ring (Ungroomed) November 18, 2005 14

Minimizing Network Resources SONET/WDM ring (Ungroomed) November 18, 2005 14

Minimizing Network Resources SONET/WDM ring (Groomed) November 18, 2005 15

Minimizing Network Resources SONET/WDM ring (Groomed) November 18, 2005 15

Grooming Switch Architecture November 18, 2005 16

Grooming Switch Architecture November 18, 2005 16

Grooming Switch Architecture ¥ Static traffic grooming can be measured by fixed traffic matrices

Grooming Switch Architecture ¥ Static traffic grooming can be measured by fixed traffic matrices ¥ WADM allows wavelength to either be dropped and electronically processed at the node or optically bypass ¥ Node architecture for a WDM mesh network has the static traffic grooming capability November 18, 2005 17

Grooming Switch Architecture November 18, 2005 18

Grooming Switch Architecture November 18, 2005 18

Grooming with Protection November 18, 2005 19

Grooming with Protection November 18, 2005 19

Grooming with Protection Ø Connection also requires protection from network failure Ø A single

Grooming with Protection Ø Connection also requires protection from network failure Ø A single failure may affect a large volume of traffic Ø Working path carrying traffic at normal operation Ø Backup path re-routed the traffic after path failure November 18, 2005 20

Grooming with Protection November 18, 2005 21

Grooming with Protection November 18, 2005 21

Mathematical (ILP) Formulation November 18, 2005 22

Mathematical (ILP) Formulation November 18, 2005 22

Mathematical (ILP) Formulation ¥ In our example, we consider : § § § A

Mathematical (ILP) Formulation ¥ In our example, we consider : § § § A six-node multi-hop network Capacity (C) of each wavelength OC-48 3 types of connection request (OC-1, OC-3, and OC-12) 3 Traffic matrices generated randomly Total traffic demand ≤ OC-988 Ø November 18, 2005 A six-node network 23

Mathematical (ILP) Formulation ¥ Assumptions : At most one fiber link between each node

Mathematical (ILP) Formulation ¥ Assumptions : At most one fiber link between each node pair. Ø Nodes do not have wavelength conversion capability (i. e. no wavelength converter). Ø The transceivers in a network node are tunable to any wavelength on the fiber. Ø Each node has unlimited multiplexing / demultiplexing capability Ø Ø November 18, 2005 A six-node network 24

Mathematical (ILP) Formulation ¥ ILP formulation : § Maximize the total successfully-routed lowspeed traffic,

Mathematical (ILP) Formulation ¥ ILP formulation : § Maximize the total successfully-routed lowspeed traffic, i. e. § Allowed low-speed stream, y {1, 3, 12, 48} = 1 if success, 0 otherwise § § t {1, …, Ty, s, d} § , Lightpaths cannot exceed wavelength capacity Ø November 18, 2005 A six-node network 25

Mathematical (ILP) Formulation ¥ Numerical Result 1: Multi-hop Throughput Lightpath # T=3, W=3 74.

Mathematical (ILP) Formulation ¥ Numerical Result 1: Multi-hop Throughput Lightpath # T=3, W=3 74. 7% (OC 78) 18 T=4, W=3 93. 8% (OC 927) 24 T=5, W=3 97. 9% (OC 967) 28 T=7, W=3 97. 9% (OC 967) 28 T=3, 74. 7% (OC 18 W=4 738) where, T is number of Transceivers and W is number of wavelength T=4, 94. 4% (OC 24 Ø A six-node network W=4 933) November 18, 2005 T=5, 100% (OC- 29 26

Mathematical (ILP) Formulation ¥ Numerical Result 2: Virtual Topology and Lightpath Utilization (T=5, W=

Mathematical (ILP) Formulation ¥ Numerical Result 2: Virtual Topology and Lightpath Utilization (T=5, W= 3) Node 0 Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 Node 4 Node 5 Node 0 0 2 (70%) 0 (100%) 1 (89%) 1 (100%) Node 1 1 (100%) 0 1 (100%) 2 (100%) 1 (100%) 0 Node 2 1 (100%) 1 (95%) 0 1 (100%) 2 (100%) 1 (70%) Node 3 2 (100%) 1 (100%) 0 0 1 (100%) Node 4 1 (100%) 0 0 0 1 (91%) Node 5 0 (100%) 0 2 (98%) 1 (100%) 0 Ø November 18, 2005 A six-node network 27

Conclusion November 18, 2005 28

Conclusion November 18, 2005 28

Conclusion § § § Recent research and development in traffic grooming in WDM network

Conclusion § § § Recent research and development in traffic grooming in WDM network reviewed Objective – multiplexing low-speed traffic streams on to high-capacity optical channels Optimum utilization of bandwidth, lower the network resource cost Node architecture, Path/Link Protection Illustrated an example by using ILP formulation Many significant results of practical importance are forthcoming November 18, 2005 29

References [1] R. S. Barr, M. S. Kingsley and R. A. Patterson, “Grooming Telecommunication

References [1] R. S. Barr, M. S. Kingsley and R. A. Patterson, “Grooming Telecommunication Networks : Optimization Models and Methods, ” Technical Report 05 -EMIS-03, June 2005. [2] K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic Grooming in an Optical WDM Mesh Networks, ” IEEE Journal Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 20, No. 1, January 2002. [3] K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “A Review of Traffic Grooming in WDM Optical Networks : Architectures and Challenges, ” Optical Networks Magazine, Vol. 4, No. 2, March/April 2003, pp 55 -64. [4] E. Modiano and P. Lin, “Traffic Grooming in WDM Networks, ” IEEE Communication Magazine, Vol. 39, No. 6, July 2001, pp 124 -129. [5] B. Mukherjee, C (Sam) Ou, H. Zhu, K. Zhu, N. Singhal and S. Yao, “Traffic Grooming in Mesh Optical Networks, ” IEEE Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) Conference’ 04, March 2004. [6] W. Yao and B. Ramamurthy, “Survivable Traffic Grooming With Path Protection at the Connection Level in WDM Mesh Networks”, Journal of Lightwave Technology, October 2005, Vol. 23, No. 10, pp. 2846 -2853 November 18, 2005 30

Ø November 18, 2005 Slide outline 31

Ø November 18, 2005 Slide outline 31

Transmission Speed Optical level Bit rate OC-1 52 Mbps OC-3 156 Mbps OC-12 622

Transmission Speed Optical level Bit rate OC-1 52 Mbps OC-3 156 Mbps OC-12 622 Mbps OC-48 2, 488 Mbps OC-192 9, 953 Mbps OC-768 39, 813 Mbps (in near future) [ OC-n n * 51. 84 Mbps] Ø Back to Introduction November 18, 2005 Ø Back to ILP Formulation 32

Optical Cross-Connect (OXC) Ø Back to Introduction November 18, 2005 33

Optical Cross-Connect (OXC) Ø Back to Introduction November 18, 2005 33

Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer (ADM) Ø Back to Introduction November 18, 2005 34

Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer (ADM) Ø Back to Introduction November 18, 2005 34

Sample Traffic Matrix of OC-3 Connection Request Ø Back to Switch Architecture November 18,

Sample Traffic Matrix of OC-3 Connection Request Ø Back to Switch Architecture November 18, 2005 Ø Back to ILP Formulation 35

Wavelength Converter (WC) Ø Back to ILP Formulation November 18, 2005 36

Wavelength Converter (WC) Ø Back to ILP Formulation November 18, 2005 36

Physical Topology of a Six-Node Network Ø Back to ILP Formulation November 18, 2005

Physical Topology of a Six-Node Network Ø Back to ILP Formulation November 18, 2005 37