- Slides: 34
Political map 1 CE
Political Map 500 CE
Political Map 1400
Political Map 1700
• Prior to 1800 much of the worlds surface historically consisted of unorganized territory • Imperialism greatly changed this in 2 waves • 1 st wave 1600 s • 2 nd wave late 1800 s
Cold War Era 1945 – 1991 (174 countries)
1995 • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=5 p. OFKmk 7 yt. U
2016 – (195 countries)
• Nation: • geographic area that is dominated by a large population that shares a common history and culture
STATE • A politically organized territory • Administered by a sovereign government • Recognized by a significant portion of the international community. A state must also contain: • a permanent resident population • an organized economy
Nation-State • political unit comprising a clearly delineated territory where the population shares a common history and culture, • Example - Japan.
Boundaries are: • Lines that establish the limit of each jurisdiction & authority • Jurisdiction administers laws; collects taxes; provides defense, education, training; enforces legal code, etc. • 3 -dimensional: flat, deep, high
Political Boundaries • Political boundaries represent the spatial limit of the political organization of territory • They exist at different scales: • Supra-national-scale organizations, international organizations such as UN • State-scale - Countries • Intra-state scale; boundaries used for the many subdivisions of territory within the state, such as…?
Boundary Types • Physical Boundary: major physical features such as a desert, mountain ranges, and/or water bodies that serves as a means of separation, • ie. Great Lakes, Pyrenees Mountains, and Sahara desert.
Boundary Types • Geometric Boundary: straight lines that serve as political boundaries that are unrelated to physical and /or cultural differences, ie. 1300 mile (straight line) United States/Canadian border.
How the States Got their Shapes? Ep 1 start
Boundary Types • Cultural Political Boundary: political boundary that separates different cultures, • ie. former Yugoslavia.
Boundary Types • Religious Boundary: boundary that separates different religions, • ie. Northern Ireland (protestant)/Ireland (Catholic).
Boundary Types • Language Boundary: boundary that separates different language speakers, • ie. traditionally many countries in Europe such as England, France, Spain, and Portugal.
• Super Imposed Boundary: • a boundary imposed on the territory of one nation that divides the members of the nation into two different states. Such boundaries are always unstable. • North & South Vietnam • North & South Korea • MOST OF AFRICA! Boundary Types
The Scramble for Africa • The focus of most of Europe’s imperialist activities in the 19 th century was Africa. • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Pis 5 f 085 P 3 M
• Until 1880’s only the coastlines of Africa had been colonized or explored • Gold, ivory and slaves had been taken from these colonies • The slave trade ended in the 1800’s but European powers now had control of most of the African coast The Scramble for Africa
Internal Reasons for Imperialism • African nations lacked unity • No common language • Lack of common culture • Wars between different groups • Lack of technology • Guns germs steel
• Rules for the Colonization of Africa • In 1884 European powers trying to colonize Africa were coming into conflict. • To avoid further conflict 14 European powers set up rules for colonizing Africa. • No members of the African community were present. The Berlin Conference
• Results of the Conference • In 1850 most of Africa had been free. • By 1914 only Liberia and Ethiopia were free of European control.
• Fortified Boundary: when a state constructs physical barriers along a boundary to either keep people in or out of their territory, • ie. Great Wall of China, Berlin Wall, • https: //www. youtube. com/watc h? v=Yl. SFs 9 Oen 3 A • US debating over creating one Boundary Types
Buffer Zone/Buffer State • a neutral area serving to separate hostile forces or nations broadly • a small neutral country, situated between two larger hostile countries, serving to prevent the outbreak of regional conflict. • Ex. Countries aligned with USSR in Europe during Cold War • Ex. Mongolia, North Korea
Supranational Division or International Cooperation • Multi-national treaties and trade blocks – either economic or military • Example • NATO – military • EU - Economic
Shapes of States • Compact State: • the distance from the geographic center of the area to any point on the boundary does not vary greatly, • ie. Hungary.
Shapes of States • Elongated State: • state that is geographically long and narrow, • ie. Chile.
Shapes of States • Landlocked State: state not having direct access to an ocean, ie. Bolivia. • Problems that landlocked states face?