- Slides: 17
Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces
Centripetal forces vs. Centrifugal force • Attitude or force that unifies and • Attitude or force that enhances support for state divides a state – a single native language or a colonial “official” language » nation-states » English in India, Nigeria » revived Hebrew in Israel homogeneous cultural factors - Catholicism in Poland - Hinduism in India - nation-states patriotism, national symbols (anthems, flags, sports teams, common enemy) - 1980 Miracle on Ice religion and ethnicity nationalism many native languages – India, Canada, Nigeria or almost all African countries heterogeneous cultural factors - Islam/Christianity in Nigeria - “ethnicities” in Rwanda desire for self-determination in multinational states (Yugoslavia)
Ethnicities compete to dominate states in Africa • African borders do NOT correspond to ethnic groups – Legacy of imperialism – Scramble for Africa – SUPERIMPOSED!
Ethnicities compete to dominate states in Africa
Ethnicities compete to dominate states in Africa multilingual state interfaith conflict political corruption, competition for resources (oil, grasslands), terrorism, unequal wealth Nigeria (you should research these issues so you can provide depth)
Genocide vs. Ethnic Cleansing? • Genocide – intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part. • 6 million Jews killed by Nazis
• Rwanda – Hutu vs. Tutsi – ethnic divisions more “created” than real • hierarchy created by colonial Belgians – social construct • Tutsi made “privileged” – Hutus resent → – take revenge in 1994 – 800, 000 Tutsi and allies butchered over 100 days – World stands by for fear of “getting involved” in a conflict it doesn’t understand, » US had recently been “burned” in Somalia. » “Blackhawk Down” Ethnic Conflict in Africa
Ethnic cleansing and genocide in Rwanda (1994)
Aftermath of Rwandan Genocide • Ethnic conflict spills into neighboring countries – failed state? • a state whose political or economic system has become so weak that the government is no longer in control. – “balkanized” (adj. ) • area that can’t stabilize due to ethnic conflict – “balkanization” (n. ) • breakdown of state due to ethnic conflict
Genocide vs. Ethnic Cleansing? • Ethnic cleansing – process in which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful group from their territory • • purpose is not to subjugate, but to remove Post-WWII Europe Yugoslavian Civil War currently taking place in Myanmar as the Rohingya Muslims are being ethnically cleansed by Buddhists – article posted on website
Ethnic cleansing in Europe – Post - WWII • Germans, • Poles – forced to “relocate” • Goals: – create USSR buffer zone – Created along nationstate ideal
• Ethnicities compete to dominate states in Africa Sudan – Govt. in Khartoum = Arab/Muslim • Darfur targeted – Black Muslim – Genocide or ethnic cleansing? – “breakaway” South Sudan • balkanized! • Black, Christian/Animist • Economic – OIL!!!! • Independent 2011 • Now ethnic strife • Failed state?
Iraq Other ethnicity issues in the Middle East • 20% Sunni (Arabic, Saddam Hussein, oppressed/gassed other groups) • 60% Shi’a (Arabic but tied to Iran, militias) • 20% Kurds (non-Arabic, Sunni, national group, functions as autonomous, US-allied) • US invasion unleashes centrifugal forces • Sunnis now out of power become radicalized • Terrorism → Al Qaeda, now ISIS
Centripetal forces a common enemy may help to unite a people » anti-British sentiment during Revolutionary War » U. S. during the Cold War or after 9/11 vs. Outside influences Democracy can inspire civic participation Dictatorships can stifle dissent and other centrifugal forces - Tito in Yugoslavia - Communist party (USSR) Leadership or government (be wary of morality here) (see later slides for internal govt. structure) Centrifugal force irredentism superpower meddling (Africa, Latin America, Asia) » funding rebels, etc. poor governance, corruption, inequality incompetence » US? ? » Iran » Lebanon dictatorship » Arab Spring (2011 – » Assad in Syria
Centripetal forces Mountain ranges, oceans, deserts etc. can limit outside influences and bind a country together » Egypt along the Nile vs. Physical Features More advanced countries have things like airports, railroads and highways Infrastructure which allow people to remain in contact, people to move within the country, etc. Centrifugal force Shape of state (see later) and internal physical features can separate populations and lead to separatism » Russia’ vastness has been a centrifugal force throughout its history » Nepal’s mountains separate communities Less developed countries lack infrastructure. This may isolate areas and become a centrifugal force.