Objectives n n n Distinguish Political Geography as a field of Human Geography Define the concept of “state” Describe the relationships and issues between states and between nations and states
What is Political Geo All About? n Helps to explain the cultural & physical factors that underlie political unrest in the world • Studies political boundaries – how we’ve carved up earth’s surface (boundaries are artificial; geometric) • Govn’t systems at all scales (natnl, state, local) • How people have organized earth’s surface into countries and alliances, reasons underlying these arrangements, and conflicts that arise
Intro n 2 opposing but complementary perspectives @ PG • Look @ impact of econ, cultural, and physical geog on political systems (i. e. theocracies are excellent ex. of culture imposed on politics) • Look at pol systems as driving force behind a country’s econ and cultural systems (ex: political borders affect culture of N/S Korea)
The STATE n Country = State • fundamental unit of PG n State = area org into a political unit & ruled by an est govn't w/ control over its internal and foreign affairs (state and country are synonymous)
Sovereignty n States have sovereignty – independence from control of its internal affairs by other states • What is the ultimate power over people in a territory? ? ? • No other country will stop it
STATES & NATIONS n n States may be composed of more than 1 nation; but every nation does not have their own state. Nation– group of people w/ common political identity, culture, and history (like ethnicity) • Palestine – people of nation w/ no state n Ideal political boundaries = nation states • Cohesive pop w/ similar identities & political goals • ethnicity & national boundaries coincide…rare
TYPE Nation-State Multi-State Nation Multi-Nation Stateless Nation Definition Characteristics Examples
Nations & States- Examples n Japan • Nation-State • Geog and pol isolation n Canada & Russia • Multi-nation states • geographically very large, w/ lots of people
Relationships Between Nations & States- Examples n n n Arab nation extends across many states boundaries in ME (i. e. pan Arabism) = multi-state nation Kurds = multi-state nation also a stateless nation What is the US?
Ethno-nationalism n Occurs in multi-nation states • A minority nation contained within a state dominated by another nation • Strong feelings of being different from the dominant nation • May lead to separatism/secession • May lead to devolution – transfer of powers from a state to separate locations.
Ethno-Nationalism Example n Chechens in Russia – terrorist attacks – want secession
Irredentism n Homeland spills into other state…desire to join groups • Occurs in multi-state nations (groups spread out across countries) • Ex: Jews before Israel & Serbs in Austro -Hungarian empire WW I • Texas
The United States of America n n In political geo, the term “state” does not refer to the 50 regional governments with the US Multi-state nation or Multi-nation state?
It gets messy……. n n Germany? Vietnam? Koreas? China/Taiwan? Raison d’etre = reason for being – unifying/centripetal forces to unify a people…fosters patriotism (to the state) over nationalism (to the nation) • Examples in US?
Shatterbelt n n Shatterbelt - a region or group of states that exists within a sphere of competition between larger states State boundaries drawn and redrawn multiple times b/c of ethnic conflict……YUGOSLAVIA # of states has increased…. 50 yrs ago only @ 50 states globally. As of 2003, 191 states. Antarctica = only large landmass on earth not part of a state
Bell Ringer n n What are the defining characteristics of a state? Why do you think political geographers are interested in colonialism…and de-colonization?
Today’s Objectives n n Describe the development of the “state” concept Define “boundary” and recognize different boundary types. Explain the different ways boundaries originate. Define “morphology” and recognize different territorial types.
Development of State Concept n n Arose in 18 th c Europe…. emphasized in American and French revolutions New questions about the power and legitimacy of the “state” distinct from the people, or nations, in the state
Ancient States n n n Previously earth was organized into citystates-sovereign units that consisted of town and surrounding countryside. Originated in Mesopotamia Sometimes city-state would attack and control another to build empire… • ex: Sumerians, Assyrians, Babylonians
Early European States n n n When Roman empire collapsed 5 th C, Eur was broken into large estates owned by competing kings and nobles 1100 - Powerful kings consolidated holdings & emerged to rule much of W. Eur (Eng, Spain, France) Early “nation-states”
Colonies n Colony = territory legally tied to mother country (not independent) • 1500 s - great colonial era of W. hemisphere (Spain, Portugal, France, Dutch, British carve up New World) n n Colonialism = one country est settlements & imposes pol, econ, and cultural controls on another territory. Motives for colonization – 3 Gs
Imperialism n 18 th/19 th C – colonization of Africa and Asia • Imperialism: cultural & econ dominance w/out official govnt institutions • Conf of Berlin 1884 – Euro powers meet in Berlin & divide Africa w/ artificial boundaries…. results in severe political problems & ethnic violence for years to come
Conf of Berlin – Scramble for Africa Superimposed borders that divided ethnicities or put groups together that didn’t belong n
Colonial Practices n France – attempt to assimilate its colonies into French culture • France= 2 nd largest n Great Britain = largest empire “sun never sets on British empire” • Different gov. structures and policies for various territories
n Decolonization: most African and Asian nations gain ind in 20 th C, esp after WW II. • Dangerous power vacuums left behind & ethnic violence
Few Remaining Colonies n n Most remaining are islands in the Pacific or Caribbean Most populous: Puerto Rico • 4 million residents are citizens of the US • They do not vote, nor do they have a voting member of Congress
Few Remaining Colonies n Least populous: Pitcairn Island • Possessed by the UK • In the South Pacific • It’s 47 people survive on 2 sq. miles by selling fish and postage stamps to collectors
Back to States n n n Varying size of states…. huge range Russia – largest w/ 11 time zones (China, Canada, U. S. , Brazil, Australia all big) Other extreme – microstates – extremely small (ex: Monaco is only 6 square miles, Vatican City, etc. )
Small vs. Big n n Small states easy to govern but hard to sustain viable econ Big states – better chance of diverse resources and econ and difficult to conquer b/c of size, BUT transportation and government often diff
Homework n n Read (review) Ch 7, p. 217 -223 and read Ch 8, p. 240 -247 Answer questions 1 -22 in your Guided Reading Packet, based on the chapter and today’s notes
BOUNDARIES n n n Boundary – a thin, imaginary, invisible line marking state’s territory Boundaries are ARTIFICIAL Based on: 1. Natural/physical features (mntns, river) n n Rivers can be problematic b/c they shift In a drought who gets the water? If oil spill who cleans it up? Meridian Line Principle: boundary right down middle of river Ex: Who owns the Potomac R?
Boundaries - contd 2. Ethnographic/Cultural : lang, relig, etc. 3. Geometric: follow straight line that has nothing to do with nature or culture (US/Canada – line of latitude)
How Does a Boundary Start? (aka Boundary Origins) n n Subsequent Boundaries: est. after pop has est. itself & follows existing social/cultural/ethnic lines Antecedent Boundaries: boundary given to region before population • Ex: W boundary between US and Canada – est by treaty in 1846 when few people lived there
n Superimposed Boundaries: drawn after a pop has been settled but ignores social, cultural, ethnic lines • Ex: colonialism in Africa n Relic Boundaries: boundaries that no longer exist but you can still see effects • Ex: east and west Germany/Berlin
FRONTIERS n n n Historically frontiers, not boundaries, separate states. Tangible geographic area Frontiers = zone where no state exercises complete political control
Frontiers vs. Boundaries n n Frontiers are tangible, geographic areas & boundaries are invisible, imagined Frontiers are a buffer zone of safety & boundaries are thin lines that bring people right up to each other, increasing chances of dispute
OCEANS n n Most highly contested frontier today… who can claim the sea & its resources? Law of the Sea - est in 1983 • Restricts territorial seas to 12 nautical miles from shoreline, in which ships of other countries have right of passage • EEZ – Exclusive Econ Zone – state has econ rights to 200 nautical miles from shore n In this zone each state has the right to explore and exploit natural resources in water, seabed, and soil
Territorial Morphology (Shapes of States) n n n Shape controls the length of boundaries with other states 5 Basic Shapes Be aware the states can fit into more than 1 category!
1. Compact State: relatively round • Efficient • Easy communication • Ex: Poland
2. n Prorupt State: compact state w/ one large projecting extension. . . often to get water access Ex: Namibia
Elongated State: long and narrow… isolation of extremes, communication diff Ex: Chile, Italy, Vietnam 3.
4. n Fragmented States: territory broken up into several discontinuous pieces Ex: Indonesia, Philippines (often islands, but not always)
Shapes of States 5. n Perforated States: state that completely surrounds another S. Africa surrounds Lesotho
Landlocked States & Exclaves n Landlocked States: no outlet to sea…BAD situation – makes you dependent on other state for sea access/shipping/trade • Most landlocked states are in Africa – 14 • Others in S. America, Europe, Asia n Exclaves: small, detached holdings that are completely separate from the rest of the country and lie within boundaries of another state • ex: W. Berlin to W. Germany; Kaliningrad
Centrifugal V. Centripetal Forces n Centrifugal Forces pull apart and lead to dissolution • Ex. - tribes, ethnic strife, regionalism, lang or relig diff……Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, China. Taiwan, USSR, Basques in Spain, French in Canada, etc. n Centripetal Forces unify, create common identity – natnl institutions, pledge, anthem, common lang/relig, common external threats or big events (9/11, Pearl Harbor, Eritrea, Cold War)
Class Work & Homework n Classwork: Territorial Morphology • You may work with a partner • Try to finish in class today • Your HW reading will help n Homework: Read Info Sheets 1 -4 and answer questions 23 -34 in your packet
Today’s Objectives n n Compare and contrast unitary and federal state governments (boundaries and power relationships within states). Explain gerrymandering and its role in electoral geography.
Government n Most states org themselves into hierarchy of local govnt agencies (territorial org)…. i. e. state, county, city, school district, etc.
2 Types of Gov n n n Federal (federalism)– A form of internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to local govts or territories rather than centrally controlling the entire country. Smaller units than the state can make decisions for themselves. This serves several functions…. .
Federalism n Federalism…. • Enables more efficient administration, esp in large states • Gives voters greater influence in political processes • Allocates resources through local agencies that are more in touch w/ needs of their jurisdiction • Local autonomy – power to enact laws, tax citizens, police land BUT disputes over who has what power betwn state and nation cause probs (i. e. states’ rights – Civil War)
2 Types of Gov n n Unitary– In a unitary state, most power and decisions are made by the central government for the entire state. Works best in…. . • Shape: • Size: • MNS or N/S • Other Purposes? n Unitary states are less common now. . why?
Electoral Geography n n Subset of Political Geography elections and voting Geographic issues: • Drawing district boundaries for voting and representation • Redrawing them as population and demographics change • Geography + politics =
VOTING n n Popular Vote: all votes cast in all states Electoral College: specific # of electors from each state proportional to state’s pop. Candidate who wins state gets all the stets electoral votes Reapportionment: after census – Congressional districts redrawn Gerrymandering: purposefully drawing districts to favor one party – 3 types: • Wasted vote • Excess vote • Stacked vote
Gerrymandering n Excess Vote, Wasted Vote, Stacked Vote?
Classwork/Homework n n CW: Begin Phase 1 of National Identity Project HW: • Read Info Sheet #5 and answer questions 35 -38 (due tues 2/12) • Phase 2: On your own, read “How nationalism is symbolized” and answer reflection questions. • Be ready for Phase 3 on Tues
International Political Geog 3 Theories of Intnl Political Org 1. ) Late 19 th C Friedrich Ratzel propose Organic Theory which evolved into geopolitics – nations must expand land base to maintain vibrancy – countries that do not expand eventually disintegrate Ex: Hitler or Napoleon
3 theories cont’d 2. ) Heartland Theory dev by Sir Halford Mackinder beginning in 20 th C. Said great pivotal point of all human hist was in N/central Asia (most populous landmass on earth)…who rules the heartland rules the world 3. ) Rimland: not heartland, but oceans most valuable for power. Oceans provide avenue to colonial conquest, not land
International Alliances n Intnl Organizations – alliance of 2 or more countries cooperate w/ each other w/out giving up autonomy or self-determination • United Nations: created after WW II to replace League of Nations n n Intnl peacekeeping Can pass econ sanctions UN peacekeeping troops – voluntary 5 permanent members of Security Council = veto power – China, France, Russia, UK, US
UN – Intnl Alliance UN Headquarters, NYC UN Logo
Intnl Alliances – cont’d n Regional Alliances – Economic • NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement - US, Canada, MX – econ ties and free trade • OPEC – Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries – Middle East and Venezuela…. keep oil process high
Intnl Alliances – cont’d n Regional Alliances – Military • NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization – created after WW II (US and W. Eur) agreement of military cooperation against E. Eur/Comm/Warsaw Pact. • After fall of Comm, NATO expanded membership to much of E. Eurupe
Supranational Organizations n Like intnl org, but to some extent member nations relinquish some level of state sovereignty in favor of group interests (more binding) • EU (European Union) started 1958 w/ 6 countries, today over 20 n Free trade and econ cooperation n Euro – common currency n Helped Eur become leading econ superpower
EU Membership 500 million people 27 countries *Countries shaded gray are candidates for EU membership
EU Facts 27 Member States 500 million 7 Percent of world’s population 30 56 Combined population of EU Member States Percent of global GDP Percent of combined worldwide Official Development Assistance
Confederations n Confederations = intnl org that brings several autonomous states together for a common purpose • Ex: CIS – Commonwealth of Independent States – confederacy of ind states of former USSR who’ve united b/c of common econ and admin needs • Ex: Confederate States of America – loose tie
Changes in Intnl Alliances n Cold War 1945 -1989: East (USSR, Comm) Vs. West (US, dem, capitalism) • Iron Curtain • Domino Theory dominates foreign policy • Since fall of Comm. , alliances have shifted dramatically. • Today division is N/S – wealthy northern hemisphere of MDCs, poorer S. hemisphere of LDC
n n The E-W divide of the Cold War was ideological/political but the N-S divide today is economic and the division/disparity is increasing Future of nation-state is uncertain. Power being drawn away from nation states to powerful intnl corporations. Businesses crossing political boundaries and pushing buttons of politics. (i. e… Blood Diamond)