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Political Culture § Political cultures vary § Political ideas vs. religion or language § Theocracies § Territoriality § Key element of political culture
State and Nation § Terminology § “State” vs. “country” § A nation may be larger than a state § Nation has historic, ethnic and often linguistic and religious connotations § Stateless nations
Rise of the Modern State § The European model § The Norman invasion & out of “Dark Age” § Thirty Years’ War treaties § The Renaissance § Mercantilism & religious wars § Money vs. land
The Nation-State § Some democratic, some autocratic, and some parliamentary democracies § Sovereignty remained with the nation—the people § European control § Creation of “nation states” § Are there real nation states? § Internal cultural diversity § Heterogeneous states can share “national spirit” § Emotional commitment to the state and for what it stands § e. g. , Confederation Helvetica
Spatial Characteristics of States § Needs legitimacy 1. Clearly defined territory: boundaries 2. Substantial population 3. Certain types of organizational structures 4. Some power
Territory § Territorial morphology § Size, shape, and relative location § Present opportunities and challenges § Size § Large vs. small states § Shape § § § Compact Fragmented Elongated Protruded Perforated
Compact States § Efficient, distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
Prorupted § An otherwise compact state with a large, projecting extension § -can provide a state with access to water. § -can separate two states.
Perforated § A state that surrounds another one. § South Africa
Fragmented § Includes several discontinuous pieces. 2 types of separation: § 1. separates another state (Armenia) § 2. separated by water
Elongated § Has a long narrow shape: § -may suffer from poor internal communications
Itaipu Dam Paraguay
Lesotho: an enclave Kaliningrad: an exclave
Land Boundaries § International boundaries § Have a vertical plane cutting through the rocks below, and the airspace above
Land Boundaries § How do we get boundaries? § Three steps of boundary evolution § Define it § Exact location established, via treaty-like legal documents, describing (absolute or relative) actual points § Delimit it § Officially put on a map, by a cartographer § Demarcate it § Actual ground markers—fences, pillars, walls, etc. —if desired § Not all boundaries are demarcated
4 Corners: What type of boundary?
Land Boundaries § Types of boundaries § Geometric boundary § Straight-line boundaries § Totally unrelated to any aspects of physical or cultural landscapes § Physical-political boundary or natural-political boundary § Outlined by a physiographic landscape features (river, mountain ridge, etc. ) § Convenient, but nature & meaning might change over time § Cultural-political boundary § Formerly “anthropogenic” boundaries § Mark breaks in the human landscape
Land Boundaries § Origin-based classification § Richard Hartshorne’s Genetic Boundary Classification § Antecedent boundary § Existed before the cultural landscape emerged § Subsequent boundary § Developed at the same time as the major elements of the cultural landscape § Superimposed boundary § Placed by powerful outsiders on a developed cultural landscape § Relic boundary § Ceased to function, but its imprint is still on the cultural landscape § Frontiers § A frontier is a zone of separation
Subsequent and Superimposed
Superimposed and subsequent
A different boundary: The Equator near Quito, Ecuador between the north and south hemisphere
Functions of Boundaries § “Walls” § Limit state jurisdiction § State symbols
Functions of Boundaries § Internal boundaries § For administrative purposes § Examples: United States or Canada § Some culturally divided countries have internal boundaries that do not show on a map
Functions of Boundaries § Boundary disputes § Four principal forms of boundary disputes § Definitional § Focus on the “legalese” of the agreement § Locational § Focus on the delimitation and/or demarcation of the border § Operational § Focus on neighbors who differ over the way their boundary should function § Allocational § Focus on resources that straddle neighbors
http: //www. pbs. org/frontlineworld/rough/2007/04/mongolia_land_w. html
Resources § De Blij, Harm, J. (2007). Human Geography People, Place and Culture. § § § Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Domosh, Mona, Neumann, Roderic, Price, Patricia, & Jordan-Bychkov, 2010. The Human Mosaic, A Cultural Approach to Human Geography. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. Fellman, Jerome, D. , Getis, Arthur, & Getis, Judith, 2008. Human Geography, Landscapes of Human Activities. Boston, MA: Mc. Graw-Hill Higher Education. Pulsipher, Lydia Mihelic and Alex M. and Pulsipher, 2008. World Regional Geography, Global Patterns, Local Lives. W. H. Freeman and Company New York. Rubenstein, James M. (2008). An introduction to human geography The cultural landscape. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Benewick, Robert, & Donald, Stephanie H. (2005). The State of China Atlas. Berkeley: University of California Press.